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Your Game Needs Direct3D 11, So Get Started Now!

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Presentation on theme: "Your Game Needs Direct3D 11, So Get Started Now!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Game Needs Direct3D 11, So Get Started Now!
Bill Bilodeau ISV Relations AMD Graphics Products Group V1.0

2 Topics covered in this session
Why your game needs Direct3D 11 Porting to Direct 3D 11 in the real world A view from the “Battlefield” trenches with Johan Anderson from DICE Important Direct3D 11 features for your game How you can use these features on current hardware Strategies for moving to Direct3D 11

3 Why your game needs Direct3D 11
Faster Rendering -> More Rendering -> Better Graphics Direct3D 11 can make rendering more efficient Tessellation Faster rendering using less space Compute Shaders More programming freedom Efficient reuse of sampled data Multithreading Takes advantage of modern multi-core CPUs

4 More reasons to switch to Direct3D 11
Superset of Direct 3D 10.1 Gather() function speeds up texture fetches Standard API access to MSAA depth buffers MSAA sample patterns/mask, Cube map arrays, etc. Supports multiple “device feature levels” 11.0 10.1, 10.0 9.3, 9.2, 9.1 One API for all of your supported hardware Runs on both Windows 7 and Vista Not tied to one operating system

5 Sometimes you can teach an old dog new tricks.
You can run Direct3D 11 on downlevel hardware If you stay within the feature level of the device you can use the Direct3D 11 API Even some new Direct3D 11 features will run on old hardware: Multithreading Compute shaders On some Direct3D hardware with new drivers Some restrictions may apply

6 Porting to Direct3D 11 in the real world
Frostbite Engine Johan Anderson Rendering Architect DICE

7 Frostbite DX11 port Starting point
Cross-platform engine (PC, Xenon, PS3) Engine PC path used DX10 exclusively 10.0 and 10.1 feature levels Ported entire engine from DX10 to DX11 API in 3 hours! Mostly search’n’replace  70% of time spent changing Map/Unmap calls that has moved to immediate context instead of resource object Compile-time switchable DX10 or DX11 API usage As it will take a (short) while for the entire eco-system to support DX11 (PIX, NvPerfHud, IHV APIs, etc.) #define DICE_D3D11_ENABLE, currently ~100 usages Will be removed later when everything DX11 works

8 Temporary switchable DX10/DX11 wrappers
#ifdef DICE_D3D11_ENABLE #include <External/DirectX/Include/d3d11.h> #else #include <External/DirectX/Include/d3d10_1.h> #endif #define ID3DALLDevice ID3D11Device #define ID3DALLDeviceContext ID3D11DeviceContext #define ID3DALLBuffer ID3D11Buffer #define ID3DALLRenderTargetView ID3D11RenderTargetView #define ID3DALLPixelShader ID3D11PixelShader #define ID3DALLTexture1D ID3D11Texture1D #define D3DALL_BLEND_DESC D3D11_BLEND_DESC1 #define D3DALL_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE D3D11_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE #define D3DALL_RASTERIZER_DESC D3D11_RASTERIZER_DESC #define D3DALL_USAGE_IMMUTABLE D3D11_USAGE_IMMUTABLE #define ID3DALLDevice ID3D10Device1 #define ID3DALLDeviceContext ID3D10Device1 #define ID3DALLBuffer ID3D10Buffer #define ID3DALLRenderTargetView ID3D10RenderTargetView #define ID3DALLPixelShader ID3D10PixelShader #define ID3DALLTexture1D ID3D10Texture1D #define D3DALL_BLEND_DESC D3D10_BLEND_DESC1 #define D3DALL_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE D3D10_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE #define D3DALL_RASTERIZER_DESC D3D10_RASTERIZER_DESC #define D3DALL_USAGE_IMMUTABLE D3D10_USAGE_IMMUTABLE Want the full header-file to save on typing? Drop me an

9 Switchable DX10/DX11 support examples
// using D3D10 requires dxgi.lib and D3D11 beta requires dxgi_beta.lib and if we // link with only one through the common method then it crashes when creating // the D3D device. so instead conditionally link with the // correct dxgi library here for now --johan #ifdef DICE_D3D11_ENABLE #pragma comment(lib, "dxgi_beta.lib") #else #pragma comment(lib, "dxgi.lib") #endif // Setting a shader takes an extra parameter on D3D11: ID3D11ClassLinkage // which is used for the D3D11 subroutine support (which we don’t use) m_deviceContext->PSSetShader(solution.pixelPermutation->shader, nullptr, 0); m_deviceContext->PSSetShader(solution.pixelPermutation->shader);

10 Mapping buffers on DX10 vs DX11
#ifdef DICE_D3D11_ENABLE D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE mappedResource; DICE_SAFE_DX(m_deviceContext->Map( m_functionConstantBuffers[type], // cbuffer 0, // subresource D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD, // map type 0, // map flags &mappedResource)); // map resource data = reinterpret_cast<Vec*>(mappedResource.pData); // fill in data m_deviceContext->Unmap(m_functionConstantBuffers[type], 0); #else DICE_SAFE_DX(m_functionConstantBuffers[type]->Map( D3D10_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD, // map type 0, // map flags (void**)&data)); // data m_functionConstantBuffers[type]->Unmap(); #endif

11 Frostbite DX11 parallel dispatch
The Killer Feature for reducing CPU rendering overhead! ~90% of our rendering dispatch job is in D3D/driver Have a DX11 deferred device context per core Together with dynamic resources (cbuffer/vbuffer) for usage on that deferred context Renderer has list of all draw calls we want to do for the each rendering “layer” of the frame Split draw calls for each layer into chunks of ~256 and dispatch in parallel to the deferred contexts Each chunk generates a command list Render to immediate context & execute command lists Profit! Goal: close to linear perf. scaling up to octa-core when we get DX11 driver support (hint hint to the IHVs)

12 Frostbite DX11 - Other HW features of interest
Short term / easy: Read-only depth buffers. Saves copy & memory. BC6H compression for static HDR envmaps or lightmaps BC7 compression for high-quality RGB[A] textures Per-resource fractional MinLod. Properly fade in streamed textures. Longer term / more complex: Compute shaders! (post fx, OIT, particle collision) DrawIndirect (procedural generation, keep on GPU) Tessellation (characters, terrain, smooth objects)

13 Frostbite DX11 port – Questions?
from: ?

14 New Direct3D 11 Feature: The Tessellator
Advantages of Hardware Tessellation An extremely compact representation of a surface Each primitive in the low-res input mesh represents up to 64 levels of tessellation A faster way to render high resolution meshes Vertices are generated by dedicated hardware Levels of detail can changed without needing to be uploaded to the GPU No need to wait for uploads LODs don’t need to be stored in system or GPU memory LOD algorithm can run entirely on the GPU

15 Direct3D 11 Tessellator Stages
3 Tessellation Stages 2 Programmable Stages Hull Shader Domain shader 1 Fixed Function Stage Tessellator Tessellator in the D3D 11 Pipeline

16 Direct3D 11 Tessellator Stages
Hull Shader Operates in 2 phases “Control point phase” allows conversion from one surface type to another Example: sub-division surface to Bezier patches Runs once per control point “Patch constant phase” sets tessellation factors and other per- patch constants Runs once per input primitive Tessellator in the D3D 11 Pipeline

17 Direct3D 11 Tessellator Stages
Fixed Function Stage Generates new vertices within each of the input primitives The number of new vertices is based on the tessellation factors computed by the hull shader Tessellator in the D3D 11 Pipeline Level 1.0 Level 1.5 Level 3.0

18 Direct3D 11 Tessellator Stages
Domain Shader Evaluates the surface at each vertex Uses the control points generated by the hull shader Can implement various types of surfaces, for example Beziers Displacement Mapping Fetch displacements from a displacement map texture Translate the vertex position along the normal Tessellator in the D3D 11 Pipeline

19 You can do tessellation on today’s hardware.
ATI Tessellator A new fixed function stage Can be used for prototyping D3D 11 algorithms Available on all ATI Direct3D 10 capable hardware and Xbox 360 Tessellation SDK now available for Direct3D 9 gpu/radeon/Tessellation ATI Tessellator in the D3D 9 Pipeline

20 Comparison: D3D 9 vs D3D 11 Tessellator
Various Algorithms can be implemented on both D3D11 Tessellator algorithms can usually be done in one pass. Even with extra passes hardware tessellation is still faster than rendering high polygon count geometry without a tessellator. 3 times faster with less than 1/100th the size! D3D11 Tessellator has more tessellation levels 64 vs 15 More polygons per mesh D3D11 Tessellator has a cleaner API Control points are passed to hull and domain shader ATI tessellator relies on vertex texture fetch 20

21 Alternate Tessellation Method
Instanced Tessellation (Gruen 2005) Does not require dedicated tessellation hardware Uses hardware instancing to render tessellated surfaces Create a vertex buffer that contains a tessellation of a generic triangle Use instancing to instance that vertex buffer for every triangle in the mesh The vertex shader can be used to transform the instanced triangles according to patch control points and/or a displacement map

22 New Direct3D 11 feature: Compute Shaders
Allows you to bypass the entire graphics pipeline for GPGPU programming Post-processing, OIT, AI, Physics, and more Application has control over dispatching and synchronization of threads Shared memory between Compute Shader threads Thread Group Shared Memory (TGSM) Avoids redundant calculations and fetches Random access to output buffer “Unordered Access View” (UAV) Available for pixel shaders too! Scatter writes – multiple random access writes per shader

23 Compute Shader: Threads
A thread is the basic CS processing element A “thread group” is a 3 dimensional array of threads CS declares the number of threads in a group eg. [numthreads(X, Y, Z)] Each thread in the group executes the same code Thread groups are also organized as 3D arrays Execution of threads is started by calling the device Dispatch( nX, nY, nZ ) function Where nX, nY, nZ are the number of thread groups to execute

24 Compute Shader: Threads and Thread Groups
pDev11->Dispatch(3, 2, 1); // D3D API call [numthreads(4, 4, 1)] // CS 5.0 HLSL Total threads = 3*2*4*4 = 96 10 11 12 01 00 02 03 13 20 21 22 23 30 31 32 33

25 Compute Shader: Thread Group Shared Memory
Shared between threads Think of it as fast local memory reserved for threads Read/write access at any location Declared in the shader groupshared float4 vCacheMemory[1024]; Limited to 32 KB Need synchronization before reading back data written by other threads To ensure all threads have finished writing GroupMemoryBarrier(); GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync();

26 You can use compute shaders on today’s hardware.
Compute Shaders are available on some D3D 10 Hardware CS 4.x is a subset of CS 5.0 Includes CS 4.0 and CS 4.1 CS 4.1 includes instructions from SM 4.1 (D3D 10.1) Requires support in the driver Use CheckFeatureSupport() D3D11_Feature enum: D3D11_FEATURE_D3D10_X_HARDWARE_OPTIONS boolean value: ComputeShaders_Plus_RawAndStructuredBuffers_Via_Shader_4_x Drivers are now available! Contact us for details

27 CS 4.x Limitations Limitations
Max number of threads per group is 768 total Dispatch Zn==1 & no DispatchIndirect() support Thread Group Shared Memory (TGSM) Limitations Max size is 16 KB vs 32 KB in CS 5.0 Threads can only write to their own offsets in TGSM But they can still read from anywhere in the TGSM No atomic operations or append/consume Only one UAV can be bound Must be Raw or Structured, not Typed (no textures)

28 CS 4.0 Example: HDR Tone Map Reduction
8 8 Rendered HDR Image 1D Buffer 1D Buffer Final Result

29 CS 4.0 Example: HDR Tone Map Reduction
C++ Code: CompileShaderFromFile( L"ReduceTo1DCS.hlsl", "CSMain", "cs_4_0", &pBlob ) ); HLSL Code (reduction from 2D to 1D): Texture2D Input : register( t0 ); RWStructuredBuffer<float> Result : register( u0 ); cbuffer cbCS : register( b0 ) { uint4 g_param; // (g_param.x, g_param.y) is the x and y dimensions of // the Dispatch call. // (g_param.z, g_param.w) is the size of the above // Input Texture2D };

30 CS 4.0 Example: HDR Tone Map Reduction
#define blocksize 8 #define blocksizeY 8 #define groupthreads (blocksize*blocksizeY) groupshared float accum[groupthreads]; static const float4 LUM_VECTOR = float4(.299, .587, .114, 0); [numthreads(blocksize,blocksizeY,1)] void CSMain( uint3 Gid : SV_GroupID, uint3 DTid : SV_DispatchThreadID, uint3 GTid : SV_GroupThreadID, uint GI : SV_GroupIndex ) { float4 s = Input.Load( uint3((float)DTid.x/81.0f*g_param.z, (float)DTid.y/81.0f*g_param.w, 0) ); accum[GI] = dot( s, LUM_VECTOR ); uint stride = groupthreads/2; GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync();

31 CS 4.0 Example: HDR Tone Map Reduction
if ( GI < stride ) accum[GI] += accum[stride+GI]; if ( GI < 16 ) { accum[GI] += accum[16+GI]; accum[GI] += accum[8+GI]; accum[GI] += accum[4+GI]; accum[GI] += accum[2+GI]; accum[GI] += accum[1+GI]; } if ( GI == 0 ) Result[Gid.y*g_param.x+Gid.x] = accum[0];

32 Comparison: CS 4.x vs CS 5.0 CS 4.x is great to have but CS 5.0 will be better Better performance – D3D 11 Hardware will be faster Better Thread Group Shared Memory More storage 32K vs 16K Better access – threads can write anywhere in TGSM, not just within their thread group Better interaction with graphics pipeline Can output to textures (typed UAVs) No need to draw a full screen quad Better precision – Double Precision (optional) Better synchronization - Atomics CS 4.x is still your best alternative on downlevel hardware

33 New Direct3D 11 feature: Multithreading
Multithreaded Rendering Render calls are now part of the “Immediate” context or the “Deferred” context Immediate context calls get executed right away, just like D3D 9 and D3D 10 rendering Deferred context calls are used for building “command lists” i.e. display lists. Draw calls and other rendering calls are recorded by the deferred context and stored in the command list When the command list is finished, it can then be placed in the queue on the immediate thread using the ExecuteCommandList() function

34 New Direct3D 11 feature: Multithreading
Immediate Deferred Deferred DrawPrim DrawPrim DrawPrim Execute Execute

35 Deferred Contexts Deferred contexts are intended to run in separate threads One immediate context on the main render thread Multiple deferred contexts on worker threads Running each deferred context in it’s own thread takes advantage of modern multi-core CPUs Re-play of command lists, like the traditional use of display lists in OpenGL may not be the best use of this feature Some overhead with multiple contexts, so make sure you’re doing enough work in each context Scale the number of deferred contexts (in threads) with the number of CPU cores.

36 New Direct3D 11 feature: Multithreading
Multithreaded Resources Resources can be created with the device interface in a separate thread, concurrent to a device context. D3D 11 Device interface creation methods are free threaded Create VBs, Textures, CBs, State, and Shaders while rendering in another thread. Resources can be uploaded asynchronously as well Concurrent with shader compilation

37 You can do multithreading with today’s hardware.
Multithreading is implemented in the Direct3D 11 runtime Independent of driver or hardware Runtime will emulate features not supported by driver Easy for testing and backwards compatibility! Limitations on downlevel hardware Concurrency is limited by driver support Check for driver support using ID3D11Device::CheckFeatureSupport() D3D11_FEATURE_DATA_THREADING DriverConcurrentCreates, DriverCommandLists

38 Comparison of Multithreading on D3D 11 vs Downlevel Hardware
This is primarily a performance issue You may get some improvement with multithreading, even without driver/hardware support See the latest Microsoft DirectX SDK sample Multithreaded driver support will allow more concurrency = better performance Direct3D 11 Hardware will be faster

39 New Direct3D 11 SM 5.0 Feature: Gather()
Fetches 4 point-sampled values in a single texture instruction Better/faster shadow kernels Optimized SSAO implementations Can also select which components to sample: GatherRed(), GatherGreen(), GatherBlue(), GatherAlpha() Compare version which can be used for shadow mapping: GatherCmp (), GatherCmpRed(), GatherCmpGreen(), GatherCmpBlue(), GatherCmpAlpha() X Y Z W

40 You can use Gather() on today’s hardware
Gather() is part of Direct3D 11 SM 4.1 Works on all Direct3D 10.1 hardware Limitations with SM4.1 Gather() Only works with single component formats No ability to select which component to gather Comparison form - GatherCmp() - is not supported Still works great for custom shadow map kernels and SSA0, since the depth buffer is a single component.

41 Strategies for Transitioning to Direct3D 11
Consider doing the port in stages Use the HAL when you can Software rendering isn’t fun If your starting with D3D 9, the D3D 10 feature level should be your first target First, get the engine working with D3D 10.1 feature level before adding Direct3D 11 specific features 10.1 is the highest level that will work with the HAL Next, add new features on downlevel hardware where available Finally, some new features will need to use the reference rasterizer without D3D 11 hardware

42 Starting with Direct3D 9 A simple port from D3D 9 to D3D 11 will not perform well Hopefully we’ve all learned this lesson from D3D 10 Going from D3D 9 to D3D 10 will be a big chunk of the work Very similar to the Direct3D 10 API Direct 3D 10 fundamentals are still important You can still use SM 3.0 for this stage

43 Direct3D 10 programming review
Constant Buffers Group constants into buffers by frequency of update Remember: when one constant is updated, the whole buffer needs to get uploaded State Changes State objects are immutable for better performance Initialize the state you need before you need it Avoid creating lots of state objects on the fly Resources Resource creation and deletion is slow Create most of your resources at the beginning

44 Direct3D 10 programming review
Texture Updates Call Map() with the DO_NOT_WAIT flag to update staging textures, then CopyResource() to update the video memory texture Do not use UpdateSubResource() – slow Batch Counts Keep batch counts low with instancing Alpha test is now done with clip()/discard() Don’t put this in every shader – it may disable early z! Try to do the clip early to avoid unnecessary shader instructions

45 Going from Direct3D 10 to Direct3D 11
Fairly easy port from Direct3D 10 to D3D 11 with 10 or device feature level You can still use the HAL Modify the existing Direct3D 10 code to use a Rendering Context You should only need the Immediate Context for now Essentially just replacing API calls Get the simple port working first You can still use your SM 4.0 or 4.1 shaders at this point in the process

46 Adding in new Direct3D 11 features
Multithreading Requires changes to your rendering code Add Windows multithreading support Run deferred contexts in separate threads Need to break up your rendering workload in to logical chunks Parallelize the command list building to improve performance Fortunately the runtime will emulate this feature Performance improvements may not be fully realized until new drivers and new hardware is released.

47 Adding in new Direct3D 11 features
Compute Shader Post Processing Replace your old pixel shader implementations with faster compute shader versions Use CS 4.x on current hardware Good for testing and backwards compatibility Tessellation Prototype tessellation algorithms using the ATI tessellator on Direct3D 9 Use instanced tessellation for Direct3D 11 on downlevel hardware Consider how Tessellation will affect your art pipeline – better to prepare early

48 Full Direct3D 11 Implementation
Add new features that require Direct3D 11 hardware Not too difficult, since you’ve already done most of the work! Tesellation Simplify your algorithms by using the hull shader Compute Shader Start using CS 5.0 More local storage, write anywhere, can output to textures Multithreading Should automatically see improvements with new hardware and drivers

49 There’s nothing stopping you from starting now
Direct 3D 11 features will improve your game Multithreading, Compute Shader, Tessellation and more Current Hardware will take you close to a full Direct3D 11 implementation Downlevel support is good for prototyping and for backwards compatibility Have your game ready to ship when Direct3D 11 ships Windows 7 and powerful new hardware will help spotlight your game!

50 Acknowledgements Johan Andersson, DICE – advice on porting to D3D 11 Nicholas Thibieroz, AMD – Compute Shader Holger Gruen, Efficient Tessellation on the GPU through Instancing, Journal of Game Development Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2005 Tatarchuk, Barczak, Bilodeau, Programming for Real- Time Tessellation on GPU, 2009 AMD whitepaper on tessellation Microsoft Corporation, DirectX 11 Software Development Kit, November, 2008

51 ? Questions
Trademark Attribution AMD, the AMD Arrow logo and combinations thereof are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. Other names used in this presentation are for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective owners. ©2008 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.

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