2Waves are everywhere in nature Sound waves,visible light waves,radio waves,microwaves,water waves,sine waves,telephone chord waves,stadium waves,earthquake waves,waves on a string,slinky waves
3What is a wave?a wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another.a wave is the motion of a disturbancewaves transfer energy without the bulk transport of matter
4Frequency and PeriodFrequency measures the number of events that occur in a certain amount of time.Period is the time to complete one cycle.For example, if you get a paycheck twice a month, the frequency of payment is two per month (2 paychecks/month) and the period between checks is half a month.
5Period (T) - the shortest time interval during Frequency (f)- the number of complete cycles per unit timef = cyclestimemeasured in units of Hz (s-1)Eg. Five crests pass a point every second so f = 5 cycles/s = 5 HzPeriod (T) - the shortest time interval duringwhich the motion repeats itselfT = timecyclemeasured in units of time (s, min)Eg. A pendulum bob takes 3.5 s to swoing “to and fro”f = 1/TT = 1/f&
6Sample Problemse.g. A child on a swing completes 20 cycles in 25 s. Calculate the frequency and the period of the swing.e.g. A stroboscope is flashing so that the time interval between flashes is 1/80 s. Calculate the frequency of the stobe light’s flashes.e.g. Calculate the frequency and the period of a tuning fork that vibrates times in 1.00 min.Page 10 #1 – 4, page 17 #8 - 13
8A single disturbance is called a pulse or shock wave Recall:a wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another.A single disturbance is called a pulse or shock waveThe slinky as a whole does not move forward, but its different parts move up and down about their mean positions. It is only the hump or the disturbance, which moves forward along the slinky.
10TRANSVERSE The displacement of the particles of the medium is perpendicular tothe direction of wave propagation (pulse).e.g. skipping ropes, radio waves, light waves, heat waves, stadium wave
11Transverse WavesThe stadium "wave" travels all around the stadium. None of the fans travel around the stadium. They only stand up and sit down.That means the movement of the medium (the people) transects (is perpendicular to) the movement of the wave making this a Transverse Wave!
12LONGITUDINALThe displacement of the particles of the medium is parallel to the direction of wave propagation (pulse).e.g. sound waves, tsunami waves, earthquake P waves
13Longitudinal WavesThe particles do not move down the tube with the wave; they simply oscillate back and forth about their individual equilibrium positions.
14SURFACE A combination of transverse and longitudinal. The particles move perpendicular and parallel to the pulse.e.g. water waves, Rayleigh earthquake waves
15Anatomy of a WavecrestThe points A and F are called the CRESTS of the wave.This is the point where the wave exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upwards displacement
16Anatomy of a WavetroughThe points D and I are called the TROUGHS of the wave.These are the points where the wave exhibits its maximum negative or downward displacement.
17Anatomy of a Wave cont.AmplitudeThe distance between the dashed line and point A (or point D, F or I) is called the Amplitude of the wave.This is the maximum displacement that the wave moves away from its equilibrium.
18Anatomy of a Wave cont.wavelengthThe distance between two consecutive similar points (in this case two crests) is called the wavelength (λ).This is the length of the wave pulse.Between what other points is can a wavelength be measured?
19Recall: The distance between two consecutive similar points is called the wavelength (λ).
20PhasePoints along a transverse or longitudinal wave are said to be in phase if they are moving in the same direction and have the same amplitude.
21Which other points are in phase with A? E, I. They are moving in the same direction AND have the same amplitude.Are C and G in phase with A?They are moving out of phase with A because they have the same amplitude but are moving in the OPPOSITE direction.
221. Give two examples of each of the three types of energy transfer. 2. What is the difference between a wave and a pulse?3. Sharon is lying on a raft in a wave pool. Describe to Sharon, in terms of the waves she is riding, each of the following: amplitude, period, wavelength, speed, frequency.4. For the wave pictured,a. measure the λ;b. measure the amplitude;c. state the number of positive pulses;d. name the type of wave;e. label two pulses that are in phase;f. label two pulses that are out of phase.5. If you want to increase the amplitude of a pulse, what must you do to the amount of energy used to make the pulse?Practice: p. 17 – 18 #2, 3, 14, 16
25Wave SpeedWe can use what we know to determine how fast a wave is moving.What is the formula for velocity?velocity = distance / timeWhat distance do we know about a wave?wavelengthAnd what time do we know?period
26Wave Speed v = / T and T = 1 / f so we can also write v = f velocity = frequency * wavelengthThis is known as the wave equation.Sample Problems: (in handout)A wave coming in from the ocean has a wavelength of 0.080m. If the frequency of the wave is 2.5 Hz, what is its speed?The distance between successive crests of water waves is 4.0m and the crests travel 9.0 m in 4.5 s. What is the frequency of the waves? What is the period?Practice: p. 15 #1-6; p #15, 17-32
27Wave Behavior We know that waves travel through mediums. But what happens when that medium runs out?
28Boundary BehaviorThe behavior of a wave when it reaches the end of its medium is called the wave’s BOUNDARY BEHAVIOR.When one medium ends and another begins, that is called a boundary.
29Fixed End ReflectionOne type of boundary that a wave may encounter is that it may be attached to a fixed end.Fixed-end reflection occurs when a wave strikes a rigid barrier.In this case, the end of the medium will not be able to move.What is going to happen if a wave pulse goes down this string and encounters the fixed end?
30Fixed End Reflection Here the incident pulse is an upward pulse. The reflected pulse is upside-down. It is inverted.A crest is reflected as a trough and vice versa.The reflected pulse has the same speed, wavelength, and amplitude as the incident pulse.A portion of the energy carried by the pulse is transmitted to the pole, causing the pole to vibrate.
32Free End ReflectionAnother boundary type is when a wave’s medium is attached to a stationary object as a free end.In this situation, the end of the medium is allowed to slide up and down.What would happen in this case?
33Free End ReflectionIf the reflection occurs at a free-end the reflected pulse is not inverted (erect).It is identical to the incident pulse, except it is moving in the opposite direction.The speed, wavelength, and amplitude are the same as the incident pulse.
35Change in MediumOur third boundary condition is when the medium of a wave changes.Think of a thin rope attached to a thick rope. The point where the two ropes are attached is the boundary.At this point, a wave pulse will transfer from one medium to another.What will happen here?
36Change in Medium 1. Fast (thin) medium into a slow (thick) medium. The slow medium acts as a barrier.The transmitted pulse travels slower than the reflected pulse, is upright and has a shorter wavelength than the incident pulse.The reflected pulse is inverted.The speed & λ of the reflected pulse are the same as the speed and λ of the incident pulse
38Change in MediumThink of a thick rope attached to a thin rope. The point where the two ropes are attached is the boundary.At this point, a wave pulse will transfer from one medium to another.What will happen here?
39Change in Medium 2. Slow (thick) medium into a fast (thin) medium The fast medium does not act as a barrier.The transmitted pulse is faster, is upright (erect) and has a longer wavelength than the incident pulse.The reflected pulse is not inverted (it is erect).The speed & λ of the reflected pulse are the same as the speed and λ of the incident pulse
40Change in Medium Animation Check your understanding
41Sample ProblemsA negative pulse is sent along a spring. The spring is attached to a light thread that is tied to the wall. Describe the speed and type of pulse that is transmitted at A.Describe the speed and type of pulse that is reflected at A.Describe the speed and type of pulse that is reflected at B.A long spring runs across the floor of a room and out the door. A pulse is sent along the spring. After a few seconds, an inverted pulse returns. Is the spring attached to the wall in the room or is it lying loose on the floor?You want to increase the wavelength of waves in a rope.Should you shake the rope with a high frequency or a low frequency?Should you send a pulse from a thin material into a thick material or send the pulse the other direction?
42Practice: p. 17 #4LM: p. 3 - Reflection at Barriers
45Laws of ReflectionThe shape of a continuous crest or trough is called a wavefront.If a wavefront hits a straight barrier, the wavefront is reflected back along the original path.
46If the wavefront hits a straight barrier at an angle (angle of incidence), the wavefront is reflected at an angle (angle of reflection). The angles are measured from the normal, a line that is perpendicular to the barrier.
47If the wavefront approaches a parabolic barrier, the waves are reflected to a point called the focal point.The normal of a parabolic reflector is perpendicular to the tangent (normal) at that point.
48Sample Problems The diagram shows wave fronts striking a barrier. Draw the incident direction.Draw the normal.Measure the angle of incidence.Draw the reflected direction.Draw the reflected wave fronts.
492. The diagram shows the direction of a wave that strikes a curved barrier. Draw the tangent line.Draw the normal.Measure the angle of incidence.Draw the reflected direction.Draw the reflected wave fronts.
52Wave InteractionAll we have left to discover is how waves interact with each other.When two waves meet while traveling along the same medium it is called INTERFERENCE.
53Constructive Interference Let’s consider two waves moving towards each other, both having a positive upward amplitude.What will happen when they meet?
54Principle of Superposition Interferencethe result of the superpositionof two or more wavesPrinciple of Superpositionthe displacement of the medium whentwo or more waves pass throughit at the same time is the algebraicsum of the displacements causedby the individual waves
55Constructive Interference Let’s consider two waves moving towards each other, both having a positive upward amplitude.What will happen when they meet?
56Constructive Interference They will ADD together to produce a greater amplitude.This is known as CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE.
70result of two wave trains of the same A standing wave is theresult of two wave trains of the samewavelength, frequency, and amplitudetraveling in opposite directionsthrough the same medium.
71Standing WavesA standing wave does not appear to move, the crest and troughs appear to flip above and below the rest position. They are created from positive and negative pulses of equal shape (frequency, wavelength and amplitude) that travel in opposite directions. The point that flips from a crest to a trough is called a loop or antinode; it is created from constructive interference.
72When the two waves are 180° out-of-phase with each other they cancel, and when they are exactly in-phase with each other they add together. As the two waves pass through each other, the net result alternates between zero and some maximum amplitude. However, this pattern simply oscillates; it does not travel to the right or the left, and thus it is called a "standing wave".
73A standing wave is typically depicted by drawing the shape of the medium at an instant in time and at an instant one-half vibrational cycle later. This is done in the diagram below.An antinode is a point on the medium that is staying in the same location. An antinode vibrates back and forth between a large upward and a large downward displacement. Nodes and antinodes are not actually part of a wave. Recall that a standing wave is not actually a wave but rather a pattern that results from the interference of two or more waves. Since a standing wave is not technically a wave, an antinode is not technically a point on a wave. The nodes and antinodes are merely unique points on the medium that make up the wave pattern.
74Standing WavesThe point that remains at the rest position is called a node or nodal point; it is created from destructive interference.One node occurs every ½.One loop (anti-node) occurs every ½.
75Sample ProblemsA standing wave interference pattern is produced in a rope by a vibrator with a frequency of 28 Hz. If the wavelength of the waves is 20 cm, what is the distance between successive nodes?The distance between the second and fifth nodes in a standing wave is 60 cm. What is the wavelength of the waves? What is the speed of the waves, if the source has a frequency of 25 Hz?Practice: LM p. 4 - Standing Waves;p. 17 #7, p. 36 #38-43
77Interference Patterns If two points are generating waves, the crests and troughs will interact to produce a two-point-source interference pattern.Areas of constructive interference and destructive interference are produced.Crest + crest = constructive interferenceTrough + trough = constructive interferenceCrest + trough = destructive interference
79The thick lines represent wave crests and the thin lines represent wave troughs. The red dots in the animation represent the antinodal positions (constructive interference); the blue dots represent the nodal positions (destructive interference).
801. Observe the two-point source interference pattern shown below 1. Observe the two-point source interference pattern shown below. Several points are marked and labeled with a letter.Which of the labeled points are ...a. ... on nodal lines?b. ... on antinodal lines?c. ... formed as the result of constructive interference?d. ... formed as the result of destructive interference?
81e. g. Draw a two-point-source interference pattern e.g. Draw a two-point-source interference pattern. The sources are 2 cm apart. The wavelength of each source is 1 cm.
85ELECTROMAGNETIC waves. No medium is needed forELECTROMAGNETIC waves.Light, radio, x-rays, and gamma raysare some examples of e/m waves.All e/m waves travel through freespace at a speed of approximately3.00 x 108 m/s or 186,000 miles/sec.This speed is known as the speed of light.
86Learn more about standing waves here, here, and here. Click here to view a simulation of theinterference of two traveling wavesthat can result in a standing wave.Click here to view a simulationof standing waves on a string.Standing waves may be produced easily inwater, string, and air columns.
87the maximum displacement of a particle of the medium from Amplitudethe maximum displacementof a particle of the medium fromthe rest or equilibrium positiondenoted by A and measured in units of length
88the shortest distance between two points that are “in phase” Wavelengththe shortest distance betweentwo points that are “in phase”denoted by l and measured in units of length
89v = d/t = l/T = f l Velocity - the speed of the wave denoted by v and measured in units of dist/timeThe speed of a wave depends on the propertiesof the medium through which it is traveling.v = d/t = l/T = f l
90Reflection the turning back of a wave when it reaches the boundary of themedium through which it is traveling
91the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection Law of Reflectionthe angle of incidence is equalto the angle of reflection
92There are two types of reflection. Fixed-end Terminationthe reflected wave isinverted when it reflectsfrom a more dense mediumFree-end Terminationthe reflected wave isupright when it reflectsfrom a less dense mediumClick here to view these types of reflection.
93Refractionthe bending of a wave as it passes obliquely from one medium into another of different propagation speedFor refraction to occur, the wavemust change speed and must enterthe new medium at an oblique angle.
94Diffraction the spreading of a wave around a barrier or through an opening
95results in a larger amplitude results in a smaller amplitude Types of InterferenceConstructiveresults in a larger amplitudeDestructiveresults in a smaller amplitude
96Read more about interference here. Click here to view the interference pattern resulting from the superpositionof two transverse waves.Click here and here to viewsimulations of the interference oftwo circular waves.
97The ripple tank simulation found here can be used to investigate wave properties.You can view reflection,refraction, diffraction,and interference using bothplane and circular waves.Click here to view a movieclip of an actual ripple tank experiment.
98Doppler Effect the change in frequency due to the relative motion of the wave source and the observerThe observed frequency is higher when thesource and observer are getting closer.The observed frequency is lower when thesource and observer are getting farther away.
99Click here, here, here, and here to run simulations of the Doppler Effect.The Doppler Effectcan be evident forall types of waves –including light,sound, water, etc…