217.1 The Fossil Record Paleontologist: scientist who studies fossils Fossil: preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organismExtinct: term used to refer to a species that has died outKey Concept: The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different groups of organisms, including species, have changed over time.
317.1 Interpreting Fossil Evidence Relative dating: age of a fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rockIndex Fossils: distinct fossils found in certain layers of rock in a wide geographic range (Fig. 17-3)Key Concept: Relative dating allows paleontologists to estimate a fossil’s age compared with that of other fossils.
417-1 Radioactive DatingScientists use half-lives of radioactive elements to determine the age of a sample.Half-life: length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay (Fig. 17-4)Key Concept: In radioactive dating, scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains
617.2 Formation of EarthEstimated age of the earth based on geological evidence: 4.6 billion yearsKey Concept: Earth’s early atmosphere probably contained hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water.
717.2 The First Organic Molecules Two scientists created conditions of the early Earth in the lab. After a few days, several amino acids formed. (Fig. 17-8)Key Concept: Miller and Urey’s experiments suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds present on a primitive Earth.“Scientists now know that Miller and Urey’s original simulations of Earth’s early atmosphere were not accurate.” (p. 424)
817.2 Free OxygenEarly life forms were anaerobic because they lived in an oxygen-free environment.Key Concept: The rise of oxygen in the atmosphere drove some life-forms to extinction, while other life-forms evolved new, more efficient metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration.
917.2 Origin of Eukaryotic Cells Endosymbiotic theory: eukaryotes formed from the symbiotic (interdependent) relationship between ancestral eukaryotes and aerobic or photosynthetic bacteria. (Fig )Key Concept: The endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms.Evidence: Similarities between mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria. (DNA, ribosomes and binary fission)
1217.3 Patterns of EvolutionMacroevolution: large-scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time.Six Topics:Extinction: mass extinctions opened ecological opportunities for surviving organisms. (i.e. dinosaurs replaced by mammals and birds)Adaptive radiation: many species evolving from a single or small group of species (Fig )Convergent evolution: different species from similar climates resemble each other (Fig )
13Six Topics: (Skipped topic 6) 17.3 Patterns of EvolutionMacroevolution: large-scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time.Six Topics: (Skipped topic 6)Coevolution: organisms closely connected by ecological interactions evolve together (Fig )Punctuated equilibrium: stable periods and rapid periods of evolution (Fig )Changes in developmental genes: expression of hox genes greatly effects development. (17-26)