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J.S. 9-3 pp. 253-259 CHANGING ATTITUDES AND VALUES.

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Presentation on theme: "J.S. 9-3 pp. 253-259 CHANGING ATTITUDES AND VALUES."— Presentation transcript:

1 J.S. 9-3 pp CHANGING ATTITUDES AND VALUES

2  The demand for women’s rights is an issue challenging the traditional social order in the late 1800’s. SETTING THE SCENE

3  The Industrial Revolution slowly changed the old social order in the western world.  For centuries the two main classes were nobles and peasants but with the spread of industry a more complex social structure emerged.  The upper class consisted of the top jobs in government and the military.  Below was a growing middle class which included doctors, scientists, lawyers, teachers, office workers, shopkeepers and clerks.  At the bottom of the social ladder were workers and peasants which made up about 30% of the population. A NEW SOCIAL ORDER

4  By mid-century modern middle class developed its own way of life.  Before rules dictated how people would dress and act on every occasion and parents strictly supervised children.  Courtship and Marriage  In the past middle class families had a large say in whom their children married but the freedom to choose a marriage partner was more accepted than before.  The Ideal Home  Within the family circle, the division of labor between wife and husband changed.  By the later 1800s most middle class husbands went to work and was successful if his income was enough to keep his wife at home. MIDDLE CLASS VALUES

5  Books, magazines, and popular songs supported a cult of domesticity that idealized women and the home.  Sayings like “home, sweet home” were stitched into needlework and hung on walls to. MIDDLE CLASS VALUES (CONT)

6  Some individual women and women’s groups protested restrictions on women.  Across Europe and the United States politically active women campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws.  Women’s groups also supported the temperance movement a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages. RIGHTS FOR WOMEN

7  By the late 1800s, married women in some countries had won the right control their own property.  In the United States, the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 demanded that women be granted the right to vote.  In Europe, groups dedicated to women’s suffrage, or women’s right to vote, emerged in the late 1800s.  Critics claimed that women were too emotional to be allowed to vote and others though a woman’s place is the home not in government.  In New Zealand, Australia, and some western territories of the United States, women won the vote before the 1900s.  However the suffrage struggle continued through World War I. THE SUFFRAGE STRUGGLE

8  By the late 1800s reformers persuaded many governments to set up public schools to teach the three R’s, reading, writing, arithmetic.  Elementary education improved and more high schools and secondary schools started for the middle class families.  Colleges and universities expanded in this period too and most students were the sons of middle to upper class families. GROWTH OF PUBLIC EDUCATION

9  Science in the service of industry brought great changes in the later 1800s.  At the same time new ideas challenged long-held beliefs of startling theories about the natural world.  A breakthrough in chemistry came in the early 1800s when English Quaker schoolteacher John Dalton developed modern atomic theory.  Ancient Greeks speculated that matter was made of atoms and Dalton showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make substances.  In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev drew up a table that grouped elements according to their atomic weights (the periodic table). NEW DIRECTIONS IN SCIENCE

10  A new science of geology opened debate.  In Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell offered evidence to show that the Earth had formed over millions of years.  His successors concluded that the Earth was at least two billion years old and that life had not appeared until long after Earth was formed.  The ideas did not agree with biblical accounts. THE AGE OF THE EARTH

11  The biggest idea came from the British naturalist Charles Darwin.  Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years and put his theory of natural selection forward.  Darwin argued that natural selection was known as the survival of the fittest.  Darwin’s theory ignited a furious debate between scientists and theologians and to many Christians the bible contained the only true account of creation.  Social Darwinism encouraged racism, the belief that one racial group is superior to another. THE DARWIN CHALLENGE

12  Despite the challenge of new ideas, religion continued to be a major force in western society.  Religious leaders influenced political, social, and educational developments.  In Europe and the United States, many Protestant churches backed the social gospel, a movement that urged Christians to social services.  The Salvation Army was set up in London by William and Catherine booth and it provided social services. RELIGION IN AN URBAN AGE

13  Cult of Domesticity- idealized women and the home.  Temperance Movement- women’s right to vote.  Racism- the belief that one racial group is superior to another.  Social Gospel- a movement that urged Christians to social services.  John Dalton- Quaker school teacher that came up with the atomic theory.  Charles Lyell- Wrote Principles of Geology and offered evidence to show that the Earth had formed over millions of years.  Charles Darwin- English naturalist endorsed evolution and came up with Natural Selection or [survival of the fittest].  Evangeline Booth- Salvation Army Set up by William and Catherine Booth it spread Christian teachings and provided social services. VOCAB

14  What social group grew fastest during the Industrial Revolution? ---- The middle class.  What was most highly regarded by the middle class? HONESTY, GENEROSITY, INDIVIDUALITY, or RESPECTABILITY Respectability.  Why did Darwin’s theory cause controversy? and How did Darwin view how life came about? It did not agree with the biblical idea. Darwin believed in evolution. QUESTIONS


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