4 Equilibrium price: P Q S D P QD QS $0 24 1 21 5 2 18 10 3 15 4 12 20 9 Equilibrium price:PQSDPQDQS$024121521810315412209256304
5 Market Disequilibrium If the market price or quantity supplied is anywhere but at the equilibrium price, the market is in a state called disequilibrium. There are 2 causes for Disequilibrium:Excess Demand-occurs when quantity demanded is more than quantity supplied.Excess Supply-Excess supply occurs when quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded
6 Price CeilingsIn some cases the government steps in to control prices. These interventions appear as price ceilings and price floors.PRICE CEILING- a maximum price that can be legally charged for a good.An example of a price ceiling is rent control, a situation where a government sets a maximum amount that can be charged for rent in an area.
7 How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes QSDIn the long run, supply and demand are more price-elastic.So, the shortage is larger.$800Price ceiling$500shortageIn this slide, the equilibrium price ($800) and price ceiling ($500) are the same as on the preceding slides, but supply and demand are more price-elastic than before, and the shortage that results from a binding price ceiling is larger.1504507
8 Price FloorsA price floor is a minimum price, set by the government, that must be paid for a good or service.One well-known price floor is the minimum wage, which sets a minimum price that an employer can pay a worker for an hour of labor.
10 How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes labor surplusWLSPrice floor$5The eq’m wage ($4) is below the floor and therefore illegal.The floor is a binding constraint on the wage, causes a surplus (i.e., unemployment).D400550$4Now, the minimum wage exceeds the equilibrium wage. The equilibrium wage (or any wage below $5) is illegal.In this case, the actual wage will be $5. It will not be lower, because any lower wage is illegal. It will not be higher, because at any higher wage, the surplus would be even greater. The actual number of unskilled workers with jobs equals want jobs, but firms are only willing to hire 400, leaving a surplus (i.e. unemployment) of 150 workers.A surplus of anything – especially labor – represents wasted resources.10
11 Section 2 (shifts)A change in supply will lead to a change in equilibrium price and quantityIf a surplus occurs, producers reduce prices to sell their products, creating a new equilibriumAs supply decreases, producers will raise prices and demand will decrease
12 Shifts in demandExcess demand- A shortage is a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity suppliedSearch costs are financial and opportunity costs consumers pay when searching for a good or serviceWhen demand falls, suppliers respond by cutting prices and a new market equilibrium is found
13 Analyzing shifts in supply and demand Fig. 6.6 on p 135 shows a new equilibrium when there is an increase in supplyFig 6.7 on p 136 shows a new equilibrium when there is an increase in demand
15 The Role Of Prices in A Free Market Prices serve a vital role in a free market economy.Prices help move land, labor, and capital into the hands of producers, and finished goods in to the hands of buyers.Prices create efficient resource allocation for producers and a language that both consumers and producers can use
16 Advantages of Prices Prices provide a language for buyers and sellers. Prices as an incentivePrices communicate to both buyers and sellers whether goods or services are scarce or easily available. Prices can encourage or discourage production.SignalsThink of prices as a traffic light. A relatively high price is a green light telling producers to make more. A relatively low price is a red light telling producers to make less.FlexibilityIn many markets, prices are much more flexible than production levels. They can be easily increased or decreased to solve problems of excess supply or excess demand.Price System is “Free”Unlike central planning, a distribution system based on prices costs nothing to administer.
17 Efficient Resource Allocation A market system, with its fully changing prices, ensures that resources go to the uses that consumers value most highly.Market ProblemsImperfect competition between firms in a market can affect prices and consumer decisions.Spillover costs, or externalities, are costs of production, such as air and water pollution, that “spill over” onto people who have no control over how much of a good is produced.If buyers and sellers have imperfect information on a product, they may not make the best purchasing or selling decision.