Presentation on theme: "Ancient Peoples and Places"— Presentation transcript:
1Ancient Peoples and Places Archaeology 100-D200Ancient Peoples and PlacesArchaeology and the Study of Prehistory…Week 3: HUMAN EVOLUTION January 23 &Dr. Alvaro Higueras Simon Fraser University, Spring 2012
23. Division of the Lithic age : Paleo, Meso and Neo 1. Lyell & Stratigraphy2. The Three Age System3. Division of the Lithic age : Paleo, Meso and Neo4. Childe & The Neolithic Revolution 5. Childe & The Urban Revolution> permanent settlement before agriculture6. Radiocarbon dating7. HR 1 : “the human animal”8. The New Archaeology
39. Predatory R : food-gatherers to food-collectors 10. Broad Spectrum R: climate improves11. HR 2 : HG improve tech and master their landscape; “the original affluent society”12. Secondary Products R : renewable…13. Upper Paleolithic R : explosion of technological changes14. The HR 3: geneculture interaction among anatomically modern15. The “Quiet revolution”
4> Recent claims of butchery and meat eating. The evolution of the human species and the first evidence for “culture”Hunter-gathering populations: societies at the start of the path of an ever-increasing path towards complexity.Early start: Lucy (3.2 ma, Australopithecus afarensis) is considered an important example in the start of the trend of cultural behavior> Recent claims of butchery and meat eating.> Behavior that is directed by rationality, intentionality, sociability and logic of survival
5ArdipithecusEarly hominin, discovered 1992Lived approximately 4.5 m.y.aPartial female skeleton foundHad combined ability to walk and climbing in treesForces paleoanthropologists to reconsider the adaptations of the earliest members of the hominin lineage
6Were Early Hominins Hunters? Early views held that australopithecines were intensive huntersArchaeologists began to question this view in the 1970sIt is difficult to prove archaeologically whether early hominins were hunters or scavengersHominin tools are found in association with many bonesThese bones exhibit cut marks from tools and bite marks from carnivoresThe question is which came first to the kills: the carnivores or the hominins?
10The Origin of Tool Use: Archaeological Evidence The oldest known stone tools date to 2.5 million years agoHadar region of Ethiopia (approx 3000 stone tools were recovered)The major types of tools are sharp-edged flakes and cores, including choppersStone tools from Lokalalei, Kenya date to 2.3 million years ago (approx 2000 stone flakes and cores were recoveredThese tools indicate that early tool manufacture followed a consistent strategy
11Lower Paleolithic industries The Oldowan : 3.5 – 1.5 myaThe chopperMake a chopper by taking a rounded stone and striking flakes off one edgeThe Acheulian : 1.7 mya – 400/200 kyaAcheulian sites found throughout Africa and in Europe, the Middle East, and IndiaAcheulian appears at the same time as the emergence of Homo erectus and extinction of Homo habilis …. But overlap is for sure.Characteristic stone tool is the bifacial hand axe (symmetrical!)
13What is a hominin?The group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors Homo species (Homo sapiens, Habilis, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis), all of the Australopithecines (Australopithicus africanus, A. boisei, etc.) and other ancient forms like Paranthropus and ArdipithecusWhat is a hominid?The group consisting of all modern and extinct Great Apes (that is, modern humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans plus all their immediate ancestors).
15Hominin Living Floors and Base Camps The home-base/food-sharing model (Isaac) sees sharing of meat at base camps as a fundamental part of early hominin lifeAccording to this model, hominins created places on the landscape to which meat was brought for sharing among members of a communityThe stone circle at DK site in Olduvai Gorge may be evidence of a structure build on a home-base site“Palimpsest”
16On terminologyPalimpsest : an archaeological site produced by a series of distinct, brief occupationsA manuscript from a scroll or book (usually written on papyrus or parchment) on which more than one text has been written, with the earlier writing incompletely erased and still visible; it may have been scraped off and used again.French prehistorians use the “delayering” (décapage) technique to be able to document such precise changes in occupation.
17The use of FireVery little evidence for controlled use of fire from Oldowan and Acheulian sites in Africa.Tentative evidence for the use of fire by early hominins dates to 1.4 million years ago in Kenya at the site of Chesowanja.The burnt clay at the site may be from a hearth or the result of natural fires.Hard evidence that early hominins used fire has not been found to date.
18Laetoli (Tanzania, ca. 3.5 mya) Footprints preserved in powdery volcanic ashDemonstrate that hominids walked upright (bipedalism). They show an arch (the bending of the sole of the foot) typical of modern humans.Other prints show the presence of twenty other animal species, among them elephants, hyenas, wild cats, baboons.No artefacts have been found in the vicinity.
21Human populations: Migrations out of Africa DNA analysis suggests that entire population of the world can be traced to a single African lineage (Africa has greatest genetic diversity)Two phases of migrations:1. Homo erectus goes for a stroll through Sinai ca. 1 mya.2. A modern Homo (sapiens) strolls out of Africa ca, 100 kya.Molecular clock (measures the degree of genetic similarity) places “Eve” at ca kya in the 2nd wave.First, hominins populate the world (E&A). Later, modern human species replaces all hominins of the 1st wave (without significant interbreeding?)
22Multi-regional ModelModern humans evolved independently from archaic H. sapiens in Asia, Europe and Africa.Supported by the fossil evidence from several regions which show physical characteristics distinct to each area from H. erectus to modern populations.No speciation - Interbreeding possible, between existing pre-modern humans with anatomically modern humans – if they ever happened to meet.Evidence from Java casts doubt on this model: H. erectus dating to kya suggesting they overlapped with modern humans.22
25African Replacement (Out of Africa theory, OoA) Anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa relatively recently (100 kya to 200 kya, Molecular clock )Then migrated out of Africa about 60 to 80 kya years ago and replaced all pre-existing populations of humans, including the favorite "cave man" the Neanderthal (Europe & Near East)Modern humans evolved from the population which never left Africa when the earlier versions of humans did (Erectus in the 1st wave) and only left Africa laterSpeciation? (ramification of species?)
28Modern humans did not expand beyond the Middle East before 80 – 60 kya Modern humans did not expand beyond the Middle East before 80 – 60 kya
29> Modern humans evolved in Africa (100-200 kya) > Migrated out of Africa about kya (2nd wave)> Replaced all pre-existing populations of humans (of the 1st wave…including the Neanderthal that evolved from that wave)> Including Neanderthal, but N remains in “pockets” & has episodes of inbreeding with new arrivals
31The Neanderthals Europe and Near East 130,000 – 35,000 BP Enjoy the benefits of the Wurm Glacial retreatKafzeh, Israel: modern humans at 90 kya, Neanderthals at 60 kyaModern humans in Africa 200 kya, Asia 100 kyaAre Neanderthals a direct ancestor to modern humans?H. sapiens neandertalensis (Amud 2)31
32prepared, disc-shaped cores caves and fire Mousterian Toolsadvanced flake tools (scrapers, hand-axes, bifacial points, borers, burins)prepared, disc-shaped corescaves and firependants – symbolic thought?32
33Neanderthal burial La Ferrassie, France, 60,000 BP Shanidar, Iraq Krapina, CroatiaQafzeh, BPFlowers and grave offeringsCranial deformation? (Eric Trinkhaus - Shanidar cave)Bear cults? Animism, Totemism?Ritual cannibalism?33
34Cannibalism > Stone flint knife cut marks on the back of skulls. > Scattered and fragmented skulls found at this site were victims of cannibalism.> Bone assemblages with high degrees of fragmentation, cut marks and bone splitting.> To others these marks were ceremonial having to do with mortuary practices: defleshed and then buried.> Where the braincases were shattered the brains were supposedly extracted and separately buried.> Eating? Good protein source.> Modern bias to insist that cannibalism isn't part of human nature. “Good" reasons—whether to terrorize subject peoples, limit their neighbors' offspring, or for religious or medicinal purposes…Cannibalism could have been an adaptive strategy.
35Disappear “abruptly” 40-35 kya But coexistence with HS Fate of NeanderthalsDisappear “abruptly” kyaBut coexistence with HSOr in “refugia”, inbreedingHave little similarities to modern morphologyDNA supports OoA model, N were in Europe and Asia before 100 kya, evolving from Homo Erectus(Chazan 3 scenarios table, p.155)Transitional industriesChatelperronian tools, contact with HS?St. Cesaire, France, 35,000 BP35
36No modern human traits in late Neanderthal populations in Europe — N not a precursor — supports the Out of Africa position Neanderthals have been found dating to as recent as 36,000 years ago with no modern features — problematic for the Multiregional position Persistence of Neanderthal traits until the arrival of modern humans — predicted by the Hybridization position – so OoA models kicks in… But… Neanderthal DNA in modern humans
37Our Neanderthal ancestors - FRANCE 24 VideoOur Neanderthal ancestors - FRANCE 24
38LA Times - Another source: http://tinyurl.com/3ygqauq
39Small amounts of Homo erectus DNA in modern human? Just like Neanderthal DNA? Debate.The Homo erectus as a species was present for over 1.2 million years. Most evidence from Asia. In this region, population affected some 70 to 50 kya during the Toba catastrophe: a volcano mega-eruption that generated a 6 to 10-year volcanic winter that dramatically changed the living conditions on earth for a millennium.The intermixing of Homo erectus and very early Homo sapiens could have only occurred in Asia before this event took place.
402003 Homo floresiensis, a possible species, now extinct, in the genus Homo. Partial skeletons and skull of nine individuals. A small body and brain. In a context with stone tools from industries from kya.The species is thought to have survived on Flores at least until 12,000 years before present, making it the longest lasting non-modern human, surviving long past the Neanderthals.2010 Denisov
43The Middle East at the crossroads Where Neanderthals and Modern Humans coexisted evolved in parallel with modern humans…with some interbreeding Physical differences were maintained…bones of both clearly different in caves and successive occupations They were for a long time neighbors… warring… mating…
45The two groups evolved, they developed similar skills and behavioral characteristics: they hunted a variety of game with sophisticated tools, used fire for multiple purposes, organized living quarters, buried their dead, created art, and worshiped symbolic objects.Neanderthals became extinct in the Middle East around 40,000 years ago (a bit later in Europe in some pockets, SW France).
46We love the Upper Paleolithic Número 14The Human Revolution III (ca. 100,000-50,000 B.P.)Dramatic social change not simply to the proliferation of innovations or ideas, but to the spread of genetically and anatomically modern human populations.Are biological and genetic changes revolutionary in the same way that social, political, and technological ones are? (how fast?)Are archaeological revolutions abrupt and irreversible breaks with the past, or the culminations of long-term processes?We love the Upper Paleolithic
47The Magdalenian in the UP > The big leap in extra technological achievements> Underlined in HR 2 & HR 3> Lithic technologies evolve radically, at the hands of Modern humans in SW France – very specialized tools & microliths> Exactly in the same region with a strong presence, yet already extinct, of Neanderthals> Interpreting art & views of the world
48The Magdalenian in the UP > Fertility cults, “Venus” figurines > Their world in motion, celebrating their landscapemagic and premonitions / hunting and strategy> Representing the fauna
50Mock QuizQ1As we deal with the evolution of human societies, a few sequences for its stages have been proposed, beyond the old Savagery-Barbarism-Civilization by Morgan.Bands – Tribes – Chiefdom – Empire - State.b. Bands – Tribes – Chiefdom - State.c. Tribes – Bands – Chiefdom – Empire - State.d. Bands – Tribes – State – Chiefdom.e. None of the above.Variations to this question > combine attributes (e.g. Bands>Hunting…. State>Agriculture).
51Mock QuizQ2The goal of postprocessual archaeology is toa. Formulate general laws governing human behavior.b. Offer interpretations based on contextual data.c. Write culture history.d. Test hypotheses.e. All of the above.
52Mock QuizQ3The importance of the actions of the individual living in past society is stressed ina. Lewis Binford's writings.b. A gendered approach.c. A scientific approach.d. Processual archaeology.e. Agency theory.
53Mock QuizQ4For archaeology to be considered a science it must work by ________ from general laws and models.a. drawingb. inferencec. inspirationd. deductione. induction
54Mock QuizQ5The law of superposition states thatsediments will be deposited in horizontal layers.in any undisturbed sedimentary deposits, each layer is younger than the layer beneath it.in any undisturbed sedimentary deposits, each layer is older than the layer beneath it.sediments are deposited in continuous layers.the uppermost sediments are the most important for archaeological analysis.