Presentation on theme: "Industrialization: The New Global Age"— Presentation transcript:
1Industrialization: The New Global Age Life in the Industrial AgeNationalism Triumphs in EuropeGrowth of Western DemocraciesThe New ImperialismNew Global Patterns
2Overall ideas: Events causing change Diversity: Rulers strengthened their nations by incorporating surrounding states and colonies. Conflicts arose as new subjects, often of different ethnic backgrounds, demanded independence. Women struggled to end restrictions on their lives and gain recognition of their rights.Economics and Technology: Developing factory systems, improved transportation and communication, and scientific advances contributed to overseas expansion by European powers. Industrialized nations grew wealthy, often at the expense of colonies.Impact of the Individual: Nationalist leaders in Italy and Germany used warfare and political alliances to forge new nations out of fragmented provinces.Political and Social Systems: In the 1800’s, as the middle class grew, democratic rights were extended in Britain, France and the US. Urbanization and the impact of industrialization led to major changed in social values.
3The Industrial Revolution Spreads What industrial powers emerged in the 1800’s?What impact did new technology have on industry, transportation, and communication?How did natural resources and capital drive the industrial revolution/creation of big business?How did the need for large amounts of capital lead to new business methods?How did big business emerge in the late 1800’s?
4Technology and Industry SteelBessemer Process purified iron and created STEELSteel was lighter, harder, and stronger than ironSteel could be produced and transported far more cheaply than ironCountries with the ability to mass produce steel led the wayChemicalsChemicals created thousands of new productsNewly developed chemical fertilizers increased food productionAlbert Nobel invented dynamite, used for construction and warfareElectricityA new source of power, electricity replaced steam as main power sourceElectric motors/machines that produce electricity revolutionized powerThe electric light changed how life was lived, no longer by the sunNew Methods of ProductionFactories used larger number of workers and power driven machines to mass produce goodsInterchangeable parts simplified assembly and repair.The assembly line used this power to speed production
5New Industrial Powers New Pacesetters Early in the Industrial Revolution, BRITAIN stood alone as the giantBritain introduced strict protections to keep that advantageSoon, other nations joined in the Industrial RevolutionFrance, Germany and the US had greater natural resources (coal, iron, etc)Other nations used ideas created by Britain to advance their economiesGermany will pass Britain in Europe and American will dominate as well
6New Industrial Powers Uneven Development Other nations developed more slowlyOften lacked natural resources or capital to investRussia had resources and capital but social and political conditions slowed its developmentJapan did develop, even though it lacked resourcesCanada, Australia and New Zealand also developed later
7New Industrial Powers Impact Social changes followed the economic changesMen, women and children worked long hours in difficult conditionsFactory System created huge quantities of goods at lower pricesWorkers could now afford things only the wealthy had been able to buy beforeHuge demand for good drove the industrial revolution, created jobs, growth of cities and changed politics as wellIndustrialized nations competed fiercely globally, changing the patterns of trade
8Technology Speeds Transportation and Communications Transportation and Communications were transformed by technologySteamships & Railroads connected ports and cities, mining regions to industrial regionsIn the US – the transcontinental railroad connected the east and west coastsIn Russia – the Trans-Siberian railroad will connect the east and the westTunnels and bridges connect parts of the world separated by geographyAutomobileGerman inventors, N. Otto and K Benz created the first automobilesTransportation quickly transformedAs vehicles became affordable, society changes as well
9Technology Speeds Transportation and Communications Conquest by AirHuman flight was realized when the Wright brothers first flew in 1903Quickly, planes were seen in the skies over Europe and AmericaPassenger travel won’t come until the 1920’sRapid CommunicationsSam Morse invented the telegraph (messages over a wire)Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephoneGuglielmo Marconi invented the radioAll three fundamentally changed how people communicated in their day
10New Directions for Business New technologies required huge investments of money.Owners sold “STOCK” or shares of their companies to investorsStocks are partial ownership of a companyOwners received HUGE amounts of capital in exchange for giving up partial ownershipOwners able to build up their companies to much larger sizeRise of Big BusinessBig Business soon dominated industry.Giant corporations formed to raise huge capitalCorporations, with money, could expand into other areas
11New Directions for Business Move Toward MonopoliesBig Corporations created monopolies, trusts and cartels to dominateKrupp in Germany’s steel, Rockefeller in US/World oilPursuit of profit led ruthless tactics to eliminate competitionControlled entire market, controlled the price of goods (set high)
12New Directions for Business Move Toward RegulationRise of big business and the great wealth it created led to much resentment“Captains of Industry” vs. “Robber Barons”Did they use their profits for the Common Good or only for themselvesSome governments moved to place rules to guard against monopoliesTried to pass laws that would protect consumers and workersIn other government, business leaders blocked attempts to control themBig Business “controlled” much of the government and could stop laws meant to place limits on them
13Looking AheadBy the late 1800’s, European and American corporations were setting up factories, refineries and other production facilities around the world.Banks were involved in this global economy as well. They invested vast sums of money in large undertakingsAs money flowed into undeveloped areas, western governments became increasingly involved in these areas
14Quick ReviewPair and Share: Tell a person beside you 3 technological advancements of this time. Pick the one you believe was the most important and say whyWhat 2 things did the US, England and Germany have that made it possible for them to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution? Which of those are most important and why?
15The World of CitiesWhat was the impact of medical advances in the late 1800’s?How had cities changed by 1900?How did working-class struggles lead to improved conditions for workers?
16Medicine and Population Population in Europe doubled between 1800 and 1900Due to decrease in death ratePeople ate better (better farming methods and distribution)Medical advances and improvements in public sanitation helped tooFight against diseaseLouis Pasteur (French) clearly showed link between microbes and diseasePasteur also developed vaccines and pasteurized milkRobert Koch (Germany) ID’d tuberculosis and a search for a cure beganAs people understood how germs caused diseases, they began to bath and change their clothes more oftenAnesthesia first used to relieve pain during surgeryFlorence Nightingale (British) insisted on better hygiene in hospitalsJoseph Lister (British) discovered how antiseptics prevented infections
17Medicine and Population Life in the CitiesCity Planning: Parks, avenues and such were incorporated into cityscapesUrban Renewal: rebuilding of poor areas took placeSettlement shifted to suburbsPaved roads and sidewalks are builtSewer systems introduced (cuts death rates dramatically)Urban life remains grim for the poor (slums, tenements)Cities drew rich and poor alike: jobs, factoriesServices, entertainment grew to meet the demands of the increased population
18Working-Class Struggles Workers protested poor working/living conditionsMutual Aid Societies: aid to sick or injured workersBy late 1800’s, most western countries granted all men the right to voteUnions won the right to organize and bargainGovernments began passing laws to regulate working conditionsChild labor laws, work hour laws, improved safetyOld age pensions, disability insuranceThe standard of living increased for most workersStill the gap between the rich and poorremained HUGE
19Child LaborChildren had to work Businesses used their small, quick abilities Little regard to their safety was taken
20Student Assignment Chapter Reading: read p. 253-259 Create an information chart (minimum of 3 details per area)A New Social Order **Middle Class ValuesRights for WomenGrowth of Public EducationNew Directions in ScienceDarwin ChallengeReligion in an Urban Age
21Changing Attitudes and Values What values shaped the new social order?How did women and educators seek change?How did science challenge existing beliefs?What role did religion play in urban society?
22A New Social OrderThe Industrial Revolution introduced a new social order in the western world. New upper class based on money not only nobilityWealth measured by money not only landNobles needed money to finance their businesses, the new wealthy had the money to investNext came the business people (doctors, lawyers, scientists)Then came the lower middle class (teachers, office workers, shopkeepers)
23Middle Class Values Middle Class Values Strict set of ‘rules’ for behavior (adult and children)Dresses respectablyLived in homes, apartmentsEven a small middle class home was expected to have a cook and housemaidCourtship and Marriage: families had large say in who you marriedIdea of marrying for “love” just beginning to be acceptableMost women considered the practical side of choosing a mateCourting (called on, chaperoned)Providing (had to convince father that he could provide for daughter)The Ideal Home: Husband worked, provided for homeWife raised the children and ran the home, doing charity workLiterature of the day pushed the “cult of domesticity” that idealized thisReality: Lower class families often the women worked to help provideDespite working for low wages, they were expected to still raise the children and run the home
24Middle Class Values Rights for Women Laws restricted women from many thingsGroups protested limits on women and pushed for fairness for women in marriage, divorce and property lawsTemperance Movement: campaign to limit or ban alcohol because it was seen as a threat to the familyIn Europe and America, women could not vote so had no real power to make changesBy late 1800’s, women had broken barriers in many colleges to become professionalElizabeth Cady Stanton: a leader in early civil rights protestsWomen’s Suffrage: the right to vote (political rights) supported by some, but much opposition facedWomen needed to be “protected” from the dirty business of politicsWomen’s place is in the home not the governmentWomen made some advancement in western nations
25Growth of Public Education In the late 1800’s, there was pressure on some governments to set up public schools and require basic education for all children (3R’s). The need for a literate workforce was increasingPublic Education:Elementary Schools were primitive at first.Teachers had minimal educationRural schools – one room school houses or not during harvestSecondary schools began to emerge. Students learned languages, history and mathOnly middle class families could afford to have their sons stay in schoolGirls were sent to “finishing schools” to train to be better wives and mothersHigher EducationColleges expanded in this eraSons of middle and upper class families mostlySciences were new courses of study to meet the need of industryColleges for Women and African Americans teach to get jobs in fields they could find jobs
26New Directions in Science Atomic TheoryJohn Dalton (English) developed the modern atomic theory that atoms combined to make all matterDmitri Mendeleyev (Russian) drew up periodic tableAge of the EarthCharles Lyell showed evidence earth had formed over billions of years and life did not emerge until long after the earth was formedNeanderthal man: skeleton of prehistoric man found in 1856Despite many wrong early conclusions, new ideas about early human life emerged
27The Darwin ChallengeCharles Darwin (British – 1859) wrote “The Origin of Species” that argued all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years.Theory of Natural Selection: Most species produced more offspring than there was food to support. Only the best would survive (Natural Selection) “survival of the fittest”Darwin believed man was an example of this selection, that we descended from less highly organized form of life. All species, including humans, were still evolving.Darwin’s Theory received much heated debate. Religions quickly attacked the theory, especially the Christian religions.Social Darwinism: Many in this era believed Darwin’s Theory applied to humans too. That economics were part of this. The more “fit” would rise to the top. The lesser “fit” would wither and die. Wars brought this to nation status. The more “fit” would win wars. The less “fit” would lose and cease to be. Victory (economic or military) seen as proof of superiority.Racism was encouraged through Darwinism. The idea that one was better than another. European and American civilization believed their dominance was due to the “supremacy of the white race”These ideas will be used to justify global expansion/imperialism as well as racial discrimination and segregation
28Religion in the Urban Age Religion continued to be a major force in western societyChurches (Christian, Jewish) remain the center of communitiesReligious leaders had influence politically, socially and educationallyChurches led the way in providing charity to the poorChurches set up schools, hospitals, etc in urban areasEuropean churches pushed the Social Gospel Movement which called members to serve in social service areasThey campaigned for reforms in housing, health care, and educationThe Salvation Army spread both Christian teachings and provided social services
29A New Culture What themes shaped romantic art, literature and music? How did realists respond to the industrialized, urban world?How did the visual arts change?
30Romanticism (glorified nature and sought to excite strong emotions in their audiences) The Romantic HeroWriters of this era created a mysterious, tragic hero who did not fit into the norm of societyLord ByronGoetheBronte’s “Jane Eyre”Romance and the PastSir Walter Scott combined history, legend and folkloreDumas’ The Three Musketeers recreated France’s past gloriesMusicBeethoven combined classical with stirring ranges of soundBeethoven produced dozens of pieces using many instrumentsOther composers used music to glorify their nation’s pasts (Chopin)Romanticism in ArtPainters broke free and tried to portray the beauty and power of natureShowed everything in bright vibrant colors to evoke emotional response
31The Call to Realism (Realism is an attempt to represent the world as it really was) The NovelDickens: vividly portrayed life in the slums of London and Paris (Oliver Twist)Hugo: showed how hunger drove a man to crime (Les Miserables)Zola: exposed class warfare in French mining (Germinal)DramaIbsen: a woman caught in the day’s social rules (A Doll’s House)Ibsen: water in the local spa is polluted. Struggle of right vs. money (An Enemy of the People)Realism in ArtArtists of the day focused on normal everyday people and the conditions they lived in.
32New Direction in the Visual Arts The ImpressionistsMonet and Degas used bold strokes of colors. They believed the eye would blend the imageBy concentrating on visual impressions rather than realism, a fresh view of familiar subjects was foundThe PostimpressionistsSeurat (small points of color)van Gogh (sharp lines and bright colors)Gauguin (primitive folk art of Tahiti)
33Chapter ReviewP.264 #11-16Answer the questions on the back of the “A New Culture” handoutYou may work together but each needs to turn in the assignment
34Review Vocabulary: (matching: some or all will be used) Assembly Line RomanticismCartel Social GospelCorporation Standard of LivingCult of Domesticity Temperance MovementRealism Urban RenewalEssays: (Do 2 of the 3 essays)1) How did the lives of women change as a result of theIndustrial Revolution? How about for children?2) Name 3 technologies that made the Industrial Revolutionpossible and explain HOW these technologies changedthings.3) How businesses were owned and operated changedduring the Industrial Revolution. Explain this change.