4 Wasting Resources (1) Solid Waste Industrial solid waste __________________Municipal solid wasteConcept Solid waste represents pollution and unnecessary waste of resources, and hazardous waste contributes to pollution, natural capital degradation, health problems, and premature deaths.
5 Wasting Resources (2) Hazardous or toxic waste Threatens human health or environmentPoisonousReactiveCorrosiveFlammableDeveloped countries produce ________%
6 Wasting Resources (3) Solid waste and hazardous waste About ____ unnecessary resource wasteCreate air & water pollution, land degradation
7 What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? CleaningDisinfectantsDrain, toilet, and window cleanersSpot removersSeptic tank cleanersGardeningPesticidesWeed killersAnt and rodent killersFlea powdersPaint ProductsPaints, stains, varnishes, and lacquersPaint thinners, solvents, and strippersWood preservativesArtist paints and inksAutomotiveGasolineUsed motor oilAntifreezeBattery acidBrake and transmission fluidGeneralDry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium)Glues and cementsStepped ArtFig. 16-2, p. 405
12 sustainable approach to solid waste Waste managementWaste reductionreduce it!Integrated waste managementthen reuse or recycle it& safely dispose of what is left
13 To manufacturers for reuse or for recycling Compost Landfill Raw materialsProcessing andmanufacturingProductsSolid and hazardouswastes generated duringthe manufacturing processWaste generated byhouseholds andbusinessesFood/yardwasteHazardouswasteRemainingmixed wastePlasticGlassMetalPaperTo manufacturers for reuse orfor recyclingHazardous wastemanagementCompostLandfillIncineratorFertilizerFig. 16-4, p. 407
14 First Priority Second Priority Last Priority Primary Pollution and Waste PreventionChange industrial process to eliminate use of harmful chemicalsUse less of a harmful productReduce packaging and materials in productsMake products that last longer and are recyclable, reusable, or easy to repairSecond PrioritySecond Pollution and Waste PreventionReuseRepairRecycleCompostBuy reusable and recyclable productsLast PriorityWaste ManagementTreat waste to reduce toxicityIncinerate wasteBury waste in landfillsRelease waste into environment for dispersal or dilutionStepped ArtFig. 16-5, p. 407
22 Mixed vs Separate Household Recycling Material recovery facilities (MRF)___________________________Source separationBy households and businesses______________________________________________________________________
25 Trade-Offs Recycling Advantages Disadvantages Reduces air and water pollutionSaves energyReduces mineral demandReduces greenhousegas emissionsReduces solid wasteproduction and disposalHelps protect biodiversityCan save landfill spaceImportant part of economyCan cost more thanburying in areas withample landfill spaceMay lose money for items such as glass and some plasticsReduces profits for landfill and incinerator ownersSource separation isinconvenient for somepeopleFig. 16-8, p. 411
26 Science Focus: Bioplastics Most plastics are organic polymers produced from petrochemicalsBioplastics made from plant materialsBiodegradableComposting
27 Encouraging Reuse & Recycling Market prices must reflect true costsEven economic playing field:_____________________________Stabilize prices for recycled materials_____________________________________________________________
28 disposal in landfill, or use as landfill cover ElectricitySmokestackTurbineSteamCraneGeneratorElectrostaticprecipitatorFurnaceWetscrubberBoilerWateraddedWastepitDirtywaterConveyorBottomashFly ashAsh for treatment,disposal in landfill, oruse as landfill coverFig. 16-9, p. 413
29 Trade-Offs Incineration Disadvantages Advantages Reduces trash volumeLess need forlandfillsLow waterpollutionConcentrateshazardoussubstances intoash for burialSale of energyreduces costModern controlsreduce airSome facilitiesrecover and sellmetalsExpensive to buildCosts more thanshort-distance hauling to landfillsDifficult to site becauseof citizen oppositionSome air pollution andCO2 emissionsOlder or poorly managed facilities can release large amountsof air pollutionOutput approach thatencourages wasteproductionCan compete withrecycling for burnablematerials such asnewspaperFig , p. 414
31 Pipes collect explosive methane for use as fuel When landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashTopsoilSandMethane storageand compressorbuildingClayElectricitygeneratorbuildingLeachatetreatment systemGarbageProbes todetectmethaneleaksMethane gasrecovery wellPipes collect explosivemethane for use as fuelto generate electricityLeachatestoragetankCompactedsolid wasteGroundwatermonitoringwellLeachatepipesGarbageLeachate pumpedup to storage tankfor safe disposalSandSynthetic linerLeachatemonitoringwellSandGroundwaterClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfillClaySubsoilFig , p. 414
32 Trade-Offs Sanitary Landfills Advantages Disadvantages No open burning Noise and trafficLittle odorDustLow groundwater pollutionif sited properlyAir pollution from toxic gasesand trucksCan be built quicklyReleases greenhouse gases(methane and CO2) unlessthey are collectedLow operating costsCan handle large amountsof wasteSlow decomposition of wastesFilled land can be used forother purposesOutput approach thatencourages waste productionNo shortage of landfill spacein many areasEventually leaks and cancontaminate groundwaterFig , p. 415
33 Integrated hazardous waste management Produce Less Hazardous WasteChange industrial processes to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste productionRecycle and reuse hazardous wasteConvert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous SubstancesNatural decompositionIncinerationThermal treatmentChemical, physical, and biological treatmentDilution in air or waterPut inPerpetual StorageLandfillUnderground injection wellsSurface impoundmentsUnderground salt formationsStepped ArtFig , p. 415
35 Storing Hazardous Waste Deep-well disposal__________________________________________Surface impoundments______ % in U.S. have _____________________________ % may threaten ______________________Secure landfills
40 Hazardous Waste Regulation in USA Resource Conservation & Recovery ActEPA administersCradle to graveLaws regulate only ____% of hazardous wastes
41 Superfund 1980 - created Cleans hazardous waste sites Nov. 2008: 1,255 sites on list; 322 sites cleanedNow brokeWho pays for clean up?
42 BrownfieldsTurning toxic areas into parks and nature reserves
43 Dealing with Lead (Pb) Poisoning NeurotoxinEspecially harmful to children: # children with unsafe blood Pb levels dropped from_____% to _____%Gov’t banned _________________________________________________________________ countries still use leaded gasoline
44 Solutions Lead Poisoning Prevention Control Phase out leaded gasolineworldwidePhase out wasteincinerationBan use of leadsolderin computer andTV monitorsBan lead glazingfor ceramicwareused to servefoodTest blood forlead by age 1Replace lead pipesand plumbing fixtures containing lead solderRemove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartmentsSharply reduce lead emissions from incineratorsRemove lead from TV sets and computermonitors beforeincineration or land disposalTest for lead in existing ceramic-ware usedto serve foodBan candleswithlead coresTest existing candles for leadWash fresh fruits and vegetablesFig , p. 419
45 Achieving a Low-Waste Society Grassroots actionEnvironmental justiceInternational treatiesBasel ConventionPersistent organic pollutants (POPs)
46 Five Principles for Achieving a Low-Waste Society Everything is connectedThere is no “away” for wastesPolluters & producers must pay for wastesDifferent categories of hazardous waste and recyclable waste should not be mixedReuse, recycle, & compost solid wastes
47 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #1 order of priorities for dealing with solid wasteshould be:
48 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #2 Order of priorities for dealing withhazardous waste should be:
49 Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #3 We need to view solid wastes aswasted resourcesand hazardous wastes asmaterials that we should not beproducing in the first place.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.