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Typological Dating and Chronology. Goals for the Day Understand how stratigraphy is used to separate out pottery Understand the basics of ceramic typology.

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Presentation on theme: "Typological Dating and Chronology. Goals for the Day Understand how stratigraphy is used to separate out pottery Understand the basics of ceramic typology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Typological Dating and Chronology

2 Goals for the Day Understand how stratigraphy is used to separate out pottery Understand the basics of ceramic typology Understand how ceramic typology is used to compare strata from different sites –Hazor will be used as a case study

3 Stratigraphy and ceramic typology Earlier we talked about stratigraphy –this is used to separate layers at a particular site –but we still need to compare strata from other sites Ceramic typology allows for the relative chronology between different sites We identify all of the pottery from different loci (or layers) from one stratum and compare with other strata

4 Our Goal: identify pottery in strata Modern Stratum Stratum I Stratum II

5 Step 1: pottery is cleaned

6 Step 2: pottery is sorted and labeled

7 Step 3: pottery is analyzed & drawn

8 Step 4: complete forms are studied

9 Step 5: comparison is made to other sites start with pottery from identified strata at one site after these forms are analyzed, then you compare with other sites you want to identify similarities between strata at different sites the similar strata allow you to construct a relative chronology

10 Ceramic Typology (Late Bronze pottery)

11 Evolution of the Cooking Pot Example of Form Example of Form Variant Example of Ware Example of Manufacture

12 Philistine Pottery decoration form form variant manufacture ware

13 Form form describes function –cooking pot –storage jars –milk bowl –beer jug most forms occurs throughout history of tel forms in Palestine / Israel are agrarian

14 Form Variant assume that items develop over time –we see this in an automobile –we also see this in items like modern pots forms develop over time (like cooking pot) some are radical changes and some subtle

15 Decoration Not as important in Palestinian / Israelite archaeology (but compare others) Burnishing –in MB IIA: fine burnishing –in IA II: interior burnishing on wheel Painting: esp. important in Philistine forms Other incisions, etc.

16 Ware appearance AND composition of clay pottery skill varies over time also includes study of provenance of clay

17 Manufacture study of the method pottery was constructed this is different from form what are some of the inherent difficulties? this study is also helpful for identifying workshops

18 Case Study: Hazor and Ceramic Typology The article we read used Hazor as the site base for the relative chronology The authors also constructed an absolute chronology: how and what does this mean? We will go through their argument for the purpose of understanding how ceramic typology is used –our purpose is not to test their argument –N.B.: their argument will be challenged in the Tel Aviv low chronology

19 Aharoni and Amirans Chronology X and IX: B.C.E. VIII: B.C.E. VII: B.C.E. VI: B.C.E. V: B.C.E. IV:end of 8th - early 7th

20 Comparison of different sites Cypro-Phonecian after IA II not clear until IA III

21 Cooking pots: a clear distinction Early Shallow Type: Hazor VIII and earlier Late Shallow Type: Hazor VII and later Deep Type: only in Judah –eighth century type (cf. Tell Beit Mirsim = Lachish Level III) –seventh century type (cf. Lachish Level II)

22 Early Shallow Types Tell Beit Mirsim Stratum B3 Hazor, Area A Stratum VIII

23 Late Shallow Types: Tell Beit Mirsim, Stratum A1

24 Late Shallow Type: Hazor Strata VIII and later

25 Deep Type: Tell Beit Mirsim

26 Comparing Strata: conclusions


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