2 Time-Line of Hominid Evolution: 5 Adaptive Radiations First Adaptive Radiation: 6-7 mya in the late Miocene, potential last common ancestorsSecond Adaptive Radiation: 4-5 mya in early Pliocene, first true hominidsThird Adaptive Radiation: 3-4 mya in middle Pliocene, more hominidsFourth Adaptive Radiation: 2-3 mya in late Pliocene, more & “robust” hominidsFifth Adaptive Radiation: mya in late Pliocene & early ice age, genus Homo
3 Rise of the genus HomoEarliest fossils from same African sites as AustralopithecinesMost date between 2.4 and 1.8 myaHomo habilis means “handy man”Growing consensus that there may have been 2 or more species of Homo living at the same time by about 2 mya
4 6 SPECIES OF GENUS HOMOHomo habilisHomo ergasterHomo erectusHomo antecessor (“archaic” Homo sapiens)Homo heidelbergensis (“archaic” Homo sapiens)Homo neanderthalensis
9 Homo habilis at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Skeletal remains discovered at Olduvai Gorge in 1986 by Don Johanson revealed limb sizes and proportions nearly identical to australopithecinesBrain size & face showed advances towards more human-like form
17 Archaic Homo sapiensHominids with larger brains & more modern cranial features than classic H. erectusRecently divided into Homo antecessor & heidelbergensisTaxonomy is problematic: some fossils could be H. erectus, others could be direct ancestors of later Neanderthals or pre-modern forms of H. sapiensAFRICAN ARCHAICSKabwe, ZambiaBodo, EthiopiaEUROPEAN ARCHAICSArago, FrancePetroloma, Greece
18 4. Homo antecessor780,000 yaGran Dolina, Spain (oldest fossil humans in EU!)Increased Brain Size (1000 ml)Direct ancestor of H. heidelbergensis & H. neanderthalensis (?)
19 Homo antecessorMixture of "archaic" and "modern" traits, with especially modern-looking mid-faceOther features are not unique & could be considered a form of European H. erectus
20 5. Homo heidelbergensis130,000 ya – 700,000 yaGermany, China, Ethiopia, Greece, Hungary, Zambia, etc. (p.289)Increased Brain Size ( ml)“Prepared Core” tools, wooden spears, dealt with changing environments
21 The Steinheim CraniumThe Steinheim specimen excavated in the 1930s from Germany1st archaic cranium discovered in Europe
30 Out of Africa (Single Region) About 130,000 years ago, the first anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved in East Africa (probably from H. erectus)then migrated out of Africa to Europe, Asia, and the rest of the world.At this point, H. sapiens may have interbred with or out-competed other existing species, such as H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis.
32 Multiregional Hypothesis 1.8 mya, Homo erectus evolved in East Africa and then began to migrate to Europe and Asia (due to lack of water and shelter)A very successful species, H. erectus survived until 33,000 years ago! So…the Multiregional hypothesis argues that modern H. sapiens evolved from the different H. erectus stocks in different regions (continents) at the same time.After H. sapiens evolved in these different regions, may have been interbreeding, thus sharing of genes.
34 Compromise (Mostly Out of Africa) About 130,000 years ago, the first anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved in East Africa (probably from H. erectus) and then migrated out of Africa to Europe, Asia, & rest of world.At this point, H. sapiens did interbreed with members of other species (H. erectus & H. Neanderthalensis)
42 Recent Research: “Mungo Man” Part of mDNA extracted recently from bones of a 60,000 year old modern Homo sapiens skeleton found in 1974 on the shores of Lake Mungo in AustraliaOldest DNA extracted from a human so far!Comparison of this DNA with that of 9 other ancient Australian skeletons, 2 Neanderthals, and 3,453 contemporary people from around the world indicates: "Mungo Man" had a unique genetic markerIndicates that a now lost genetic line of modern Homo sapiens existed in Australia BEFORE arrival of later Australian AboriginesThis evidence provides significant support for rejecting the "out of Africa" complete replacement model of modern Homo sapiens evolution