Presentation on theme: "Centre for Housing Policy Valuing sustainability in housing?: Case study of a new community in York Deborah Quilgars, Alison Dyke, Becky Tunstall and Sarah."— Presentation transcript:
Centre for Housing Policy Valuing sustainability in housing?: Case study of a new community in York Deborah Quilgars, Alison Dyke, Becky Tunstall and Sarah West Stockholm Environment Institute &
Centre for Housing Policy Policy background I - The Climate Change Act 2008 requires an 80% cut on 1990 greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (in UK and elsewhere) (HM Government, 2011). - In 2009, 37% of UK CO2 emissions resulted directly from heating and powering buildings (HM Government 2011). By 2050, all buildings should have an emissions footprint close to zero. - To date, low-energy housing has resulted in lower as built and as used performance than expected (eg. JRF/JRHT 2012, Miles- Shenton et al. 2012, Bell et al. 2010). - 42% UK CO2 emissions results from actions taken by individuals, linked to housing, food, energy and personal travel (Haq and Owen 2011). Considerable disparities in emissions by socio-economic group.
Centre for Housing Policy Policy background II - At least three types of variables that can influence behaviour (Hungerford and Volk, 1990): - Entry level variables (particularly environmental sensitivity/ values); - Ownership variables (including in-depth knowledge about, and personal investment in, environmental issues) - Empowerment variables (how much impact someone believes their actions can have) - Nature of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, motivations & actions, and links between them are complex (Cabinet Office 2011). - Information, motivation, and support can serve as complements to good design (eg. Cabinet Office 2011). - Group activities appear to be an important element in the most successful energy behaviour change interventions (eg. Mulugetta et al. 2010, Heiskanen et al. 2011).
Centre for Housing Policy Introduction to Derwenthorpe Mixed tenure development of 540 new homes, 2012-2016 (2019). Developed by JRHT and David Wilson Homes. Two key aims: to support/ promote more sustainable patterns of energy use; promote community development Level 4 Code for Sustainable Homes Phase 1 won a national design award as an exemplar of low energy design (and local awards) Urban extension of York, c 3m from City Centr e
Centre for Housing Policy Derwenthorpe: Four phases
Centre for Housing Policy 16 designs in Phase 1
Centre for Housing Policy Interventions : Home High levels of insulation, airtightness and high performance UPVC windows Biomass boiler for home and water heating Mechanical Ventilation Heat Recovery system Wintergarden Low energy fittings (light bulbs; white goods etc) Low water use taps Outside drying facilities Garden water butt; compost bin 1.1car parking space per home
Centre for Housing Policy Interventions: Community Green space; pond; landscaping KIDS Zone play areas Cycleway Free bus pass Free car club membership Bicycle buying discount scheme Community activities JRHT community development role
Centre for Housing Policy Derwenthorpe: Playground and Energy Centre
Centre for Housing Policy Derwenthorpe: Pond/ Green spaces
Centre for Housing Policy Research aims To find out the extent to which Derwenthorpe meets its aims of creating an environmentally (and socially sustainable) community What might we expect to find? Energy consumption will be lower than residents previous homes and comparable households, but higher than as built data would predict. Resident carbon footprints will vary and reduce after move- in as people learn about their homes. Some interventions will be successful and replicable. Residents will be at least as satisfied with homes and neighbourhood, as the best of other similar communities (and energy use interventions will contribute to this).
Centre for Housing Policy Research methods In-depth research with a panel sample of one fifth of households (N=36; 16 to date) Tracking ecological footprints using Reap Petite survey (http://www.reap-petite.com)http://www.reap-petite.com Measures household consumption (home heat and power, food, travel, shopping, leisure activities, other) Takes about 15 minutes; can make pledges National and local comparators, including Lancaster Co-Housing Scheme - 41 properties and a common house; Level 6 Code for Sustainable Homes and Passiv Haus standard:
Centre for Housing Policy Carbon footprinting One way of calculating carbon footprints is using environmentally extended input-output models. These models link carbon emissions associated with different sectors of an economy, the financial transactions that take place in each sector, and emissions associated with different product groups (Minx et al 2009 gives an overview of the model used). This type of model is behind Reap-Petite. Reap-Petite takes multi-regional approach which means that as well as calculating the indirect emissions that occur in the UK, the models include emissions that are associated with overseas production. As well as measuring carbon emissions, REAP also calculates emissions of other greenhouse gases, and converts them to carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e), giving a carbon footprint that incorporates all the major greenhouse gases.
Centre for Housing Policy Moving to Derwenthorpe Most important factor in choosing Derwenthorpe: the homes themselves, particularly space and design. The next most important factor was the location, being relatively close to the city centre but with a less urban feel. Over half interviewees mentioned the green elements of the scheme, but this was usually a subsidiary factor in choice to buy or to accept the Derwenthorpe offer.
Centre for Housing Policy What do people think of their homes? 16/18 respondents very satisfied with accommodation Design important: Light, space, height (ceilings; building), accessibility standards, external also praised The house probably feels bigger because its full of light! And high ceilings. (Resident) The other good thing is that the houses are built so you can stay forever. As the houses are built with the width you need… (Resident) Improvements? Need for flexible finishing of the internal layouts and decoration options. Kitchens and bathrooms fixtures and fittings could be of a higher quality specification
Centre for Housing Policy What do people think of their homes? Heating and power: getting used to systems concern over billing (and communication over this issue) Number of issues with MVHR system; greater control desired; some improvements in air quality reported …it was like sleeping under a jumbo-jet, we turned it off after the 24 hours because you just couldnt tolerate the noise!... (Resident) The atmosphere in the house, from the air point of view, its really nice, its really fresh, you can feel its a good breathing space. (Resident)
Centre for Housing Policy What do people think of their homes? Mixed views on Wintergarden – some really liked them but most were unsure of its use and purpose Some residents had disabled water temperature restrictors – need for further investigation Size of gardens okay. Possible improvements around layout of patio, laying of lawns, tree planting Not many people using compost bins (I fear this mountain of compost that I cant get rid of!)– but high level of interest in communal food growing Some take up of cycle voucher; just a few using car club/ bus pass
Centre for Housing Policy What do people think of their new community? 14/18 respondents very satisfied with local area as a place to live Most people felt there was a sense of community and believed that Derwenthorpe would become a strong community People like a village feel: And I do quite like living in the village environment, I think that is really nice for the children, that they are going to grow up in a nice place now... Green areas, pond and play area appreciated; some nuisance/ anti-social behaviour reported Residents using communal resource; lots of interest in developing further activities using this facility
Centre for Housing Policy Derwenthorpe carbon footprints Average (mean) carbon footprint better than York average Housing footprint much lower, but slightly higher for transport
Centre for Housing Policy Derwenthorpe resident footprints
Centre for Housing Policy Environmental Impact
Centre for Housing Policy Environmental impact Other green initiatives requested included: Solar panels Community garden (up and running!) Allotments Bug hunts Charging point for electric cars Remote controls for heating in homes Communal composting
Centre for Housing Policy Implications for housing policy Need more than high environmental credentials to attract people to sustainable housing developments Can have significant impact on housing footprint – but need other initiatives to impact on wider carbon footprint Debate point: To what extent do we wish to influence attitudes and behaviour? Role for environmental stewardship? Empirical question: To what extent can we influence housing/ environmental attitudes and behaviour? Watch this space!
Centre for Housing Policy Thanks for listening Research Team: Deborah Quilgars & Becky Tunstall, CHP www.york.ac.uk/chp/ Sarah West & Alison Dyke, SEI www.york.ac.uk/sei/