Presentation on theme: "Succeeding as a Systems Analysts"— Presentation transcript:
1Succeeding as a Systems Analysts Chapter-IISucceeding as a Systems Analysts
2Contents Discuss the analytical skills Describe the technical skills Discuss the management skillsIdentify the interpersonal skills
3Relationship between system analyst’s skills and SDLC phases Interpersonal skillsProject identification and selections phaseProject initiation and planning phaseAnalytical skillsAnalysis phaseManagement skillsDesign phaseTechnical skillsImplementation phaseMaintenance phase
4Analytical skills for System analysts We will focus on four sets of analytical skills. They are:System thinkingOrganizational knowledgeProblem identificationProblem analyzing and solving
5Analytical skills for System analysts: 1. System thinking Systems and its characteristicsSystem is an interrelated set of components, with identifiable boundary, working together for some purposeA system has nine characteristics:Components SubsystemsInterrelated componentsA boundaryA purposeAn environmentInterfacesInputOutputConstraints
7System characteristics A componentan irreducible part or aggregation of parts that make up a system, also called a subsystemInterrelated componentsDependence of one subsystem on one or more subsystemsBoundaryThe line that marks the inside and outside of a system and that sets off the system form its environment
8System characteristics PurposeThe overall goal or function of a systemEnvironmentEverything external to a system that interacts with the systemInterfacePoint of contact where a system meets its environment or where subsystems meet each other.
9System characteristics ConstraintA limit to what a system can accomplishInputWhatever a system takes from its environment in order to fulfill its purposeOutputWhatever a system returns from its environment in order to fulfill its purpose
10A fast food restaurant as a system: Example Environments: customers, food distribution, banks, etc.StorageOfficeOutputs:PreparedfoodTrashEtc.Inputs:Food,labor,cash,etc.KitchensDiningRoomContourBoundaryinterrelationship
11Open and Closed systems Open systemA system that interacts freely with its environment, taking input and returning outputClosed systemA system that is cut off from its environment and does not interact with it
12Logical and Physical system description Logical system descriptionDescription of a system that focuses on the system function and purpose without regard to how the system will physically implementedPhysical system descriptionDescription of a system that focuses on the how the system will be materially constructed
13Benefiting from systems thinking The first step in systems thinking is to be able to identify something as a system.Identify where the boundary lies and all of the relevant inputsVisualizing a set of things and their relationship as system allows you to translate a specify physical situation into more general.By decompositionThe system into subsystems, we can analyze each subsystem separately and discover if one or more subsystem is at capacity.Its enabled us to determine its problem with demand
14Kitchen Customer 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Goods sold file Customer order Kitchen order1.0ProcessCustomerFood orderReceiptInventory dataUpdateGoods soldfile2.03.0UpdateInventoryfileFormattedGoodssolddataGoodsSoldGoods soldfileInventory file4.0ProduceManagementreportDaily inventoryDepletion amountsDaily goods sold amountManagement reportRestaurantmanger*Data flow diagram for fast food restaurant IS
15Organizational skills Analyst should understandhow organizations workPolicesTerminologies, abbreviations, and acronymsShort/long term strategy and plansRole of technologyThe functions and procedures of the particular organization you are working forHow the department operates,its purpose,its relationship with other departmentits relationship with customers and suppliersWho the experts are in different subject areas
16Problem Identification skills (Pound 1969) Problem is the difference between an existing (current) situation and desired (output) situation.The process of identifying problems is the process of defining differences, so problem solving is the process of finding a way to reduce differences.Analyst should able to compare the current in an organization to the desired situation.
18Important system concepts There are several other system concepts with which systems analysts need to become familiar:DecompositionModularityCouplingCohesion
19DecompositionDefinition: The process of breaking down a system into smaller componentThe purpose of decomposition is to allow the system analysts to:Break a system into small, manageable subsystemFocus on one are at a timeConcentrate one component pertinent to one group of usersBuild different components at independent times
20Modularity and Coupling Dividing a system up into chunks or modules of a relatively uniform size. To Simplify the redesign and rebuild processCouplingThe extend to which subsystems depend on each other.Subsystem should be independent as possible. If one subsystem fails and other subsystem are highly dependent on it, then the other will either fail themselves or have problems functioning
21CohesionA cohesion is the extent to which a subsystem performs a single function.
22Technical Skills (1)Many aspects of your job as a system analyst are technically oriented.The following activities will help you stay up-to-date:Read trade publicationsJoin professional societiesAttend classes or teach at a local collegeAttend many courses or training sessions offered by your organizationsAttend professional conferences, seminars, or trade showsParticipate in electronic bulletin, new groups
23Technical Skills (2)You should be familiar as possible with information technology:Microcomputer, micro station, workstation, mainframe computersProgramming languagesOperating systemsDatabase and file management systemsData communication standardsSoftware for local and wide networksWeb developing toolsDecision support system generatorsData analysis toolsData design tools
24Management SkillsSystem analysts are almost always members of project teams and are frequently asked to lead team.Management skills are very useful for anyone in a leadership role.There are four class of management skills:1- Resources2- Project3- Risk4- Change management
251- Resource management Includes: Predicting resources usage (budgeting)Tracking and accounting for resources consumptionLearning how to use resources effectivelySecuring resources from abusive useEvaluating the quality of resources used
26Assignment Describe your university or college as a system. What is the input?What is output?What is the boundary?What is the components and their relationship?The constraintThe environmentDraw a diagram of this system
27AssignmentDescribe yourself in terms of your abilities at each of the following interpersonal kills: working alone verse working with a team, interviewing, listening, writing, presenting, facilitating a group, and margining expectations. Where are your strengths and weakness? Why? What can you do to capitalize on your strengths and strengths areas where you are weak?
28Interpersonal skills Communication skills Interviewing, Listening, and questionnairesWritten and oral presentationsMeeting agendaMeeting minutesInterview summariesRequests for proposal from contractors and vendorsWorking alone and with a teamFacilitating groupsManaging exceptions