Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Indian Music: South India (& some North?)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Indian Music: South India (& some North?)
Brief History BCE—Indus Valley cities 3 rd century BCE—countless kingdoms and emperors such as the Buddhist Asoka c CE—Moguls c CE—three centuries of British colonialism
Hinduism “the dominant religion of India.” Caste: “one of the hereditary social classes in Hinduism that restrict the occupation of their members and their association with the members of other castes.”
Islam Moslems “belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet.” About 10%
Palimpsest “a manuscript parchment written on again and again in which everything written before is never fully erased. Everything written before is somehow still there, visible and readable...” Similarly in Indian culture old traditions persist and “coexist with the new and innovative...” (compare with China and Japan)
History, Culture, Politics one billion people—a fifth of the world’s population an area one-third the size of the United States Fifteen major languages More than Five Thousand years of history
Regions Hindustani -- North Moslem concentration Hindus Valley Carnatic -- South Hindu concentration Carnatic Plains
The Taj Mahal
English Influence railways democratic systems of government bureaucracy universities European musical instruments
“While Indians adapted European musical instruments to their musical styles, they did not adopt European musical styles.” violin clarinet piano saxophone Guitar Mandolin
Traditional literature two Sanskrit epics between 400 B.C.E. and 400 C.E.” Ramayana Mahabharata In Carnatic music many song texts refer to events in these epics.
Important religious works The four Vedas Upanishads Puranas
Music of India Pop music Devotional song Classical music
Cine Music Indian popular music A blend of East and West Sometimes reminiscent of early rock and roll “Anything goes” “Engal Kalyanam (CD II:20)
Hindustani and Carnatic Music Similarities ragas talas Differences The Hindustani north -- expansive improvisations Carnatic south -- pre-composed devotional songs
Raga “that which colors the mind and the heart” a collection of notes, a scale, intonation, ornaments, pillar tones a precise melody form sa ri ga ma pa da ni (sa)
Tala regularly recurring metric cycles consisting of groups of beats. Beat groupings are usually uneven (i.e., 3+2+2; 4+3; 1+2)
veena plucked string instrument with seven strings three drone strings and four playing strings (for playing melodies).
Mridangam double-headed, barrel-shaped drum.
Sruti-box and tambura
The Carnatic texture Melody Layer vocalist(s)/instrumentalist (veena) Drone Layer sustained (continuously sounding) central tone tambura or sruti box Rhythm Layer (percussion) mridangam—multi-timbral, double-headed tala
bhajan devotional song sung by a soloist with accompanying instruments or by a vocal group in a call-and–response manner “Devi Niye Tunai” (CD II:21) Tala accents p. 255
chinna melan “small band,” an ensemble of two or more A chinna melam is likely to be performed at any auspicious occasion, for example, at temple worship, weddings, the opening a new store, and so on.
Karnataka Sangeeta Classical Music of South India in English simply Carnatic music. It is named after the Carnatic plateau
Transmission oral tradition passed down by memory. The music is to nudge the memory. no definitive version of the music exists. musical renditions may become highly variable
CD III:1 “Sarasiruha” (“To the Goddess Saraswati”) Kriti in Natai raga and Adi tala. Performed by veena and mridangam.
Sarasiruha 0:00-3:15 Alapana “free-flowing exposition and exploration of the raga absence of meter drone sustains tonal center and the tone a fifth above tonal center 3:20-8:15 Tanam “strong sense of beat.” improvised melody continues
Sarasiruha 8:25-15:45 Kriti “Sarasiruha” “centerpiece” of the performance Pallavi: “O Mother who loves the lotus seat,” Anupallavi: “Save me who have taken refuge in you!” Charanam: “Complete Being, who holds a book in her hand which bestows all dominion.”
Sarasiruha 15:45-18:05 Kalpana Svaras mridangam continues to accompany melody played on the veena 18:06-22:20 The Drum Solo: Tani Avartanam A long and complex improvised drum solo played on the mridangam accompanied only by the drone being played on the drone strings of the veena 22:04
North India Tabla = drum Sitar = descendent of veena
Tabla Zakir Hussain, master tabla player
Ravi Shankar virtuoso sitar player 1960s concerts brought him superstar status in Europe, the United States and India.
Indian Influences The Beatles Minimalism (Philip Glass et al) Pieces of East David Amram Ballet (Chakra)
Chakra, David Amram Jhaptal Tala ( ) XXXXXX
Combined Result (Raga transposed to G in Oboe Part)