Presentation on theme: "Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition Sandra R. GomesCaldwell College
2Assessment NeedsThe limitations of preschool assessments have been well documented (McCauley, 2001). Therefore, reliable and valid assessments are needed.
3Summary of Presentation Background of Preschool Language Scale (PLS)Overview of PLS-4Test Content & AdministrationHow to score PLS-4Research supporting the effectiveness of the PLS-4Pros and Cons
4Background of Preschool Language Scale (PLS) Developed by Irla Zimmerman, Violette Steiner, and Roberta Pond.Earlier editionsPLS - Originally developed in 1969 to measure language development of young childrenPLS-R - Clearer administration & simplified scoring system (1979)PLS-3 - normative data used to develop standard scores & percentile ranks; reliability & validity information; additional test tasks & supplementary test information (1992)Current editionPLS-4 -(2002)
5Overview of PLS-4 Purpose Age range Birth through 6 years, 11 months Standardized & norm referenced evaluation tool used to assess receptive & expressive language skillsDetermines whether deficiencies are primarily receptive or expressive in natureAssesses behaviors considered to be language precursorsAge rangeBirth through 6 years, 11 months
6Overview of PLS-4 Test Content Core Subscales Supplemental Assessments ScoresNorm referenced test scoresQualified Users
7Overview of PLS-4 Standardization Data PLS-4 is standardized Sample included 1564 children39.1% of this sample consists of ethnic minoritiesSpanish edition also available with separate normsTask Analysis ChecklistAges 2 days to 6 years 11 monthsWithin each age level, approximately 50% of the sample was male and 50% was female.
8Test Content Auditory Comprehension 1. To evaluate how much language a child understands 2. Test tasks on this subscale are considered important precursors for language development for infants and toddlersAttentionPlayGestureVocabularyConceptsMorphologySyntaxIntegrative languagePhonological awareness
10Test Content Expressive Communication Used to determine how well a child communicateswith others.Vocal developmentGestureSocial communicationVocabularyConceptsMorphologySyntaxIntegrative languagePhonological awareness
13Caregiver Questionnaire “What Your Child Understands”Does your child momentarily look at a person who is talking to him or her? If yes, who does your child look at?Does your child look at you for more than 2 seconds? If yes, describe a situation when your child does this.Does your child respond to words like “stop” or “wait?”Does your child put toys in his or her mouth?Does your child understand words like “in,” “off,” or “out of?”
14Administration of PLS-4 Examiner’s ManualAdministration, scoring, & interpretation proceduresPicture ManualContains picture stimuliRecord FormAbbreviated directions for administering, recording, & scoring test itemsManipulativesUsed to facilitate interactions with the child
16Administration of PLS-4 Beginning the test sessionTest environmentDetermine chronological ageDetermine starting pointBasic information about his or her languageStart at least a year prior to child’s ageTask AdministrationCan start with either subscaleGenerally takes minutes, depending on age of the child and communication skillsPractice TasksIncluded for a number of items on the (AC) and (EC) subscales
17Administration of PLS-4 Modifying Administration for special populationsChildren with severe developmental delaysChildren with severe physical/ hearing/ visual impairmentsChildren who communicate using sign languageChildren with autismAccommodationsUse as criterion referenced information only
18Scoring PLS-4 Scores Reported Scoring Codes Basal and Ceiling Rules PLS-4 provides age-basedStandard scoresPercentile ranksAge equivalentsScoring Codes(E)- Elicited (S) - Spontaneous (C ) - CaregiverBasal and Ceiling RulesBasal achieved when child has passed 3 consecutive numbered tasks (Scores of 1 marked in 3 consecutive boxes)Ceiling is achieved when the child has earned a score of 0 on 7 consecutive numbered tasks
21Computing ScoresRefer to page 115Refer to page 117 & 118
22Research Supporting Effectiveness Restrepo et al. (2001)This study evaluated the validity of the Spanish edition of the PLS-3Validity is of increasing importanceNumber of Hispanic children increases in schools each year; therefore, the need for reliable, valid measures for this population becomes more urgent (Restrepo et al., 2001).
23Restrepo et al. (2001) Continued Participants37 children (18 boys & 19 girls)Mean age of 5 years 6 monthsAll children were bilingualCompared performances of the same participants on the English and Spanish version of the PLS-3Concluded that the test was inadequate because it was based on English rather than Spanish Language development data.Spanish version needs to continue to be revised until it is valid and reliable for use of Spanish speaking population.
24Research Supporting Effectiveness Qi et al. (2003)Study examined the performance of 701 low-income African American preschoolers (36 to 52 months old)On average, African American children performed about 1 SD below the expected means for their ages on both subscalesIndependent sample t tests showed no significant differences between African American children & a comparison sample of 50 European American children.6 items appeared to be particularly difficult for African American sampleFindings suggest that the PLS-3 is generally an informative language test for African American preschoolers.
25Research Supporting Effectiveness Zimmerman et al. (2005)PLS-3 & PLS-4 administered to the same children, similar mean and SDs were found which supported the PLS-4 content.PLS-4 differentiated between 44 children identified with autism spectrum disorders and 44 typically developing children.Differences ranged from standard score points.
26Zimmerman et al. (2005) Continued Nonverbal children with autism demonstrated greatest lags on language tasks targeting concepts & social communication.Children who were verbal demonstrated significant difficulties on morphology, syntax, social communication & integrated language skills.In summary, PLS-4 proved to be sensitive to differences in language abilities for children with a variety of diagnoses, including developmental and language delays, autism, & hearing impairment.
27Pros of Assessment Tool Test covers a wide range of language issuesChild friendlyAllows for repeated administration over the child’s developmentUsed extensively by researchers in a broad variety of areasEnables clinicians to gain insight into a child’s underlying deficitsAdministration time is fairly briefReliable and validUseful tool for evaluating children with special needsEasy to score
28Cons of Assessment Tool Does not go into great depthNot meant to be used alone to diagnose a language deficitUnable to make modificationsAdministration of assessment tool
29SummaryOverall, PLS-4 is a well- designed and carefully developed instrument, meeting a standard of quality substantially above that of most other commercial tests. A user can be quite confident of the accuracy of scores and appropriateness of using PLS-4 scores as indicators of language skills of preschool children. (Zimmerman et. al, 2005)It is a useful diagnostic and research tool that can be used to identify current comprehension and expressive language skills & can be used to measure changes in language skills over time.
30ReferencesMcCauley, R. (2001). Assessment of language disorders in children. Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.Qi, C. H., Kaiser, A. P., Milan, S. E., Yzquierdo, Z., & Hancock, T. B., (2003). The performance of Low-Income, African American Children on the Preschool Language Scale-3. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46,Restrepo, M., & Silverman, S. W., (2001). Validity of the Spanish preschool language scale-3 for use with bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10,Zimmerman, I. L., & Castilleja, N. F., (2005). The role of language scale for infant and preschool assessment. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 11,Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond R. E., (2002). Preschool Language Scale, 4th edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.