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Industrialization: The New Global Age

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1 Industrialization: The New Global Age
Life in the Industrial Age Nationalism Triumphs in Europe Growth of Western Democracies The New Imperialism New Global Patterns

2 Overall ideas: Events causing change
Diversity: Rulers strengthened their nations by incorporating surrounding states and colonies. Conflicts arose as new subjects, often of different ethnic backgrounds, demanded independence. Women struggled to end restrictions on their lives and gain recognition of their rights. Economics and Technology: Developing factory systems, improved transportation and communication, and scientific advances contributed to overseas expansion by European powers. Industrialized nations grew wealthy, often at the expense of colonies. Impact of the Individual: Nationalist leaders in Italy and Germany used warfare and political alliances to forge new nations out of fragmented provinces. Political and Social Systems: In the 1800’s, as the middle class grew, democratic rights were extended in Britain, France and the US. Urbanization and the impact of industrialization led to major changed in social values.

3 The Industrial Revolution Spreads
What industrial powers emerged in the 1800’s? What impact did new technology have on industry, transportation, and communication? How did natural resources and capital drive the industrial revolution/creation of big business? How did the need for large amounts of capital lead to new business methods? How did big business emerge in the late 1800’s?

4 Technology and Industry
Steel Bessemer Process purified iron and created STEEL Steel was lighter, harder, and stronger than iron Steel could be produced and transported far more cheaply than iron Countries with the ability to mass produce steel led the way Chemicals Chemicals created thousands of new products Newly developed chemical fertilizers increased food production Albert Nobel invented dynamite, used for construction and warfare Electricity A new source of power, electricity replaced steam as main power source Electric motors/machines that produce electricity revolutionized power The electric light changed how life was lived, no longer by the sun New Methods of Production Factories used larger number of workers and power driven machines to mass produce goods Interchangeable parts simplified assembly and repair. The assembly line used this power to speed production

5 New Industrial Powers New Pacesetters
Early in the Industrial Revolution, BRITAIN stood alone as the giant Britain introduced strict protections to keep that advantage Soon, other nations joined in the Industrial Revolution France, Germany and the US had greater natural resources (coal, iron, etc) Other nations used ideas created by Britain to advance their economies Germany will pass Britain in Europe and American will dominate as well

6 New Industrial Powers Uneven Development
Other nations developed more slowly Often lacked natural resources or capital to invest Russia had resources and capital but social and political conditions slowed its development Japan did develop, even though it lacked resources Canada, Australia and New Zealand also developed later

7 New Industrial Powers Impact
Social changes followed the economic changes Men, women and children worked long hours in difficult conditions Factory System created huge quantities of goods at lower prices Workers could now afford things only the wealthy had been able to buy before Huge demand for good drove the industrial revolution, created jobs, growth of cities and changed politics as well Industrialized nations competed fiercely globally, changing the patterns of trade

8 Technology Speeds Transportation and Communications
Transportation and Communications were transformed by technology Steamships & Railroads connected ports and cities, mining regions to industrial regions In the US – the transcontinental railroad connected the east and west coasts In Russia – the Trans-Siberian railroad will connect the east and the west Tunnels and bridges connect parts of the world separated by geography Automobile German inventors, N. Otto and K Benz created the first automobiles Transportation quickly transformed As vehicles became affordable, society changes as well

9 Technology Speeds Transportation and Communications
Conquest by Air Human flight was realized when the Wright brothers first flew in 1903 Quickly, planes were seen in the skies over Europe and America Passenger travel won’t come until the 1920’s Rapid Communications Sam Morse invented the telegraph (messages over a wire) Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio All three fundamentally changed how people communicated in their day

10 New Directions for Business
New technologies required huge investments of money. Owners sold “STOCK” or shares of their companies to investors Stocks are partial ownership of a company Owners received HUGE amounts of capital in exchange for giving up partial ownership Owners able to build up their companies to much larger size Rise of Big Business Big Business soon dominated industry. Giant corporations formed to raise huge capital Corporations, with money, could expand into other areas

11 New Directions for Business
Move Toward Monopolies Big Corporations created monopolies, trusts and cartels to dominate Krupp in Germany’s steel, Rockefeller in US/World oil Pursuit of profit led ruthless tactics to eliminate competition Controlled entire market, controlled the price of goods (set high)

12 New Directions for Business
Move Toward Regulation Rise of big business and the great wealth it created led to much resentment “Captains of Industry” vs. “Robber Barons” Did they use their profits for the Common Good or only for themselves Some governments moved to place rules to guard against monopolies Tried to pass laws that would protect consumers and workers In other government, business leaders blocked attempts to control them Big Business “controlled” much of the government and could stop laws meant to place limits on them

13 Looking Ahead By the late 1800’s, European and American corporations were setting up factories, refineries and other production facilities around the world. Banks were involved in this global economy as well. They invested vast sums of money in large undertakings As money flowed into undeveloped areas, western governments became increasingly involved in these areas

14 Quick Review Pair and Share: Tell a person beside you 3 technological advancements of this time. Pick the one you believe was the most important and say why What 2 things did the US, England and Germany have that made it possible for them to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution? Which of those are most important and why?

15 The World of Cities What was the impact of medical advances in the late 1800’s? How had cities changed by 1900? How did working-class struggles lead to improved conditions for workers?

16 Medicine and Population
Population in Europe doubled between 1800 and 1900 Due to decrease in death rate People ate better (better farming methods and distribution) Medical advances and improvements in public sanitation helped too Fight against disease Louis Pasteur (French) clearly showed link between microbes and disease Pasteur also developed vaccines and pasteurized milk Robert Koch (Germany) ID’d tuberculosis and a search for a cure began As people understood how germs caused diseases, they began to bath and change their clothes more often Anesthesia first used to relieve pain during surgery Florence Nightingale (British) insisted on better hygiene in hospitals Joseph Lister (British) discovered how antiseptics prevented infections

17 Medicine and Population
Life in the Cities City Planning: Parks, avenues and such were incorporated into cityscapes Urban Renewal: rebuilding of poor areas took place Settlement shifted to suburbs Paved roads and sidewalks are built Sewer systems introduced (cuts death rates dramatically) Urban life remains grim for the poor (slums, tenements) Cities drew rich and poor alike: jobs, factories Services, entertainment grew to meet the demands of the increased population

18 Working-Class Struggles
Workers protested poor working/living conditions Mutual Aid Societies: aid to sick or injured workers By late 1800’s, most western countries granted all men the right to vote Unions won the right to organize and bargain Governments began passing laws to regulate working conditions Child labor laws, work hour laws, improved safety Old age pensions, disability insurance The standard of living increased for most workers Still the gap between the rich and poor remained HUGE

19 Child Labor Children had to work Businesses used their small, quick abilities Little regard to their safety was taken

20 Student Assignment Chapter Reading: read p. 253-259
Create an information chart (minimum of 3 details per area) A New Social Order * * Middle Class Values Rights for Women Growth of Public Education New Directions in Science Darwin Challenge Religion in an Urban Age

21 Changing Attitudes and Values
What values shaped the new social order? How did women and educators seek change? How did science challenge existing beliefs? What role did religion play in urban society?

22 A New Social Order The Industrial Revolution introduced a new social order in the western world. New upper class based on money not only nobility Wealth measured by money not only land Nobles needed money to finance their businesses, the new wealthy had the money to invest Next came the business people (doctors, lawyers, scientists) Then came the lower middle class (teachers, office workers, shopkeepers)

23 Middle Class Values Middle Class Values
Strict set of ‘rules’ for behavior (adult and children) Dresses respectably Lived in homes, apartments Even a small middle class home was expected to have a cook and housemaid Courtship and Marriage: families had large say in who you married Idea of marrying for “love” just beginning to be acceptable Most women considered the practical side of choosing a mate Courting (called on, chaperoned) Providing (had to convince father that he could provide for daughter) The Ideal Home: Husband worked, provided for home Wife raised the children and ran the home, doing charity work Literature of the day pushed the “cult of domesticity” that idealized this Reality: Lower class families often the women worked to help provide Despite working for low wages, they were expected to still raise the children and run the home

24 Middle Class Values Rights for Women
Laws restricted women from many things Groups protested limits on women and pushed for fairness for women in marriage, divorce and property laws Temperance Movement: campaign to limit or ban alcohol because it was seen as a threat to the family In Europe and America, women could not vote so had no real power to make changes By late 1800’s, women had broken barriers in many colleges to become professional Elizabeth Cady Stanton: a leader in early civil rights protests Women’s Suffrage: the right to vote (political rights) supported by some, but much opposition faced Women needed to be “protected” from the dirty business of politics Women’s place is in the home not the government Women made some advancement in western nations

25 Growth of Public Education
In the late 1800’s, there was pressure on some governments to set up public schools and require basic education for all children (3R’s). The need for a literate workforce was increasing Public Education: Elementary Schools were primitive at first. Teachers had minimal education Rural schools – one room school houses or not during harvest Secondary schools began to emerge. Students learned languages, history and math Only middle class families could afford to have their sons stay in school Girls were sent to “finishing schools” to train to be better wives and mothers Higher Education Colleges expanded in this era Sons of middle and upper class families mostly Sciences were new courses of study to meet the need of industry Colleges for Women and African Americans teach to get jobs in fields they could find jobs

26 New Directions in Science
Atomic Theory John Dalton (English) developed the modern atomic theory that atoms combined to make all matter Dmitri Mendeleyev (Russian) drew up periodic table Age of the Earth Charles Lyell showed evidence earth had formed over billions of years and life did not emerge until long after the earth was formed Neanderthal man: skeleton of prehistoric man found in 1856 Despite many wrong early conclusions, new ideas about early human life emerged

27 The Darwin Challenge Charles Darwin (British – 1859) wrote “The Origin of Species” that argued all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years. Theory of Natural Selection: Most species produced more offspring than there was food to support. Only the best would survive (Natural Selection) “survival of the fittest” Darwin believed man was an example of this selection, that we descended from less highly organized form of life. All species, including humans, were still evolving. Darwin’s Theory received much heated debate. Religions quickly attacked the theory, especially the Christian religions. Social Darwinism: Many in this era believed Darwin’s Theory applied to humans too. That economics were part of this. The more “fit” would rise to the top. The lesser “fit” would wither and die. Wars brought this to nation status. The more “fit” would win wars. The less “fit” would lose and cease to be. Victory (economic or military) seen as proof of superiority. Racism was encouraged through Darwinism. The idea that one was better than another. European and American civilization believed their dominance was due to the “supremacy of the white race” These ideas will be used to justify global expansion/imperialism as well as racial discrimination and segregation

28 Religion in the Urban Age
Religion continued to be a major force in western society Churches (Christian, Jewish) remain the center of communities Religious leaders had influence politically, socially and educationally Churches led the way in providing charity to the poor Churches set up schools, hospitals, etc in urban areas European churches pushed the Social Gospel Movement which called members to serve in social service areas They campaigned for reforms in housing, health care, and education The Salvation Army spread both Christian teachings and provided social services

29 A New Culture What themes shaped romantic art, literature and music?
How did realists respond to the industrialized, urban world? How did the visual arts change?

30 Romanticism (glorified nature and sought to excite strong emotions in their audiences)
The Romantic Hero Writers of this era created a mysterious, tragic hero who did not fit into the norm of society Lord Byron Goethe Bronte’s “Jane Eyre” Romance and the Past Sir Walter Scott combined history, legend and folklore Dumas’ The Three Musketeers recreated France’s past glories Music Beethoven combined classical with stirring ranges of sound Beethoven produced dozens of pieces using many instruments Other composers used music to glorify their nation’s pasts (Chopin) Romanticism in Art Painters broke free and tried to portray the beauty and power of nature Showed everything in bright vibrant colors to evoke emotional response

31 The Call to Realism (Realism is an attempt to represent the world as it really was)
The Novel Dickens: vividly portrayed life in the slums of London and Paris (Oliver Twist) Hugo: showed how hunger drove a man to crime (Les Miserables) Zola: exposed class warfare in French mining (Germinal) Drama Ibsen: a woman caught in the day’s social rules (A Doll’s House) Ibsen: water in the local spa is polluted. Struggle of right vs. money (An Enemy of the People) Realism in Art Artists of the day focused on normal everyday people and the conditions they lived in.

32 New Direction in the Visual Arts
The Impressionists Monet and Degas used bold strokes of colors. They believed the eye would blend the image By concentrating on visual impressions rather than realism, a fresh view of familiar subjects was found The Postimpressionists Seurat (small points of color) van Gogh (sharp lines and bright colors) Gauguin (primitive folk art of Tahiti)

33 Chapter Review P.264 #11-16 Answer the questions on the back of the “A New Culture” handout You may work together but each needs to turn in the assignment

34 Review Vocabulary: (matching: some or all will be used)
Assembly Line Romanticism Cartel Social Gospel Corporation Standard of Living Cult of Domesticity Temperance Movement Realism Urban Renewal Essays: (Do 2 of the 3 essays) 1) How did the lives of women change as a result of the Industrial Revolution? How about for children? 2) Name 3 technologies that made the Industrial Revolution possible and explain HOW these technologies changed things. 3) How businesses were owned and operated changed during the Industrial Revolution. Explain this change.

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