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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 16: Solid and Hazardous Waste.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 16: Solid and Hazardous Waste."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 16: Solid and Hazardous Waste

2 Core Case Study: Electronic Waste What is electronic waste or e-waste? Fastest growing category of waste ____% recyclable Contains toxic materials

3 Fig. 16-1, p. 403

4 Wasting Resources (1) Solid Waste Industrial solid waste __________________ Municipal solid waste __________________

5 Wasting Resources (2) Hazardous or toxic waste –Threatens human health or environment –Poisonous –Reactive –Corrosive –Flammable –Developed countries produce ________%

6 Wasting Resources (3) Solid waste and hazardous waste –About ____ unnecessary resource waste –Create air & water pollution, land degradation

7 What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? Cleaning Disinfectants Drain, toilet, and window cleaners Spot removers Septic tank cleaners Paint Products Paints, stains, varnishes, and lacquers Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers Wood preservatives Artist paints and inks Gardening Pesticides Weed killers Ant and rodent killers Flea powders General Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) Glues and cements Automotive Gasoline Used motor oil Antifreeze Battery acid Brake and transmission fluid Stepped Art Fig. 16-2, p. 405

8 Fig. 16-3, p. 405

9 Case Study: Solid Waste in the United States Produces ____ of worlds solid waste Mining, agricultural, industrial: _____% Municipal solid waste: _____% High-waste economy Examples?



12 sustainable approach to solid waste Waste management Waste reduction –reduce it! Integrated waste management –then reuse or recycle it –& safely dispose of what is left

13 Fertilizer Compost Hazardous waste management Landfill Hazardous waste Remaining mixed waste To manufacturers for reuse or for recycling Processing and manufacturing PlasticGlassPaper Food/yard waste Solid and hazardous wastes generated during the manufacturing process Waste generated by households and businesses Products Raw materials Metal Incinerator Fig. 16-4, p. 407

14 Last Priority Waste Management Treat waste to reduce toxicity Incinerate waste Bury waste in landfills Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution Stepped Art Second Priority Second Pollution and Waste Prevention Reuse Repair Recycle Compost Buy reusable and recyclable products First Priority Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention Change industrial process to eliminate use of harmful chemicals Use less of a harmful product Reduce packaging and materials in products Make products that last longer and are recyclable, reusable, or easy to repair Fig. 16-5, p. 407

15 Fig. 16-6, p. 408

16 Science Focus: Garbology Garbologists Like archaeologists Trash persists for decades

17 Why Is Reusing and Recycling Materials So Important? Reusing items: decreases use of matter & energy resources reduces pollution & natural capital degradation recycling does so to a lesser degree

18 Reuse Reuse as a form of waste reduction Salvaging Yard sales, flea markets, secondhand stores, auctions, newspaper ads, Craigslist, ebay Technology: rechargeable batteries Refillable containers and cloth bags

19 Fig. 16-7, p. 409

20 5 major types of materials can be recycled 1.________________________ 2.________________________ 3.________________________ 4.________________________ 5.________________________

21 Recycling Primary (closed-loop) recycling Secondary recycling Pre-consumer (internal) waste Post-consumer (external) waste Feasibility and marketing

22 Mixed vs Separate Household Recycling Material recovery facilities (MRF) ___________________________ Source separation –By households and businesses –___________________________________ ___________________________________

23 Composting Decomposing bacteria Household composting Organic waste collection facilities Successful large-scale composting

24 Individuals Matter: Recycling Plastics _____% plastics recycled MBA Polymers, Inc – commercial recycling process –Mike Biddle and Trip Allen, co-founders Pellets cheaper than virgin plastics More environmentally friendly

25 Fig. 16-8, p. 411 Trade-Offs Recycling AdvantagesDisadvantages Reduces air and water pollution Saves energy Reduces mineral demand Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Reduces solid waste production and disposal Helps protect biodiversity Can save landfill space Important part of economy Can cost more than burying in areas with ample landfill space May lose money for items such as glass and some plastics Reduces profits for landfill and incinerator owners Source separation is inconvenient for some people

26 Science Focus: Bioplastics Most plastics are organic polymers produced from petrochemicals Bioplastics made from plant materials Biodegradable –Composting

27 Encouraging Reuse & Recycling Market prices must reflect true costs Even economic playing field: _____________________________ Stabilize prices for recycled materials _______________________________ ______________________________

28 Boiler Wet scrubber Dirty water Bottom ash Conveyor Water added Furnace Steam Turbine Generator Smokestack Electricity Electrostatic precipitator Ash for treatment, disposal in landfill, or use as landfill cover Fly ash Waste pit Crane Fig. 16-9, p. 413

29 Fig. 16-10, p. 414 Trade-Offs Incineration Advantages Disadvantages Reduces trash volume Less need for landfills Low water pollution Concentrates hazardous substances into ash for burial Sale of energy reduces cost Modern controls reduce air pollution Some facilities recover and sell metals Expensive to build Costs more than short-distance hauling to landfills Difficult to site because of citizen opposition Some air pollution and CO2 emissions Older or poorly managed facilities can release large amounts of air pollution Output approach that encourages waste production Can compete with recycling for burnable materials such as newspaper

30 Burying Solid Wastes Open dumps Sanitary landfills Leachates

31 Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Groundwater Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal Leachate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal Leachate storage tank Leachate storage tank Leachate treatment system Pipes collect explosive methane for use as fuel to generate electricity Pipes collect explosive methane for use as fuel to generate electricity Electricity generator building When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Methane gas recovery well Methane gas recovery well Compacted solid waste Leachate pipes Leachate pipes Probes to detect methane leaks Topsoil Garbage Clay Sand Garbage Subsoil Synthetic liner Sand Clay Sand Fig. 16-11, p. 414

32 Fig. 16-12, p. 415 Trade-Offs Sanitary Landfills AdvantagesDisadvantages No open burning Noise and traffic No shortage of landfill space in many areas Filled land can be used for other purposes Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Output approach that encourages waste production Slow decomposition of wastes Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO2) unless they are collected Air pollution from toxic gases and trucks Dust Can handle large amounts of waste Low operating costs Can be built quickly Low groundwater pollution if sited properly Little odor

33 Put in Perpetual Storage Landfill Underground injection wells Surface impoundments Underground salt formations Stepped Art Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances Natural decomposition Incineration Thermal treatment Chemical, physical, and biological treatment Dilution in air or water Produce Less Hazardous Waste Change industrial processes to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste production Recycle and reuse hazardous waste Fig. 16-13, p. 415 Integrated hazardous waste management

34 Detoxifying Hazardous Waste Bioremediation Phytoremediation Incineration Plasma arc torch

35 Storing Hazardous Waste Deep-well disposal __________________________________________ Surface impoundments – ______ % in U.S. have _______________________ – ______ % may threaten ______________________ Secure landfills

36 Fig. 16-14, p. 417

37 Fig. 16-15, p. 417 Trade-Offs Surface Impoundments AdvantagesDisadvantages Wastes can often be retrieved if necessary Groundwater contamination from leaking liners (or no lining) Low construction costs Low operating costs Can be built quickly Can store wastes indefinitely with secure double liners Output approach that encourages waste production Disruption and leakage from earthquakes Air pollution from volatile organic compounds Overflow from flooding

38 Leak detection system Groundwater monitoring well Reactive wastes in drums Plastic double liner Water table Earth Double leachate collection system Groundwater Clay cap Impervious clay cap Plastic cover impervious clay Bulk waste Gas vent Topsoil Earth Sand Fig. 16-16, p. 418

39 Fig. 16-17, p. 418

40 Hazardous Waste Regulation in USA Resource Conservation & Recovery Act –EPA administers –Cradle to grave Laws regulate only ____% of hazardous wastes

41 Superfund –1980 - created –Cleans hazardous waste sites –Nov. 2008: 1,255 sites on list; 322 sites cleaned –Now broke –Who pays for clean up?

42 Brownfields –Turning toxic areas into parks and nature reserves

43 Dealing with Lead (Pb) Poisoning Neurotoxin Especially harmful to children –1976-2004: # children with unsafe blood Pb levels dropped from _____% to _____% –Govt banned ________________________ ____________________________________ _____ countries still use leaded gasoline

44 Fig. 16-18, p. 419 Solutions Lead Poisoning PreventionControl Phase out leaded gasoline worldwide Phase out waste incineration Ban use of lead solder Ban use of lead in computer and TV monitors Ban lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve food Test blood for lead by age 1 Replace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder Wash fresh fruits and vegetables Test existing candles for lead Test for lead in existing ceramic-ware used to serve food Remove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposal Sharply reduce lead emissions from incinerators Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments Ban candles withlead cores

45 Achieving a Low-Waste Society Grassroots action Environmental justice International treaties –Basel Convention –Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

46 Five Principles for Achieving a Low- Waste Society 1.Everything is connected 2.There is no away for wastes 3.Polluters & producers must pay for wastes 4.Different categories of hazardous waste and recyclable waste should not be mixed 5.Reuse, recycle, & compost solid wastes

47 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #1 order of priorities for dealing with solid waste should be:

48 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #2 Order of priorities for dealing with hazardous waste should be:

49 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #3 We need to view solid wastes as wasted resources and hazardous wastes as materials that we should not be producing in the first place.

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