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Water and Water Pollution Chapter 11. Water Conflicts in the Middle East Water shortages Water shortages Nile River Nile River Jordan Basin Jordan Basin.

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Presentation on theme: "Water and Water Pollution Chapter 11. Water Conflicts in the Middle East Water shortages Water shortages Nile River Nile River Jordan Basin Jordan Basin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water and Water Pollution Chapter 11

2 Water Conflicts in the Middle East Water shortages Water shortages Nile River Nile River Jordan Basin Jordan Basin Tigris and Euphrates rivers Tigris and Euphrates rivers Peacefully solving the problems Peacefully solving the problems Fig. 11-1, p. 236

3 Water Conflicts in the Middle East Fig. 11-1, p. 236

4 Importance and Availability of Water Why is water so important? Why is water so important? Earth as a watery world Earth as a watery world Water as a wasted resource Water as a wasted resource Tiny fraction of Earth water is fresh Tiny fraction of Earth water is fresh Hydrologic cycle Hydrologic cycle Water pollution Water pollution Water haves and have-nots Water haves and have-nots

5 Fig. 11-2, p. 238 All waterFresh waterReadily accessible fresh water Oceans and saline lakes 97.4% Fresh water 2.6% Groundwater 0.592% Ice caps and glaciers 1.984% Soil moisture 0.005% Biota 0.0001% Rivers 0.0001% Atmospheric water vapor 0.001% 0.014% Lakes 0.007% Earths Water Budget

6 Groundwater Zone of saturation Zone of saturation Water table Water table Aquifers Aquifers Natural recharge Natural recharge

7 Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation Stream Infiltration Water table Infiltration Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifer Lake Well requiring a pump Flowing artesian well Runoff Precipitation Confined Recharge Area Recharge Unconfined Aquifer Less permeable material such as clay Confining im permeable rock layer Unconfined Aquifer Recharge Area Fig. 11-3, p. 239 Groundwater Systems

8 Use of Water Resources Runoff use: about 54% Runoff use: about 54% Freshwater use Freshwater use US freshwater resources US freshwater resources Domestic, agricultural, and industrial use Domestic, agricultural, and industrial use

9 Fig. 11-4a, p. 240 Annual Precipitation and Water-deficit Regions of the Continental US

10 Fig. 11-4a, p. 240 Average annual precipitation (centimeters) Less than 41 41-81 81-22 More than 122 Annual Precipitation and Water-deficit Regions of the Continental US

11 Fig. 11-4b, p. 240 Acute shortage Shortage Adequate supply Metropolitan regions with population greater than 1 million Annual Precipitation and Water-deficit Regions of the Continental US

12 Fig. 11-5, p. 240 Highly likely conflict potential Substantial conflict potential Moderate conflict potential Unmet rural water needs Wash. Oregon Idaho Nevada California Utah Montana Wyoming Colo. N.M. N.D. S.D. Neb. Kansas Oak. Texas Water Hot Spots in Western States

13 Freshwater Shortages Causes of water scarcity: dry climate and too many people Causes of water scarcity: dry climate and too many people Stresses on worlds major river systems Stresses on worlds major river systems 1 of 6 people have no regular access to clean water 1 of 6 people have no regular access to clean water Poverty hinders access to water Poverty hinders access to water Hydrological poverty Hydrological poverty

14 HighNone Stress Fig. 11-6, p. 241 Stress on Worlds River Basins North America Europe Asia Australia Africa South America

15 Hydrological Poverty Fig. 11-7, p. 241

16 Politics and Ethics of Water Who should pay for the water? Who should pay for the water? Public or private ownership Public or private ownership

17 Increasing Freshwater Supplies Dams and reservoirs Dams and reservoirs Extracting groundwater Extracting groundwater Desalination Desalination Reducing water waste Reducing water waste Importing food Importing food Importing water Importing water Catching precipitation Catching precipitation

18 Fig. 11-8, p. 243 Tradeoffs of Large Dams and Reservoirs Large losses of water through evaporation Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Downstream flooding is reduced Downstream cropland and estuaries are deprived of nutrient-rich silt Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower) Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland

19 Fig. 11-9, p. 243 Deliver nutrients to sea to help sustain coastal fisheries Deposit silt that maintains deltas Purify water Renew and renourish wetlands Provide habitats for wildlife N a t u r a l C a p i t a l Ecological Services of Rivers

20 Fig. 11-10, p. 244 North Bay Aqueduct South Bay Aqueduct California Aqueduct CALIFORNIA NEVADA UTAH MEXICO Central Arizona Project Colorado River Aqueduct Los Angeles Aqueduct Shasta Lake Oroville Dam and Reservoir Feather River Lake Tahoe Sacramento Fresno Hoover Dam and Reservoir (Lake Mead) Salton Sea Phoenix Tucson ARIZONA Colorado River Sacramento River San Francisco San Luis Dam and Reservoir Santa Barbara Los Angeles San Diego California Water Project and Central Arizona Project San Joaquin Valley

21 Aral Sea Disaster Large-scale water transfers in dry central Asia Large-scale water transfers in dry central Asia Salinity Salinity Wetland destruction and wildlife Wetland destruction and wildlife Fish extinctions and fishing Fish extinctions and fishing Wind-blown salt Wind-blown salt Water pollution Water pollution Climatic changes Climatic changes Restoration efforts Restoration efforts

22 Shrinking Aral Sea Fig. 11-11, p. 245

23 Stranded Ship at the Aral Sea Fig. 11-12, p. 245

24 Trade-Offs Withdrawing Groundwater Advantages Disadvantages Good source of water for drinking and irrigation Available year-round Exists almost everywhere Renewable if not over- pumped or contaminated No evaporation losses Cheaper to extract than most surface waters Aquifier depletion from over- pumping Sinking of land (subsidence) when water removed Polluted aquifiers unusable for decades or centuries Saltwater intrusion into drinking water supplies near coastal areas Reduced water flows into streams, lakes, estuaries, and wetlands Increased cost, energy use, and contamination from deeper wells Fig. 11-13, p. 246 Tradeoffs of Withdrawing Groundwater

25 Fig. 11-14, p. 246 Groundwater Overdrafts: High Moderate Minor or none Aquifer Depletion

26 Major irrigation well Well contaminated with saltwater Saltwater Intrusion Normal Interface Fresh groundwater aquifer Interface Saltwater Sea Level Water table Seafloor Fig. 11-15, p. 247 Saltwater Intrusion into Coastal Water Wells Interface

27 Fig. 11-16, p. 247 Solutions Groundwater Depletion Prevention Control Waste less water Subsidize water conservation Ban new wells in aquifiers near surface waters Buy and retire ground- water withdrawal rights in critical areas Do not grow water- intensive crops in dry areas Reduce birth rates Raise price of water to discourage waste Tax water pumped from Wells near surface water Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels Groundwater Depletion

28 Desalination Removal of salts from ocean or brackish waters to produce useable water Removal of salts from ocean or brackish waters to produce useable water Distillation method Distillation method Reverse osmosis method Reverse osmosis method Used in 120 countries Used in 120 countries Major problems: high cost and a lot of brine wastes Major problems: high cost and a lot of brine wastes Research is needed Research is needed

29 Reducing Water Waste Benefits of water conservation Benefits of water conservation Reduce leakage and save water Reduce leakage and save water Water prices, government subsidies, and waste Water prices, government subsidies, and waste Improve irrigation Improve irrigation Using less water in homes and businesses Using less water in homes and businesses

30 Fig. 11-17, p. 249 Gravity Flow (efficiency 60% and 80% with surge valves) Water usually comes from an aqueduct system or a nearby river. Drip Irrigation (efficiency 90-95%) Above- or below-ground pipes or tubes deliver water to individual plant roots. Center Pivot (efficiency 80% with low-pressure sprinkler and 90–95% with LEPA sprinkler) Water usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers. Major Types of Irrigation Systems

31 Fig. 11-18, p. 250 Solutions Reducing Irrigation Water Waste Lining canals bring water to irrigation ditches Leveling fields with lasers Irrigating at night to reduce evaporation Using soil and satellite sensorsand computer systems to monitor soil moisture and add water only when necessary Polyculture Organic Farming Growing water-efficient crops using drought- resistant and salt tolerant crops varieties Irrigating with treated urban waste water Importing water-intensive crops and meat Reducing Irrigation Water Waste

32 Fig. 11-19, p. 250 Reducing Water Waste Solutions Redesign manufacturing processes Landscape yards with plants that require little water Use drip irrigation Fix water leaks Use water meters and charge for all municipal water use Use waterless composting toilets Require water conservation in water-short cities Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and front-loading clothes washers Collect and reuse household water to irrigate lawns and nonedible plants Purify and reuse water for houses, apartments, and office buildings Reducing Water Waste

33 Using Water More Sustainably Blue revolution Blue revolution Cut waste Cut waste Raise water prices Raise water prices Drier waste treatment Drier waste treatment Preserve forests Preserve forests Slow population growth Slow population growth

34 Fig. 11-20, p. 251 Not depleting aquifers Preserving ecological health of aquatic systems Preserving water quality Integrated watershed management Agreements among regions and countries sharing surface water resources Outside party mediation of water disputes between nations Marketing of water rights Raising water prices Wasting less water Decreasing government subsides for supplying water Increasing government subsides for reducing water waste Slowing population growth Solutions Sustainable Water Use

35 Fig. 11-21, p. 251 Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators Shower instead of taking baths, and take short showers. Repair water leaks. Turn off sink faucets while brushing teeth, shaving, or washing. Wash only full loads of clothes or use the lowest possible water-level setting for smaller loads. Wash a car from a bucket of soapy water, and use the hose for rinsing only. If you use a commercial car wash, try to find one that recycles its water. Replace your lawn with native plants that need little if any watering. Water lawns and garden in the early morning or evening. Use drip irrigation and mulch for gardens and flowerbeds. Use recycled (gray) water for watering lawns and houseplants and for washing cars. What Can You Do? Water Use and Waste What Can We Do?

36 Benefits of Floodplains Highly productive wetlands Highly productive wetlands Provide natural flood and erosion control Provide natural flood and erosion control Maintain high water quality Maintain high water quality Recharge groundwater Recharge groundwater Fertile soils Fertile soils Nearby rivers for use and recreation Nearby rivers for use and recreation Flatlands for urbanization and farming Flatlands for urbanization and farming

37 Dangers of Floodplains and Floods Deadly and destructive Deadly and destructive Human activities worsen floods Human activities worsen floods Failing dams and water diversion Failing dams and water diversion Bangladesh Bangladesh

38 Before and During a Flood in St. Louis, Missouri Fig. 11-22, p. 252

39 Fig. 11-23a, p. 253 Oxygen released by vegetation Diverse ecological habitat Evapotranspiration Trees reduce soil erosion from heavy rain and wind Agricultural land Steady river flow Leaf litter improves soil fertility Tree roots stabilize soil and aid water flow Vegetation releases water slowly and reduces flooding Forested Hillside Flooding After Deforestation of a Hillside

40 Fig. 11-23b, p. 253 Tree plantation Evapotranspiration decreases Ranching accelerates soil erosion by water and wind Winds remove fragile topsoil Gullies and landslides Heavy rain leaches nutrients from soil and erodes topsoil Rapid runoff causes flooding After Deforestation Roads destabilize hillsides Agriculture land is flooded and silted up Silt from erosion blocks rivers and reservoirs and causes flooding downstream Flooding After Deforestation of a Hillside

41 Table 11-1, p. 254

42 Reducing Flood Risks Channelization Channelization Levees (floodwalls) Levees (floodwalls) Dams Dams Protect and restore wetlands Protect and restore wetlands Identify and manage flood-prone areas Identify and manage flood-prone areas Precautionary approach Precautionary approach

43 Water Pollution: Types, Effects, and Sources What is water pollution? What is water pollution? Major types of pollutants, sources and effects (Table 11-1, p. 254) Major types of pollutants, sources and effects (Table 11-1, p. 254) Point and nonpoint sources Point and nonpoint sources Is the water safe to drink? Is the water safe to drink?

44 Polluted Streams Factors influencing stream recovery from pollution Factors influencing stream recovery from pollution Oxygen sag curve Oxygen sag curve Importance of wastewater treatment plants Importance of wastewater treatment plants Improvements in quality of US streams Improvements in quality of US streams Cuyahoga River of Ohio Cuyahoga River of Ohio Effect of regulations in US Effect of regulations in US Pressures from US citizen groups Pressures from US citizen groups Problems with nonpoint, accidental and illegal releases Problems with nonpoint, accidental and illegal releases Problems in developing countries Problems in developing countries

45 Clean Zone Decomposition Zone Septic Zone Recovery Zone Clean Zone Normal clean water organisms (trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Fish absent, fungi, sludge worms, bacteria (anaerobic) Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Normal clean water organisms (trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) 8 ppm Dissolved oxygen (ppm) Biological oxygen demand 8 ppm Types of organisms Fig. 11-24, p. 256 Pollution in Streams

46 Lake Pollution Dilution less effective than with streams Dilution less effective than with streams Stratification in lakes and relatively little flow hinder rapid dilution of pollutants Stratification in lakes and relatively little flow hinder rapid dilution of pollutants Lakes more vulnerable to pollutants than streams Lakes more vulnerable to pollutants than streams How pollutants enter lakes How pollutants enter lakes Eutrophication: causes and effects Eutrophication: causes and effects Oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes Oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes Cultural eutrophication Cultural eutrophication Preventing or removing eutrophication Preventing or removing eutrophication

47 Oligotrophic and Eutrophic Lakes Fig. 11-25, p. 257

48 Groundwater Pollution: Causes and Persistence Sources of groundwater pollution Sources of groundwater pollution Slow flowing: slow dilution and dispersion Slow flowing: slow dilution and dispersion Consequences of lower dissolved oxygen Consequences of lower dissolved oxygen Fewer bacteria to decompose wastes Fewer bacteria to decompose wastes Cooler temperatures: slow down chemical reactions Cooler temperatures: slow down chemical reactions Degradable and nondegradable wastes in groundwater Degradable and nondegradable wastes in groundwater

49 Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides and fertilizers Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfill Polluted air Fig. 11-26, p. 258 Groundwater Pollution

50 Extent of Groundwater Pollution Not much is known about groundwater pollution Not much is known about groundwater pollution Organic contaminants, including fuel leaks Organic contaminants, including fuel leaks Arsenic Arsenic Protecting groundwater: Prevention is best Protecting groundwater: Prevention is best

51 Pump nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to remove pollutants (may be the cheapest, easiest, and most effective method but is still being developed) Find substitutes for toxic chemicals Keep toxic chemicals out of the environment Install monitoring wells near landfills and underground tanks Require leak detectors on underground tanks Ban hazardous waste disposal in landfills and injection wells Inject microorganisms to clean up contamination (less expensive but still costly) Store harmful liquids in aboveground tanks with leak detection and collection systems Prevention Cleanup Pump to surface, clean, and return to aquifer (very expensive) Solutions Groundwater Pollution Fig. 11-27, p. 259 Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Groundwater

52 Ocean Pollution How much pollution can oceans tolerate? How much pollution can oceans tolerate? Some pollutants degrade and dilute in oceans Some pollutants degrade and dilute in oceans Ocean dumping controversies Ocean dumping controversies

53 Fig. 11-28, p. 260 Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks; toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilization from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Farms Run off of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals. Healthy zone Clear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish. Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Closed shellfish beds Closed beach Oxygen-depleted zone Coastal Water Pollution Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses, use up oxygen, and degrade habitat.

54 Fig. 11-29, p. 261 Mississippi River Basin Missouri River Ohio River Mississippi River LOUISIANA Mississippi River Depleted Oxygen Gulf of Mexico Oxygen-depleted Water in the Gulf of Mexico

55 Chesapeake Bay Largest US estuary Largest US estuary Pollution sink Pollution sink Oxygen depletion Oxygen depletion Chesapeake Bay Program Chesapeake Bay Program Fig. 11-30, p. 261

56 Drainage basin No oxygen Low concentrations of oxygen PENNSYLVANIA NEW YORK WEST VIRGINIA MARYLAND DELAWARE NEW JERSEY ATLANTIC OCEAN VIRGINIA Cooperstown Harrisburg Baltimore Washington Richmond Norfolk Chesapeake Bay

57 Effects of Oil on Ocean Life Crude and refined petroleum Crude and refined petroleum Tanker accidents and blowouts Tanker accidents and blowouts Exxon Valdez Exxon Valdez Volatile hydrocarbons kill larvae Volatile hydrocarbons kill larvae Tar-like globs coat birds and marine mammals Tar-like globs coat birds and marine mammals Oil destroys insulation and buoyancy Oil destroys insulation and buoyancy Heavy oil sinks and kills bottom organisms Heavy oil sinks and kills bottom organisms Coral reefs die Coral reefs die Slow recovery Slow recovery Oil slicks ruin beaches Oil slicks ruin beaches Limited effectiveness of clean up methods Limited effectiveness of clean up methods

58 Prevention Cleanup Ban dumping of wastes and sewage by maritime and cruise ships in coastal waters Reduce input of toxic pollutants Separate sewage and storm lines Regulate coastal development Recycle used oil Require double hulls for oil tankers Require at least secondary treatment of coastal sewage Use wetlands, solar-aquatic, or other methods to treat sewage Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewage spill to dissolve the oil or sewage without creating harmful byproducts (still under development) Protect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shipping Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities Solutions Coastal Water Pollution Fig. 11-31, p. 263 Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Coastal Waters

59 Preventing Nonpoint Source Pollution Mostly agricultural wastes Mostly agricultural wastes Use vegetation to reduce soil erosion Use vegetation to reduce soil erosion Reduce fertilizer use Reduce fertilizer use Use plant buffer zones around fields Use plant buffer zones around fields Integrated pest management: Only use pesticides when necessary Integrated pest management: Only use pesticides when necessary Use plant buffers around animal feedlots Use plant buffers around animal feedlots Keep feedlots away from slopes, surface water and flood zones Keep feedlots away from slopes, surface water and flood zones

60 Laws for Reducing Point Source Pollution Clean Water Act Clean Water Act Water Quality Act Water Quality Act

61 Sewage Treatment Systems Sewage treatment in rural and suburban areas Sewage treatment in rural and suburban areas Septic tanks Septic tanks Primary (physical) sewage treatment Primary (physical) sewage treatment Secondary (biological) sewage treatment Secondary (biological) sewage treatment Urban sewage treatment (Clean Water Act) Urban sewage treatment (Clean Water Act) Sewage treatment facilities in many cities fail to meet federal standards Sewage treatment facilities in many cities fail to meet federal standards Bleaching and disinfection Bleaching and disinfection Disinfectants: chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet radiation Disinfectants: chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet radiation

62 Fig. 11-32, p. 264 Typical Septic Tank System Household wastewater Perforated pipe Distribution box (optional) Septic tank with manhole (for cleanout) Drain field Vent pipe Nonperforated pipe Gravel or crushed stone

63 Primary and Secondary Sewage Treatment Fig. 11-33, p. 265 Raw sewage from sewers Bar screen Grit chamberSettling tankAeration tank Settling tank Chlorine disinfection tank Sludge Sludge digester Activated sludge Air pump (kills bacteria) To river, lake, or ocean Sludge drying bed Disposed of in landfill or ocean or applied to cropland, pasture, or rangeland Primary Secondary

64 Improving Sewage Treatment Systems that exclude hazardous wastes Systems that exclude hazardous wastes Non-hazardous substitutes Non-hazardous substitutes Composting toilet systems Composting toilet systems Working with nature to treat sewage Working with nature to treat sewage Using wetlands to treat sewage Using wetlands to treat sewage

65 Ecological Wastewater Treatment Fig. 11-34, p. 265

66 Should the Clean Water Act be Strengthened? Yes: environmentalists Yes: environmentalists No: farmers, libertarians, manufacturers, and developers No: farmers, libertarians, manufacturers, and developers State and local officials want more discretion State and local officials want more discretion

67 Drinking Water Quality Purification of urban drinking water Purification of urban drinking water Purification of drinking water in developing countries Purification of drinking water in developing countries Bottled water Bottled water

68 Fig. 11-35, p. 267 Solutions Water Pollution Prevent groundwater contamination Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation Find substitutes for toxic pollutants Work with nature to treat sewage Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse) Reduce resource waste Reduce air pollution Reduce poverty Reduce birth rates Reducing Water Pollution

69 Fig. 11-36, p. 268 What Can You Do? Water Pollution Fertilize your garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer. Minimize your use of pesticides. Never apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water. Grow or buy organic foods. Compost your food wastes. Do not use water fresheners in toilets. Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet. Do not pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground. What Can We Do?


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