2Setting the SceneThe demand for women’s rights is an issue challenging the traditional social order in the late 1800’s.
3A new Social OrderThe Industrial Revolution slowly changed the old social order in the western world.For centuries the two main classes were nobles and peasants but with the spread of industry a more complex social structure emerged.The upper class consisted of the top jobs in government and the military.Below was a growing middle class which included doctors, scientists, lawyers, teachers, office workers, shopkeepers and clerks.At the bottom of the social ladder were workers and peasants which made up about 30% of the population.
4Middle Class ValuesBy mid-century modern middle class developed its own way of life.Before rules dictated how people would dress and act on every occasion and parents strictly supervised children.Courtship and MarriageIn the past middle class families had a large say in whom their children married but the freedom to choose a marriage partner was more accepted than before.The Ideal HomeWithin the family circle, the division of labor between wife and husband changed.By the later 1800s most middle class husbands went to work and was successful if his income was enough to keep his wife at home.
5Middle class values (CONT) Books, magazines, and popular songs supported a cult of domesticity that idealized women and the home.Sayings like “home, sweet home” were stitched into needlework and hung on walls to.
6Rights For WomenSome individual women and women’s groups protested restrictions on women.Across Europe and the United States politically active women campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws.Women’s groups also supported the temperance movement a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.
7The Suffrage StruggleBy the late 1800s, married women in some countries had won the right control their own property.In the United States, the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 demanded that women be granted the right to vote.In Europe, groups dedicated to women’s suffrage, or women’s right to vote, emerged in the late 1800s.Critics claimed that women were too emotional to be allowed to vote and others though a woman’s place is the home not in government.In New Zealand, Australia, and some western territories of the United States, women won the vote before the 1900s.However the suffrage struggle continued through World War I.
8Growth of Public Education By the late 1800s reformers persuaded many governments to set up public schools to teach the three R’s, reading, writing, arithmetic.Elementary education improved and more high schools and secondary schools started for the middle class families.Colleges and universities expanded in this period too and most students were the sons of middle to upper class families.
9New Directions in Science Science in the service of industry brought great changes in the later 1800s.At the same time new ideas challenged long-held beliefs of startling theories about the natural world.A breakthrough in chemistry came in the early 1800s when English Quaker schoolteacher John Dalton developed modern atomic theory.Ancient Greeks speculated that matter was made of atoms and Dalton showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make substances.In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev drew up a table that grouped elements according to their atomic weights (the periodic table).
10The Age of the Earth A new science of geology opened debate. In Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell offered evidence to show that the Earth had formed over millions of years.His successors concluded that the Earth was at least two billion years old and that life had not appeared until long after Earth was formed.The ideas did not agree with biblical accounts.
11The Darwin ChallengeThe biggest idea came from the British naturalist Charles Darwin.Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years and put his theory of natural selection forward.Darwin argued that natural selection was known as the survival of the fittest.Darwin’s theory ignited a furious debate between scientists and theologians and to many Christians the bible contained the only true account of creation.Social Darwinism encouraged racism, the belief that one racial group is superior to another.
12Religion in an Urban Age Despite the challenge of new ideas, religion continued to be a major force in western society.Religious leaders influenced political, social, and educational developments.In Europe and the United States, many Protestant churches backed the social gospel, a movement that urged Christians to social services.The Salvation Army was set up in London by William and Catherine booth and it provided social services.
13Vocab Cult of Domesticity- idealized women and the home. Temperance Movement- women’s right to vote.Racism- the belief that one racial group is superior to another.Social Gospel- a movement that urged Christians to social services.John Dalton- Quaker school teacher that came up with the atomic theory.Charles Lyell- Wrote Principles of Geology and offered evidence to show that the Earth had formed over millions of years.Charles Darwin- English naturalist endorsed evolution and came up with Natural Selection or [survival of the fittest].Evangeline Booth- Salvation Army Set up by William and Catherine Booth it spread Christian teachings and provided social services.
14QuestionsWhat social group grew fastest during the Industrial Revolution? ---- The middle class.What was most highly regarded by the middle class? HONESTY, GENEROSITY, INDIVIDUALITY, or RESPECTABILITY.----- Respectability.Why did Darwin’s theory cause controversy? and How did Darwin view how life came about? It did not agree with the biblical idea. Darwin believed in evolution.