Presentation on theme: "Android Malware in Practice Part I. Android Filesystem Layout ~ $ adb shell mount rootfs / rootfs ro,relatime 0 0 tmpfs /dev tmpfs rw,nosuid,relatime,mode=755."— Presentation transcript:
Android Filesystem Layout The mounts of interest / - root of the filesystem hierarchy /system - the ROM that holds all system binaries /data - RW location for user applications /cache - transient data space for user applications /efs - phone specific information like IMEI number /mnt/sdcard - fat32 filesystem with no inbuilt security
Application locations System applications /system/app/.apk User applications /data/app/.apk (preloaded) /data/app/ -1.apk (downloaded) /mnt/secure/asec/ -1.apk (sdcard)
App Signing All apps are signed with a key to provide android with the ability to distinguish distributors of software Possible to group applications in the same security context when two applications are signed with same key giving identical digital signature
Android Debug Bridge Android Debug Bridge allows the developer access to the Android device connected via usb or IP Once connected to a device, ADB provides developers an interface to interact with a rich suite of tools to manage the device
ADB Push / Pull Using ADB we are able to transfer files from/to the device Pull test.txt off the device and place in pwd adb pull /mnt/sdcard/test.txt [local location] Push local test.txt to sdcard on the device adb push./test.txt /mnt/sdcard
Android Manual Install Manually install application adb push com.myapp.hello.apk /data/app/ (Permissions need to be changed to 0644) adb install com.myapp.hello.apk Manually uninstall application adb uninstall com.myapp.hello
Package Manager pm is a tool that is provided to manage and provide details about applications and permissions. List all applications pm list packages Find location of an application pm path com.myapp.helloworld List available permissions pm list permissions -f
Activity Manager: Sending Intents The activity manager provides the mechanism to start an instance of a graphic application using adb we are able to start applications via am start -a android.intent.action.CALL -d tel:
Service Manager The service manager can also be invoked via command line to send messages service call isms 5 s16 "+??????????" i32 0 i32 0 s16 "SMS TEXT HERE"
init (1) Responsible for creating mounts and file permissions associated with mount Reads initrc file which contains these directories, mounts and file permissions Responsible for further starting other processes/daemons
daemons (2) Native linux daemons such as the following are started by init netd (manages network connections) vold (manages volumes such as sdcard) usbd (manages USB connections) debuggerd (debug processes - coredump) rild (manages communication with the radio) zygote
zygote (3) init launches zygote which loads classes and listen for requests to spawn new applications through an instance of a dalvik virtual machine Utilises copy-on-write memory references when forking its process to reduce memory footprint
Runtime/Service Manager (4a/b) init starts android runtime process which initialises the Service Manager Service Manager is the context manager for binder that is responsible for service registration and lookups Android runtime then sends a start signal for zygote to create an instance of System Service (Android Services)
dalvik (5) Zygote has received a signal to instantiate a dalvik virtual machine instance for the Android System Server
System Server (6) Zygote forks itself with appropriate permissions and starts the System Server instance Its role is to bootstrap all the android services required by the android framework which provide services to applications
Native System Services (7) Native System Services are services that integrate with the operating system to provide low latency and high availability services such as the audio and surface flinger Audio Slinger provides audio management and multiplexing while Surface Flinger is the composition framework to display graphics
Native System Services (7) continued Native System Services register themselves with Service Manager allowing them to be available through IPC for other applications or processes
Android System Services (8) Android System Services provide high level framework services for applications These services like Native System Services register themselves with Service Manager allowing for IPC communication from Android applications and other services
Android Development Android provides users familiar with Java an easy route to build mobile applications. Google provides a SDK and NDK which enable the developer to call upon rich libraries and tools.
Software Development Kit (SDK) The android Software development kit provides libraries and tools to develop standard java applications. Some of the tools allow for automatic installation of various android platforms and their associated libraries - eg. Ice Cream Sandwich. Included in the ADT bundle is the SDK and an eclipse environment configured and setup for building/developing Android applications.
Native Development Kit (NDK) Android allows for native libraries to be used with the android environment. These libraries are C/C++ based and give developers greater performance gains for intensive hardware operations.
Repackaging howto: reverse engineering an application – open the apk archive to access smali- $ apktool d com.hello out OR run dedexer (convert apk to jar archive) run a java decompiler or use jdgui
Insert the payload Still have key signing issue But users can be unaware of the dangers
Notes These attacks were aimed at Samsung devices which have been known to implement their own sdk libraries for android. These have not been tested as vigorously as would be liked and have been proven to provide further vulnerabilities. phones-for-fun-but-with.html
Permissions Concerns android.permission.SEND_SMS / RECEIVE_SMS android.permission.SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW android.permission.READ_CONTACTS / WRITE_CONTACTS android. permission.READ_CALENDAR / WRITE_CALENDAR android.permission.CALL_PHONE android.permission.READ_LOGS android.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION android.permission.GET_TASKS android.permission.RECEIVE_BOOT_COMPLETED android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_STATE com.android.browser.permission.READ_HISTORY_BOOKMARKS / WRITE_HISTORY_BOOKMARKS Sourced from Google IO 2012 and marakana.com
References Android: Google IO: https://sites.google.com/site/io/https://sites.google.com/site/io/ Marakana: Genome project