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Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU.

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Presentation on theme: "Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU Jennifer Turley Associate Professor of Nutrition, WSU

2 What is a food system?What is a sustainable food system?How does this apply to plant & animal foods. What is the impact of conventional farming practices on the health of humans and the environment? What are some practical consumer tips to ensure food system sustainablility?

3 Food Production: farming, gardening, fisheries, wild foods Harvest: powered equipment, farm, field, factory, greenhouse, ocean, slaughterhouse Transformation, processing, packaging, labeling, marketing, heating/cooling Distribution, wholesaling, warehousing, transportation Access, retailing, food safety net Consumption, purchasing, preparing, eating, waste management

4 Issues from: Use, loss, & pollution of land, soil, & H 2 O. The contribution to global warming from emission of green house gases. Fossil fuel depletion. Loss of the land fertility & nutrients that nourish plants & animals. More human (infectious & chronic) & animal diseases. The US food system is currently detrimental to the environment, human health, and future sustainability.. A sustainable food system promotes ecological, human, and community health now and for the future.

5 (Somlyódy 2006, Pimentel 2003, Horirgan 2002) Water: plant and animal farming accounts for 70% of all water use by humanity; 90% in most developing countries. US food system uses ~80% of US fresh water. Soil: US food system uses ~50% of US land area. Croplands, pastures, and rangelands are losing soil (overgrazing, tilling) at an unsustainable rate. It takes ~500 y to replace 1 soil. Energy: Fossil energy for fertilizers, machinery, irrigation, pesticides, transportation, etc. 1 Calorie of plant protein requires ~2 Calories of fossil energy. Most adults require calories/day depending on their age, gender, and physical activity. Raising livestock for meat requires more energy (Calories, grain feed) than animal byproducts (milk & eggs), and plants. Meat-based diet requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovo or vegetarian diet. Meat-based diet requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovo or vegetarian diet.

6 Plants vs animals Livestock Lamentations Animals: fossil fuel calories/1 food calorie Plants: 2 fossil fuel calories/1 food calorie Plant proteins have ~ 1/10 th the fossil fuel use and 1/10 th carbon emission than animal proteins. Switching from meat to vegetables 1 day/week saves the equivalent of driving 1160 miles per year Animals: fossil fuel calories/1 food calorie Plants: 2 fossil fuel calories/1 food calorie Plant proteins have ~ 1/10 th the fossil fuel use and 1/10 th carbon emission than animal proteins. Switching from meat to vegetables 1 day/week saves the equivalent of driving 1160 miles per year Livestock production, especially beef, created almost 20% of total greenhouse gases worldwide, eclipsing even transportation. Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to todays most serious environmental problems. Livestock production, especially beef, created almost 20% of total greenhouse gases worldwide, eclipsing even transportation. Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to todays most serious environmental problems. Low calorie can still have a high environmental impact Examples: water, reduced calorie foods, artificial chemical additives, processed, packaged Low calorie can still have a high environmental impact Examples: water, reduced calorie foods, artificial chemical additives, processed, packaged

7 Food production with resource conservation Local & regional suppliers More whole & seasonal foods with less processed & fast foods Diet is plant- based & augmented with animal foods produced in a sustainable way Sustain- able food system Crop & grazing rotation, cover crops, no/low-till, managing soil, nutrients, biodiversity, & pest.

8 © 2009 Jennifer Turley, Joan Thompson, Garth Tuck

9 Bottled water is a big problem (petroleum based production, packaging, transport, storage) Drink tap water, use a filter if you like Avoid other bottled beverages Buy concentrated juices you can reconstitute Consider teas and/or coffees made at home Chose local and organic milk or even better fortified milk alternatives like soy, rice, or almond milk If you drink wine, purchase boxed wine produced regionally (such as from California or Oregon for Utah residence) Remember refrigeration and freezing costs energy in processing, transport, and store and personal storage.

10 Organic generally improves soil fertility, maintains ecological harmony/biodiversity, and eliminates pesticides, artificial fertilizers, & sewage sludge. Certified organic plant foods are also non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO) and may have higher nutritional qualities. Look for certified organic foods and produce (often has an organic sticker and a 5-digit produce # starting with 9. Organic farmers use less machinery and more manual labor to harvest their fields. Whole grains (wheat, millet, oatmeal, barley, bulgur, buckwheat, quinoa, wheat, etc.), lentils, beans/legumes, tofu, and nuts that are organic and minimally packaged/processed are sustainable staples.

11 Substance that prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate a pest Insects, animals, weeds, micororganisms can be pests Chemicals pesticides: synthetic, organic compounds Biopesticides: microbes, biochemicals (such as pheromones), plant incorporated protectant Toxins inserted at the cellular level (Bt corn) by GE Pesticide treatment tolerance (round-up ready soybeans, corn, alfalfa, canola) by GE Often reach destination other than that intended Pollute air, water, & soil. Resist degradation and remain in the environment for years Hinders nitrogen fixation needed for plant growth & soil quality Potentially poisons animals, birds, fish, ….humans Vicious cycle of spraying to kill pests, pests grow resistant, need to spray more Substance that prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate a pest Insects, animals, weeds, micororganisms can be pests Chemicals pesticides: synthetic, organic compounds Biopesticides: microbes, biochemicals (such as pheromones), plant incorporated protectant Toxins inserted at the cellular level (Bt corn) by GE Pesticide treatment tolerance (round-up ready soybeans, corn, alfalfa, canola) by GE Often reach destination other than that intended Pollute air, water, & soil. Resist degradation and remain in the environment for years Hinders nitrogen fixation needed for plant growth & soil quality Potentially poisons animals, birds, fish, ….humans Vicious cycle of spraying to kill pests, pests grow resistant, need to spray more Epa.gov

12 Modes of entryExample Inhalation Ingestion Skin (dermal) penetration Transplacental absorption Breast milk Inhalation Ingestion Skin (dermal) penetration Transplacental absorption Breast milk A pesticide which is sprayed can be inhaled during use or by drift; penetrate through the skin during mixing and application; and be ingested through water & food (which can be minimized by rinsing plant foods and removing fat from animal foods)

13 Neurological Effects: potent neurotoxins. Short term: dizzy, lightheaded, confused, and reduced coordination and ability to think. Long-term: reduced IQ, learning disability, brain damage. Asthma, upper and lower respiratory effects Infections Hypersensitivity diseases Birth defects Endocrine disruption: Precocious puberty in girls, Reduced sperm counts Cancer Children are more susceptible

14 Dirty Dozen Clean 15 Onion Avocado Sweet Corn Pineapple Mango Asparagus Sweet Peas Kiwi Cabbage Eggplant Papaya Watermelon Broccoli Tomato Sweet Potato Onion Avocado Sweet Corn Pineapple Mango Asparagus Sweet Peas Kiwi Cabbage Eggplant Papaya Watermelon Broccoli Tomato Sweet Potato Peach Apple Bell Pepper Celery Nectarine Strawberries Cherries Kale Lettuce Grapes (Imported) Carrot Pear Peach Apple Bell Pepper Celery Nectarine Strawberries Cherries Kale Lettuce Grapes (Imported) Carrot Pear

15 Unexpected changes in tissue composition from gene activation or suppression. New plant species & naturally occurring toxicant levels (allergy and sensitivity). Plants with substances not normally found in species (allergens, vegetarianism) Marker gene required for identification of altered cells, antibiotic resistance, sterility. Risk of plants used to make nonfood oils or starch entering the food supply. Legal issues of false non-GMO labeling by manufacturers & farmers dealing with unintentional crop migration. Altered nutritional profile. Threatened biodiversity. Not labeled. Why are plants GM? For insect & viral resistance, herbicide tolerance, delayed ripening, plant sterility, and modified oils. What type of plants are GM? Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, soybean, rice, squash, papaya, flax, cantaloupe, and others. Why are plants GM? For insect & viral resistance, herbicide tolerance, delayed ripening, plant sterility, and modified oils. What type of plants are GM? Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, soybean, rice, squash, papaya, flax, cantaloupe, and others.

16 Organic beef, pork, poultry, eggs, and dairy foods may be healthier because: Less pesticide exposure, fed organic feed. Less antibiotics and hormones More nutritional value USDA certified organic animals are traced from birth to slaughter. (which other countries do for all their meats, like the European Union). Organic beef, pork, poultry, eggs, and dairy foods may be healthier because: Less pesticide exposure, fed organic feed. Less antibiotics and hormones More nutritional value USDA certified organic animals are traced from birth to slaughter. (which other countries do for all their meats, like the European Union).

17 Conventional: USDA defined with likely hormone implant, therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotic use, chemical fertilizer & pesticide use, grazing (70%) and confinement (30%), meat & bone meal prohibited, fed tallow (animal fat), manure applied to land. Natural: Minimal processing & additives. Grazing (70%) & confinement (30%). Maybes in conventional practice. Tallow & manure allowed. Grass-fed: No definition, more free range. Grazing (80%) & confinement (20%). Tallow & manure allowed. USDA Certified Organic: All conventional aspects prohibited. Grazing (80%) & confinement (20%). Govt standards mandated on manure applied to land. Always organic vegetarian. Never ever antibiotics, hormones, or preservatives.

18 Able to meet the American meat appetit. 217 lbs/person/year (India 11)

19 Cheap & abundant meat increases demand & production Increased meat consumption can be linked to increase risk of CVD, diabetes and some cancers Factory farms are noisy and smelly thus far from communities so more fuel used for transport Livestock are put in high density unnatural environments causing: Greenhouse gas emissions (feces and passing gas, food miles) Water pollution Disease Ethical issues Livestock production produces 18% of CO 2 equivalents (transportation 15%) High density housing for livestock can lead to substandard conditions (confinements, disease, de-beaking chickens, removing tails from pigs, etc) Leads to high density processing facilities with poor conditions for both animals and workers

20 800 million people suffer from hunger and malnutrition but most of the corn and soy grown goes to livestock Livestock used to be integrated into carbon and nitrogen cycles of small farms Increasing rangeland is a major reason for deforestation Unnatural feeding practices like fattening cattle on grain has led to development of more pathogenic bacteria In order to minimize disease and increase production many animals in factory farms are given antibiotics More than half of the worlds supply of antibiotics are used on animals Could lead to antibiotic resistance Iowa hog factories alone produce 50 million tons of excrement Put into lagoons not waste treatment facilities Contaminate waterways with excrement, antibiotics and hormones

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22 Organic is greener (30-60% less fossil fuel) than conventional

23 Beef and dairy is unsustainable. Lamb is also not energy efficient but is eaten less than beef by most Americans. Avoid highly processed meat (lunch meat, hot dogs, sausage, bacon, nugget, frozen dinners etc) Poultry and eggs are sustainable options Reduce meat consumption and chose organic, local and free-range (grass-fed) animal meat (like beef, bison, pork, lamb) and legally hunted game (like elk, deer, pheasant, rabbit, duck, partridge, moose) when you eat it. It takes millions or years to create biomass that becomes crude oil that then becomes gasoline that is used to create a snack that takes less than 2 minutes to eat …does that seem sustainable? Eating represents an immediate opportunity to make a difference. (Kate Geagan) It takes millions or years to create biomass that becomes crude oil that then becomes gasoline that is used to create a snack that takes less than 2 minutes to eat …does that seem sustainable? Eating represents an immediate opportunity to make a difference. (Kate Geagan)

24 Sustainable: herbivore (plant eater) & omnivores (plant and animal eaters). Tilapia thrive on inexpensive vegetable- based foods. Oysters, clams and mussels improve water quality as they filter plankton out of the water for their food. Unsustainable: carnivores (animal eaters). Salmon, tuna, and shrimp require feed that's made from wild fish. Source:

25 1.Cages/pens: waste, diseases and parasites can freely spread to wild habitat. Farmed fish can escape and compete with wild fish for natural resources, interbreed with wild fish. 2.Raceways: same concerns as cages/pens. 3.Ponds: can destroy coastal habitat to build facility. Discharged untreated wastewater pollutes the environment and contaminates groundwater. 4.Recirculating systems: fish cannot escape, wastewater is treated, but are costly to operate and rely on electricity or other power sources. 5.Shellfish culture: when farmed in high densities with little current/tidal flow leads to the accumulation of waste and the possibility of out-competing native species for natural resources. 1.Cages/pens: waste, diseases and parasites can freely spread to wild habitat. Farmed fish can escape and compete with wild fish for natural resources, interbreed with wild fish. 2.Raceways: same concerns as cages/pens. 3.Ponds: can destroy coastal habitat to build facility. Discharged untreated wastewater pollutes the environment and contaminates groundwater. 4.Recirculating systems: fish cannot escape, wastewater is treated, but are costly to operate and rely on electricity or other power sources. 5.Shellfish culture: when farmed in high densities with little current/tidal flow leads to the accumulation of waste and the possibility of out-competing native species for natural resources. Source:

26 Avoid farmed carnivore fish It takes lbs wild fish to produce 1 lb farmed tuna. It takes 2-10 lbs of wild fish feed to produce 1 lb farmed salmon. Plus large water need US raised, plant eating fish are lean and green superfoods and much more sustainable than air flown salmon or tuna. Include herring, sardines, US farmed catfish, barramundi, tilapia, shrimp, clams, oysters, and mussels. Principles: small fish, live in large numbers close to shore, are herbivores. Organic is meaningless in regards to fish & seafood. Most fresh waters are contaminated with PCBs and methyl mercury.

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29 Eat foods that are: Local In season Organic Eat mostly plant foods (eat low on the food chain); minimally meat free Mondays. If all Americans had a MFD it would be like taking 8 million cars off the road Choose local, sustainable and organic animal meat and milk Choose sustainable wild and farmed fish, ocean friendly foods

30 Eat less red meat, limit animal meat to 3 ounces a day Omit bottled water. Drink from the tap, with or without a filter. Minimize other bottled processed beverages. Select 1 ingredient foods for meals and snacks most often Minimize shopping trips to different stores Bring your own reuse bags Shop the bulk bins Limit packaged foods. If packaged, 5 or less ingredients and not mini/snack pacs. Look for country of origin labeling (COOL) or the source of the food (even produce), chose foods produced the closest to you Become a Locavore, cut truck, train, and air travel of food Compost your food waste Join a CSA Use your kitchen more and eat out much less Pack your own lunch Use energy efficient appliances, especially your refrigerator, in your kitchen Grow some of your own food at home, with a neighbor, or community garden Have a real relationship with real food

31 Freshness & Taste: Food may be <24 hours old and picked at the optimal time to harvest (not before it ripens). Nutrition: decline in nutrients as time passes after harvest. Some organic foods have a better nutritional profile than conventional. Purity: Organic foods are produced without pesticides, or fertilizers, antibiotics, hormones, GMO, or irradiation exposure. Community Vitality: Spend your money within your community. Keep the food supply closer to your hands. Promote regional food self reliance and local jobs. Teach Others: Set an example for others to follow. Teach children the true source and meaning of food. Variety: Local organic farmers grow a diversity of flavorful and locally adapted foods (no mono-cultures). Resource Conservation: Buying locally grown foods decreases dependence on petroleum (transportation and petroleum based chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides), preserves soil, and promotes biodiversity. Cost: Conventional food production has hidden detrimental environmental, health, and social consequences. Organic food may have a higher price-tag.

32 Questions to ask yourself in general Questions to ask when food making purchases Where did my food come from? Is it real food, traditional, imitation/invented, genetically engineered??? What impact does my eating style have on others? the planet? Where did my food come from? Is it real food, traditional, imitation/invented, genetically engineered??? What impact does my eating style have on others? the planet? Organic or conventional? Plant or animal? Local or regional, national, or international? Bulk or processed or packaged? Necessary or splurge? Farmed or Wild fish? Sustainable or unsustainable? Organic or conventional? Plant or animal? Local or regional, national, or international? Bulk or processed or packaged? Necessary or splurge? Farmed or Wild fish? Sustainable or unsustainable?

33 Deborah Koons Garcia, The future of food DVD, Montery Bay Aquarium: Food Routes: Blue Ocean: University of Michigan center for sustainability: Wasatch Gardens: Local Harvest CSA: Books by Michael Pollen Kate Geagan, Go Green Be Lean, and Utah farmers Market: Slow Food Utah: Bell Organic Gardens in Draper Zoe's Garden in Layton Utah:

34 Farmers Markets in Utah: National Geographic Green Guide: University of Michigan center for sustainability: Center for Science in the Public Interest: Green restaurant association: F&V worth buying organic, download wallet card at: Source locally: Real Milk: Field to Plate: Harvest Eating: Wild Idea buffalo company, South Dakota:


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