3Types of Urban Movements Movement TypePatternDominant TimeDestinationPendularStructuredMorning and afternoonLocalized (employment)ProfessionalVariedWorkdaysLocalizedPersonalEveningVaried with some fociTouristicSeasonalDayHighly localizedDistributionNighttime
4Suitability of Travel Modes LimitationsMost Appropriate UsesWalkingRequires physical ability.Limited distance and carrying capacity.Difficult or unsafe in some areas.Short trips by physically able people.BicycleRequires bicycle and physical ability.Short to medium length trips by physically able people on suitable routes.TaxiRelatively high cost per mile.Infrequent trips, short and medium distance trips.Fixed Route TransitDestinations and times limited.Short to medium distance trips along busy corridors.ParatransitHigh cost and limited service.Travel for disabled people.Auto driverRequires driving ability and automobile.High fixed costs.Travel by people who can drive and afford an automobile.RidesharingRequires cooperative automobile driver.Consumes driver’s time if a special trip (chauffeuring).Trips that the driver would take anyway (ridesharing). Occasional special trips (chauffeuring).Car sharing (Vehicle Rentals)Requires convenient and affordable vehicle rentals services.Occasional use by drivers who do not own an automobile.MotorcycleRequires riding ability and motorcycle.Average fixed costs.Travel by people who can ride and afford a motorcycle.TelecommuteRequires equipment and skill.Alternative to some types of trips.
5Main Purposes of Urban Trips Source: adapted from H. Carter (1995) Urban Geography, Fourth Edition, London: Arnold.
6Typical Urban Day Trips by Modes, Origins and Destinations 1:30 AMDelivery10:45 PMReturn10:30 PMDeliveryShopping mall2:30 AMReturnRestaurant8:30 PMDrive alone7:00 PMDrive alone1:30 PMWalk5:30 PMDrive aloneHomeWork12:30 PMWalk7:00 AMGarbagepickup8:00 AMCarpool8:15 AMDrive alone10:00 AMParcelDrop offPassengersSchool(drop off child)10:05 AMParcelPickupFreight
7Urban Travel by Purpose and by Time of the Day in a North American Metropolis Source: adapted from Barber, G. (1995) "Aggregate Characteristics of Urban Travel", in S. Hanson (ed) The Geography of Urban Transportation, 2nd Edition, New York: The Guilford Press, p. 92.
8Home-to-Work Trips Modes, United States, 1985-2005 Source: BTS.
9Modal Split for Global Cities, 1995 Source: KENWORTHY, J. and LAUBE, F.B. (2001): The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport. International Union (Association) of Public Transport, Brussels, Belgium and ISTP, Perth, Western Australia (CD-ROM publication).April 16, p. 10.
10Mode Share for Commuting, New York, 1980-2000 Source: Schaller Consulting (2001) Mode Shift in the 1990s,
112. Urban Transit Context Transit systems Dominantly an urban transportation mode.The great majority of transit trips are taking place in large cities.Conditions fundamental to the efficiency of transit systems:High density and high mobility demands over short distances.Shared public service:Benefits from economies of agglomeration related to high densities.Economies of scale related to high mobility demands.Transit systemsMany types of services established to answer mobility needs.Variety of transit systems around the world.
12Private Vehicle and Public Transport Market Share, 1990/91 American CitiesEuropean CitiesAsian CitiesSource: data from Jeffrey R. Newman, Felix B. Laube (eds) (2002) "An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities: "
13Public Transport Market Share in the United States, 1900-2005 Source: The Public Purpose, Wendell Cox Consultancy.Estimated from data in National Transportation Statistics, James Dunn, Driving Forces Table 4-3, FHWA Highway Statistics, National Transit Database and American Public Transportation Association. All modes reported in National Transit Database except vanpool. Pre-1920 personal vehicle data estimated based upon vehicle miles, vehicle and fuel data.
142. Urban Transit Systems Subway system Bus system Transit rail system Heavy rail system, often underground in central areas, with fixed routes, services and stations. Uniform frequency of services (peak hours increase). Fares are commonly access driven and constant.Bus systemScheduled fixed routes and stops serviced by motorized multiple passengers vehicles ( passengers). Services are often synchronized with other heavy systems (feeders). Express services (notably during peak hours).Transit rail systemFixed rail (tram rail system and commuter rail system). Frequency of services strongly linked with peak hours. Traffic tends to be imbalanced. Fares proportional to distance or service zones.Shuttle systemPrivately (dominantly) owned using small buses or vans. Expanding mobility along a corridor during peak hour. Linking a specific activity center (shopping mall, university campus, industrial zone, hotel, etc.). Servicing the elderly or people with disabilities.Paratransit systemFlexible and privately owned demand-response system. Door-to-door service, less loading and unloading time, less stops and more maneuverability in traffic.Taxi systemPrivately owned vehicles offering an individual demand-response system. Fares commonly a function of a metered distance/time. When competition is not permitted, fares are set up by regulations. Servicing an area where a taxi company has the right (permit) to pickup customers. Rights are issued by a municipality.
15Components of an Urban Transit System XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXMetro stationTransit rail stationBus stopShuttle stopParatransitTaxi serviceboundaryTransferExpress stopX
16Estimated Ridership of the World’s Largest Public Transit Systems, 1998 Source: The Public Purpose, Wendell Cox Consultancy,
17Trips by Public Transport in the United States, 1970-2005 Source: Bureau of Transport Statistics, National Transportation Database, Modal Profiles.
191. Geographical Challenges Facing Urban Transportation ContextMost important transport problems often related to urban areas.Urban productivity:Dependent on the efficiency of its transport system.Move labor, consumers and freight between several origins and destinations.Growing complexity of cities:Accompanied by a wide array of urban transportation problems.Some problems are ancient like congestion (Rome).Others are new like environmental impacts:Notably CO2 emissions linked with the diffusion of the internal combustion engine.
201. Geographical Challenges Facing Urban Transportation Traffic congestion and parking difficultiesSupply of infrastructures has not kept up with the growth of mobility. Vehicles spend the majority of the time parked; motorization has expanded the demand for parking space.Public transport inadequacyOver or under-usage of public transport systems. Inability of public transit systems to be financially sustainable.Difficulties for pedestriansIntense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles are impaired. Lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities.Environmental impacts and energy consumptionPollution (e.g. noise) generated by circulation has impediments. Dependency on petroleum.Accidents and safetyGrowing traffic linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities. Accidents account for a significant share of recurring delays.Land consumptionSignificant territorial imprint. Between 30 and 60% of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation.Freight distributionGlobalization resulted in growing quantities of freight moving in cities. Shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers. City logistics.
212. Automobile Dependency CausesAdvantages of automobile use:Performance, comfort, status, speed, and convenience.Illustrates why car ownership continues to grow worldwide.Factors of growth:Sustained economic growth (increase in revenue and quality of life).Complex individual urban movement patterns.Peripheral urban growth.Factors of dependencyUnder pricing and consumer choices:Most road infrastructures are subsidized (considered a public service).Drivers do not bear the full cost of car usage.Car ownership is a symbol of statusSingle home ownership.
222. Automobile Dependency Planning and investment practices:Aims towards improving road and parking facilities in an ongoing attempt to avoid congestion.Transportation alternatives tend to be disregarded.In many cases, zoning regulations impose minimum standards of road and parking services and de facto impose a regulated car dependency.
233. Congestion Congestion Occurs when transport demand exceeds transport supply:At a specific point in time.In a specific section of the transport system.Each vehicle impairs the mobility of others.Types:Recurring congestion (specific times of the day and on specific segments of the transport system).Random events (accidents and weather conditions).
25Major Sources of Recurring and Non-Recurring Congestion
26Roadway Congestion Index, Selected Cities, United States, 1982-2007 Source: Texas Transportation Institute. The Urban Mobility StudyNOTE: Data to be cross-verified
27Average Hourly Traffic on George Washington Bridge, 2002 Source: US DOT.
28The Vicious Circle of Congestion Public pressures to increase capacityThe number of movements increasesNew capacityThe average length of movements increasesMovements are easierUrban sprawl is favored
293. Congestion: Some Mitigation Measures Ramp meteringControlling access to a congested highway by letting automobiles in one at a time instead of in groups.Traffic signal synchronizationTuning the traffic signals to the time and direction of traffic flows.Incident managementMaking sure that vehicles involved in accidents or mechanical failures are removed as quickly as possible from the road.CarpoolingIndividual providing ridership to people having a similar origin, destination and commuting time. Two or more vehicle trips combined into one. Vehicle pools.HOV (High Occupancy Vehicle) lanesVehicles with 2 or more passengers (buses, vans, carpool, etc.) have exclusive access to a less congested lane.Public transitOffering alternatives to driving.