2 Objectives After studying this chapter, you will able to Explain how housing markets work and how price ceilings create housing shortages and inefficiencyExplain how labor markets work and how minimum wage laws create unemployment and inefficiencyExplain the effects of the sales tax
3 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings The Market Response to a Decrease in SupplyFigure 6.1 shows the San Francisco housing market before the earthquake.The quantity of housing was 100,000 units and the rent was $16 a month at the intersection of D and SS.Time and the elasticity of supply. Get the students to recall the different influences on the supply elasticity of the firm from Chapter 4 and remind them how the luxury of time allows sellers to fully respond to changes in their environment.Explain why it is likely that supply is perfectly elastic in the long run for many goods and services.
4 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings The earthquake decreased the supply of housing and the supply curve shifted leftward to SSA.The rent increased to $20 a month and the quantity decreased to 72,000 units.
5 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings Long-Run AdjustmentsThe long-run supply of housing is perfectly elastic at $16 a month.With the rent above $16 a month, new houses and apartments are built.
6 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings The building program increases supply and the supply curve shifts rightward.The quantity of housing increases and the rent falls to the pre-earthquake levels (other things remaining the same).
7 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings A Regulated Housing MarketA price ceiling is a regulation that makes it illegal to charge a price higher than a specified level.When a price ceiling is applied to a housing market it is called a rent ceiling.If the rent ceiling is set above the equilibrium rent, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no ceiling.But if the rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium rent, it has powerful effects.
8 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings Figure 6.2 shows the effects of a rent ceiling that is set below the equilibrium rent.The equilibrium rent is $20 a month.A rent ceiling is set at $16 a month.So the equilibrium rent is in the illegal region.
9 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings At the rent ceiling, the quantity of housing demanded exceeds the quantity supplied and there is a housing shortage.Explain that because landlords can’t be forced to supply a greater quantity than they wish, the quantity of housing supplied at the rent ceiling is less than the quantity that would be supplied in an unregulated market.
10 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings With a housing shortage, people are willing to pay $24 a month.Because the legal price cannot eliminate the shortage, other mechanisms operate:search activityblack markets
11 Housing Markets and Rent Ceilings Black MarketsA black market is an illegal market that operates alongside a legal market in which a price ceiling or other restriction has been imposed.A shortage of housing creates a black market in housing.Illegal arrangements are made between renters and landlords at rents above the rent ceiling - and generally above what the rent would have been in an unregulated market.
12 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage New, labor-saving technologies become available every year, which mainly replace low-skilled labor.Does the persistent decrease in the demand for low-skilled labor depress the wage rates of these workers?The immediate effect of these technological advances is a decrease in the demand for low-skill labor, a fall in the wage rate, and a decrease in the quantity of labor supplied.Figure 6.4 on the next slide illustrates this immediate effect.Labor is work that households supply and firms demand. You might be surprised to find that quite a few students think that the demand for labor is the demand by a household for a job and the supply of labor is the supply of jobs by firms. Of course, they get into a big mess with this mirror image view of the labor market. Try to avoid this all-too-common mistake by being very explicit that labor is work. Households supply it and firms demand it. Sure, firms provide jobs and people want jobs to earn an income. But it is labor, not jobs, that is supplied and demanded in the labor market.
13 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage A decrease in the demand for low-skill labor is shown by a leftward shift of the demand curve.A new labor market equilibrium arises at a lower wage rate and a smaller quantity of labor employed.Time and the elasticity of labor supply. It is easy to get the students to see that the supply of labor can adjust more in the long run than in the short run. This fact is central to understanding why technological change doesn’t bring a permanent fall in the wage rates of low-skilled labor and why it does bring a transitory (but possibly lengthy fall).
14 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage In the long run, people get trained to do higher-skilled jobs.The supply of low-skill labor decreases, which is shown by a leftward shift of the short-run supply curve.
15 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage If long-run supply is perfectly elastic, the equilibrium wage rate returns to its initial level (other things remaining the same).
16 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage A Minimum WageA price floor is a regulation that makes it illegal to trade at a price lower than a specified level.When a price floor is applied to labor markets, it is called a minimum wage.If the minimum wage is set below the equilibrium wage rate, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no minimum wage.If the minimum wage is set above the equilibrium wage rate, it has powerful effects.
17 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage If the minimum wage is set above the equilibrium wage rate, the quantity of labor supplied by workers exceeds the quantity demanded by employers. There is a surplus of labor.Because employers cannot be forced to hire a greater quantity than they wish, the quantity of labor hired at the minimum wage is less than the quantity that would be hired in an unregulated labor market.Because the legal wage rate cannot eliminate the surplus, the minimum wage creates unemploymentFigure 6.5 on the next slide illustrates these effects.
18 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage The equilibrium wage rate is $4 an hour.The minimum wage rate is set at $5 an hour.So the equilibrium wage rate is in the illegal region.
19 The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage The quantity of labor employed is the quantity demanded.The quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded.Unemployment is the gap between the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied.
20 Taxes Everything you earn and most things you buy are taxed. Who really pays these taxes?Income tax is deducted from your pay, and the sales tax is added to the price of the things you buy, so isn’t it obvious that you pay these taxes?You’re going to discover that it isn’t obvious who pays a tax and that the government don’t decide who will pay!
21 TaxesTax IncidenceTax incidence is the division of the burden of a tax between the buyer and the seller.When an item is taxed, its price might rise by the full amount of the tax, by a lesser amount, or not at all.If the price rises by the full amount of the tax, the buyer pays the tax.If the price rise by a lesser amount than the tax, the buyer and seller share the burden of the tax.If the price doesn’t rise at all, the seller pays the tax.
22 Taxes Tax Incidence Tax incidence doesn’t depend on tax law! The law might impose a tax on the buyer or the seller, but the outcome will be the same.To see why, we look at the tax on cigarettes from almost nothing to $1.50 a pack.
23 Taxes A Tax on Sellers Figure 6.7 shows the effects of this tax. With no tax, the equilibrium price is $3 a pack.A tax on sellers of $1.50 a pack is introduced.The curve S + tax on seller shows the new supply curve.
24 TaxesThe vertical distance between the original supply curve and the supply curve with the tax is equal to the amount of the tax - $1.50.Buyers would have to pay $4.50 a pack to induce firms to offer the original quantity for sale.
25 Taxes The tax changes the equilibrium price and quantity. The quantity decreases.The price paid by the buyer rises to $4 and the price received by the seller falls to $2.50.
26 TaxesSo buyers pay $1 of the tax.Sellers pay the remaining 50¢.
27 TaxesA Tax on BuyersNow suppose that buyers, not sellers, are taxed $1.50 a pack.Again, with no tax, the equilibrium price is $3 a pack.A tax on buyers of $1.50 a pack is introduced.The curve D - tax on buyer shows the new demand curve.
28 TaxesThe vertical distance between the original demand curve and the demand curve minus the tax is equal to the amount of the tax - $1.50.Sellers would have to accept $1.50 a pack to induce people to buy the original quantity.
29 Taxes The tax changes the equilibrium price and quantity. The quantity decreases.The price paid by the buyer rises to $4 and the price received by the seller falls to $2.50.
30 Taxes So, exactly as before when the seller was taxed: The buyer pays $1 of the tax.The seller pays the other 50¢ of the tax.Tax incidence is the same regardless of whether the law says the seller pays or the buyer pays.
31 TaxesThe division of the tax between the buyer and the seller depends on the elasticities of demand and supply.Tax Division and Elasticity of DemandTo see the effect of the elasticity of demand on the division of the tax payment, we look at two extreme cases.Perfectly inelastic demand: the buyer pays the entire tax.Perfectly elastic demand: the seller pays the entire tax.The more inelastic the demand, the larger is the buyers’ share of the tax.
32 TaxesIn this figure, demand is perfectly inelastic - the demand curve is vertical.When a tax is imposed on this good, the buyer pays the entire tax.
33 TaxesIn this figure, demand is perfectly elastic - the demand curve is horizontal.When a tax is imposed on this good, the seller pays the entire tax.
34 Taxes Tax Division and Elasticity of Supply To see the effect of the elasticity of supply on the division of the tax payment, we again look at two extreme cases.Perfectly inelastic supply: the seller pays the entire tax.Perfectly elastic supply: the buyer pays the entire tax.The more elastic the supply, the larger is the buyers’ share of the tax.
35 TaxesIn this figure, supply is perfectly inelastic - the supply curve is vertical.When a tax is imposed on this good, the seller pays the entire tax.
36 TaxesIn this figure, supply is perfectly elastic - the supply curve is horizontal.When a tax is imposed on this good, the buyer pays the entire tax.