Presentation on theme: "Preschool Language Scales-5 Assessing Children from Birth through 7"— Presentation transcript:
2 Preschool Language Scales-5 Assessing Children from Birth through 7 Nancy Castilleja, MA CCC-SLPSeptember 9, 2011This presentation provides an overview of the new Preschool Language Scale—Fifth Edition. The authors developed this test as a measure of developmental language skills that are critical to preschool and early school success. PLS-5 is not an exhaustive inventory of all important developmental communication milestones that indicate if a child is developing language normally. The language behaviors on PLS-5 are behaviors in which there are significant differences in performance between typically developing children and children who have a language disorder.The age range for the test has been extended to age 7 so that you are able to obtain standard scores for 7 year olds who have a moderate to severe language disorder, such as children with autism or developmental delays whose communication skills are like those of a younger child.
3 Course objectivesdescribe at least two principles identified by ASHA as best practices in early language assessmentidentify three key differences between PLS-4 and PLS-5describe two research studies conducted with the PLS-5
4 Agenda ASHA: best practices in early language assessment PLS-5 vs. PLS-4Start pointsAge level placementsScoringPLS-5 Research StudiesDevelopmentMinimizing BiasStandardizationReliability & ValidityQ & A
5 Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs in Early Intervention /policyFour guiding principlesfamily-centered and culturally and linguistically responsivedevelopmentally supportive and promote participation in natural environmentscomprehensive, coordinated, and team basedbased on the highest quality evidence availableASHA has completed an update of the principles of early childhood intervention. ASHA’s principles address both assessment and intervention. This document was a starting point for us in developing the new test. We’ll provide a quick overview of how these principles were incorporated in the development of the PLS-5.
6 Family-centered and culturally and linguistically responsive Caregiver participation in testingCaregiver-selected and caregiver-identified social routines and vocabulary tested for very young childrenExtensive bias review and widespread testing with a diverse sample has resulted inFamiliar home vocabulary and contextsDialectal, regional, and cultural variations to identify responses that are accepted as correctHome Communication QuestionnaireIntegrating ASHA’s early intervention principles
7 Sample from the Home Communication Questionnaire
8 Developmentally supportive and promote participation in natural environments Observation of naturally-occurring behaviors for younger childrenCredit given for spontaneous productions in and outside the assessment roomDevelopmentally appropriate skills assessed
9 Comprehensive, coordinated, and team based Provides a survey of language skills in the areas ofSocial communicationSemanticsMorphologySyntaxArticulationUseful for arena assessment; can be administered by professionals in child development teams
10 Based on the highest quality evidence available Current review of research for item developmentExpert reviewCurrent normative data
11 What is new?Current norms for a wider age range: based on the 2008 update of the U.S. Census for children birth through 7:11Streamlined administration, with new suggested start points and test items that involve manipulatives grouped for smoother transitions during testingNew test items in the areas of play, understanding false beliefs, and literacyNew Growth Scale Values, Evidence-based scores you can use to track progress
12 Based on the performance of children in standardization… New ceiling ruleBasal: 3 consecutive correct responsesCeiling: 6 (not 7) consecutive errorsBecause PLS-5 tests a variety of skills, a child could obtain one or more score points if you discontinue testing earlier
14 New test items For ages 18-24 months additional items assessing play For ages 3 through 4 yearsnew items assessing bookhandling and concept ofprintFor ages 5 through 7 yearsnew items testingTheory of MindIntegrated language skills such as use of synonymsEmergent literacy skills such as naming letters and understanding prefixes25% of the test items are new to PLS-5
15 New item: Uses synonyms Here is an example of a new test item on PLS-5. The child is asked to think of another word that means the same thing as a target word. In this demonstration item, the child is asked to think of another word for “large.” The examiner tells the child “Look at this elephant. Elephants are really large animals. What is another word for “large.” Typical responses from children include “big” “huge” “gigantic” and “enormous.” Children with language difficulties often name the items in the picture, e.g., “elephant” , “Dumbo”, or “zoo”)
16 New Demonstration Item for Understands Size/Sequence Concepts (smallest, biggest) Demonstration items have been added to some of the test items to show the child what he or she is expected to do. In this demonstration item, the examiner says: “Here are three dogs. I will point to the dogs in order, from the biggest dog to the smallest dog.” Then the examiner points to the dogs in the order described. During the demonstration item, the examiner provide any prompts that help the child understand the task. For example, the examiner can say “Here is the biggest dog, so I’ll point to him first. This dog is smaller, and this one is the smallest one.”
17 New Practice item: Uses Possessive Pronouns: hers, his Practice items have been added to many of the test items to ensure that the child understands the test task. Before administering the test items testing use of the possessive pronouns his and hers, the examiner shows the child this picture and says, “This is his ice cream. This is….” If the child doesn’t say “hers” or “her ice cream” the examiner can cue the child to teach the task before continuing to the test items.
18 Items integrating Theory of Mind concepts Some items requiring that the child make inferences about another’s feelings or intentionsTheory of MindCapacity to understand another’s mental state to explain and predict others’ behavior (Miller, 2006)Child learns to take another person’s perspectiveLink between Theory of Mind and communication (de Villiers & de Villiers, 2005)Also important for comprehending narratives
19 Understanding false beliefs This is a new test item specifically designed to assess one aspect of Theory of Mind: understanding false beliefs. [Demonstrate administration of this item.]
20 What is different?Revised test items, based on clinicians’ and reviewers’ feedbackUpdated Articulation Screener with picture stimuliStart pointsAge level placements of certain developmental skillsNormative scores25% are unchanged, but 50% have been modified in some way, with new art, new administration directions, or new practice items
21 Revised Test ItemsApproximately 25% of the PLS-5 test items have administration directions, test stimuli, and foils that are unchanged from PLS-4. For those items, art was redrawn to match the style of the new test items. For other items, administration directions were changed, sub-items were deleted or replaced, or the criterion changed
22 Modified Articulation Screener The new Articulation Screener now has visual stimuli. The child names the pictures—if he or she does not name the picture using the target word, the examiner can say the word and ask the child to repeat it. Multiple phonemes are tested in most words, so the word set is smaller.
24 Why is “responds to speaker by smiling” now at age 6-8 months? “Start Points” are not developmental age levels
25 “Start Points” are not developmental age levels
26 Why do so many of the PLS-5 test items appear at later age levels than PLS-4? Some clinicians are confusing the Start Points with Developmental LevelsCriterion change for item placementPLS-4 item placements differ from PLS-5. PLS-4 items were placed at the developmental age where 60-90% of children passed the item (average: 75%). We found in our market research that when clinicians were interpreting PLS-4 test results, their assumption was that almost all children passed all items within a developmental age band when this was not the case.For PLS-5, test items were placed at the age level where at least 80-90% of the children in the standardization sample passed the item.
27 Review how PLS-4 items were put together; then explain PLS-5 Understands use of objects: AC 31 is 6 months later than on PLS-4. Criterion change: ¾ instead of 3/5
28 Why do so many of the PLS-5 test items appear at later age levels than PLS-4? Some clinicians are confusing the Start Points with Developmental LevelsCriterion change for item placement at developmental levelsThe items were modified in some wayThe task is differentSub-items are differentThe number of sub-items has changedThe pass criterion has changedMost have moved to the next 6 month level. A few have moved a year.
29 Uses past tense Age 4: 7% Age 4:6: 42% Age 5:0: 22% Age 5:6 58%
30 PLS-5 age level placements do not match placement from Brown’s studies According to Owens (2008), the age of mastery for Brown’s developmental milestones is based on the research of:Bellugi & Brown (1964)Brown (1973)Miller (1981)Demographic characteristics of the sample in 2010When you review performance of a high SES sample, performance on PLS-5 tasks match Brown’s seminal researchYou are correct in stating the PLS-5 item placements do not match the milestones based on data collected in the research described in the references dated 1964 through Dr. Bellugi’s, Brown’s, and Miller’s research (who set mastery of a milestone at 90%).PLS-5 research was conducted in Demographic characteristics of the U.S. have changed considerably since Dr. Bellugi’s, Brown’s, and Miller’s research was conducted (almost 40% of the PLS-5 sample is non-White; 34% of children in the sample have parents with a college degree; 34% have parents with 12 years of education or less). Typically, research conducted in the ‘60s and ‘70s was conducted at universities with convenience samples of children whose parents were very well-educated. Children whose parents have a high education level tend to achieve language targets early.We see this same pattern of performance in our PLS-5 research. For certain morphological skills, 60-75% of children tested during PLS-5 standardization passed items at the earlier age level listed on PLS-4. The children passing these items early tend to be children who have parents with high education levels. However, PLS-5 test items were placed at the age when 80-90% of the children tested passed. This accounts for the shifts in developmental levels you are seeing for some items.If you look at the sequence of acquisition, the placement of the PLS-5 items matches the developmental sequence described in the seminal research conducted by Bellugi, Brown, and Miller. Keep in mind that there is no static “difficulty” or “developmental age” for skills such as “verb + -ing”—the item difficulties can be influenced by the following:test format (elicited in spontaneous speech? imitative task? cloze procedure? practice item?)contexts and vocabulary targeted (emerging verbs? familiar context?)response required (ability to score alternate words? alternate forms acceptable?)Tests are developed to include tasks that provide a sample of abilities that represent children’s language ability, regardless of background. That being said, there are many children growing up in facilitative language environments who learn certain language skills early. There are also a number of children who are also typically developing who master the same skills a few months later. Our decision was to place PLS-5 items where 80-90% of children in the sample passed, in order to represent the entire range of typically developing children in the U.S.
31 Some children are scoring higher on the PLS-5 Some children are scoring higher on the PLS-5? I’m concerned that children will no longer qualify for services.PLS-4/PLS-5 correlational studyN = 134Average change:AC: 1 point lower than PLS-4EC: 1.5 points lower than PLS-4Total Language: 1 point lowerRange of score change for individuals higherProtocols we’ve reviewed after publicationScores sometimes higher, sometimes lowerPerformance differencesItem criterion differencesNo change in eligibility unless a child qualified with a 77 on PLS-4Confidence intervals; PLS-5, like PLS-4, provides one piece of information in your assessment. The scores indicate how a child performs relative to age level peers on specific developmental tasks.
32 On the EC scale, the child hardly needs to talk at all at age 2:0! At age 2:0, 64-71% of the normative sampleUsed words more than gestures to communicateUsed words for a variety of pragmatic functionsUsed different word combinationsThat means 29-36% of children did not…By age 2:6 to 2:11, the majority of the children in the sample met criterion for these behaviors
33 Standardization Research Over 1800 children were tested for standardization and related reliability and validity studies from December 2009 through August 2010The standardization sample was collected by 189 clinicians in 42 states in the United States
34 Technical Information Demographic InformationValidity StudiesClinical studiesAges 1-2:11 language delay studyAges 3:0-7:11 language disorder studySensitivity/specificityPositive/negative predictive powerCorrelations with other assessmentsPLS-4CELF Preschool-2Reliability StudiesInternal consistency: typicalInternal consistency: disorder.96 to .98Inter-rater reliability: .95 to .98Inter-scorer agreement: .91 to 1.0Case studiesAutismHearing ImpairmentTechnical information can be found in the PLS-5 Examiner’s Manual. A Technical Report will be posted on PLS-5.com at the end of June 2011)
35 Sample mirrors March 2008 Update of the U.S. Census: Race/Ethnicity The PLS-5 was standardized using a very diverse sample in the United States. The PLS-5 standardization sample mirrors the percentages of the population represented in the March 2008 Update of the U.S. Census for race and ethnicity for children birth through 7 years, 11 months. These percentages represent a significant shift in demographics from the PLS-4 standardization sample in Minority populations now comprise 45% of the standardization sample.
36 Sample mirrors March 2008 Update of the U.S. Census: Parent Education There have also been significant changes in the U.S. population in the level of education of children’s primary caregivers since data was collected in Overall, the population is becoming more educated, with a higher percentage of young children’s caregivers completing a college degree.
37 Sample mirrors March 2008 Update of the U.S. Census: Region
38 Where Children in the PLS-5 Sample Spend the Majority of their Day Reported by the caregivers
39 Are children with disabilities included in the PLS-5 sample?
44 Sensitivity/Specificity: NPP/PPP with 50% Matched Sample ACECTotalCut Score SD and Predictive PowerMatched Sample 50%-1 SDPPP.83.86.81NPP.77.85-1.5 SD.220.127.116.11.75.74-2 SD.18.104.22.168Note. PPP is Positive Predictive Power and NPP is Negative Predictive Power.
45 Minimizing Bias Current literature review Clinician surveys Research studiesPilotTryout (includes bias oversample)StandardizationStatistical analyses of biasExpert review
49 Questions related to the kit Do I need to purchase the manipulatives or can I collect my own?Why can’t we have a Picture Manual we can wipe clean?Because more information was added to the Examiner’s Manual about special populations, administration, and scoring, the book became too large and heavy to include everything in it. The PLS-5 has separate Examiner’s and Administration Directions Manuals. You can collect the manipulatives on your own or purchase a PLS-5 manipulatives kit. The bear is plastic so that it can be cleaned after each use.
50 Questions related to the kit How do you get the bear and the pitcher to fit in the box?Because more information was added to the Examiner’s Manual about special populations, administration, and scoring, the book became too large and heavy to include everything in it. The PLS-5 has separate Examiner’s and Administration Directions Manuals. You can collect the manipulatives on your own or purchase a PLS-5 manipulatives kit. The bear is plastic so that it can be cleaned after each use.