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Indian Classical Music and Davy Graham

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1 Indian Classical Music and Davy Graham
By: Catherine Durcan IB Music Theory

2 India: Demographics Population: 1,220,800,359 (July 2013 est.)
Area: 3,287,263 sq. km Ethnicities: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other Religions: 80.5% Hinduism, 13.4% Muslim, 2.3% Christian, 1.9% Sikh, 1.8% other, 0.1% unspecified Languages: 41% Hindi, 8.1% Bengali, 7.2% Telugu, 7% Marathi, 5.9% Tamil, 5% Urdu, 4.5% Gujarati, 3.7% Kannada, 3.2% Malayalam, 3.2% Oriya, 2.8% Punjabi, 1.3% Assamese, 1.2% Maithili, 5.9% other English is the subsidiary official language Capital: New Delphi Shares borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal, and Pakistan Also borders the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

3 Geography Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north Terrain: -Upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in the south -Flat to rolling plains along the Ganges -Deserts in the west -Himalayas in the north


5 Hinduism: Influencing Indian Music
Origin of Indian Classical music can be traced back to the Vedas, the primary sacred text of Hinduism. Four Vedas: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Arhtarva Veda Rig Veda: Divine Hymns, important prayers and the oldest, most important veda Sama Veda: Contains music to be sung and is the origin of Indian Classical Music. It defines the seven swaras (notes) and its music has been passed down through generations for over three thousand years Yajur Veda: Known as the karma veda. Describes rituals and sacrifices during the vedic period Artharva Veda: Contains magical remedies and chants for curing illnesses and a small number of incantations for cursing enemies

6 Main Features Raga: a melodic framework based on a set of notes
Pieces are often improvised using the raga as the foundation of the piece Ragas can have 5-12 tones and some ragas have a different number of notes when they ascend and descend Each raga belongs to a modal structure called a thaat (in North Indian music) or a mela (in South Indian music) Notation: sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, and sa Tala (or taal): the rhythmic pattern of a piece Sounds produced by the tala are often vocalized (e.g. dhaa, ga, ka, ke) These are called bols. Bols combined together create the tala. Monophonic Does not use harmony Requires use of a drone Dialogue between instruments

7 Instruments Sitar Tanpura
Tabla Mridangam

8 Instruments (continued)
Kanjira Violin Used mainly in Carnatic music and is played using a different technique than in Western music Often used to accompany Carnatic (South Indian) vocalists

9 Hindustani VS Carnatic
North India: Hindustani Hindustani Ragas are usually played at certain times of the day or during different seasons South India: Carnatic There are more Carnatic ragas than Hindustani because Carnatic music uses shrutis (semi-tones) which allow the creation of more ragas Use of the Violin is more prominent in Carnatic music Similarities: Both Hindustani and Carnatic music do share some of the same ragas however, they usually use different names and are played in a way that shows distinctive Hindustani or Carnatic Styles

10 Anoushka Shankar Daughter of the famous Indian sitar player, Ravi Shankar Started playing sitar at age nine and was taught by her father Debuted professionally as a classical sitar player at age thirteen Was the first Indian female and youngest ever nominee for a Grammy in the world music category Established herself as a well-known classical sitar player on a global scale in her twenties As a composer, Shankar blends Classical music with genres such as flamenco, jazz, electronica, and Western classical music

11 Raga Jog Traditional Hindustani raga Commonly used raga
Traditionally sung or played in the hours just after midnight The word “jog” means a state of enchantment Uses the rhythmic cycle Adi Taal- an eight beat cycle Instruments: sitar, violin, tanpura, shehnai, and various Indian percussion such as the mridanga and kanjira The sitar, violin, shehnai, and percussionist each have a small solo part in the raga The violin is played in the Carnatic style (full version)

12 Davy Graham (1940- 2008) British Folk-blues guitarist
Influenced by traditional folk, blues, jazz, North African, Indian, and Arabic music Travelled often and his ideas were ahead of his time Travelled to India Most well-known piece, “Anji”, was released in 1962 Influenced many artists who came after him: Pentangle, John Martin, Martin Carthy, and Jimmy Page Created alternate tuning for the guitar called DADGAD Blended traditional Irish music and Indian Classical when he played the Irish folk song, “She Moved Through the Fair” in the style of an Indian raga ztQk (She Moved Through the Fair)

13 DADGAD Associated with Celtic music and Indian folk music
Used in genres besides folk/traditional including rock, pop, New Age, and many more This tuning can be achieved from standard tuning by tuning the first, second, and sixth string down a whole step which creates an open D suspended chord and makes the tuning neither major nor minor DADGAD uses many movable chords that allow open strings therefore, when played it creates a drone effect

14 Sunshine Raga Released in 1968
Part of the album: Large As Life And Twice As Natural Uses an original tuning Graham created as a blend of eastern modal tunings Instruments: Guitar and drums The guitar is used to imitate the playing style of the sitar A drone effect is created by the open strings of the guitar The drums are played in the style of the tabla

15 Comparison Similarities They are both essentially ragas
Use of the drone Indian rhythmic ideas Playing style of the guitar and sitar are similar Monophonic

16 Comparison: Differences
Raga Jog Sunshine Raga Use of the tanpura to create the drone Uses traditional Indian instruments and has a greater variety of instruments Pure traditional music Use of the guitar’s open strings to create a drone effect Uses only two instruments and they are not Indian instruments Fusion of different styles

17 Work cited
factbook/geos/in.html dGamelan.aspx

18 Work Cited

19 Picture References:

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