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An Update on KASPER Post House Bill 1 David R. Hopkins KASPER Program Manager Office of Inspector General Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services.

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Presentation on theme: "An Update on KASPER Post House Bill 1 David R. Hopkins KASPER Program Manager Office of Inspector General Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Update on KASPER Post House Bill 1 David R. Hopkins KASPER Program Manager Office of Inspector General Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services Kentucky Society of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeons March 9, 2013

2 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Disclosure David R. Hopkins –No relevant financial relationships. –No conflicts of interest.

3 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Contents Controlled Substance Abuse and Pill Mills Provider Shopping An Update on the KASPER Program Controlled Substance Prescribing in Kentucky (HB1) Controlled Substance Trends in Kentucky

4 Cabinet for Health and Family Services KASPER KASPER is Kentuckys Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP). KASPER tracks Schedule II – V controlled substance prescriptions dispensed within the state as reported by pharmacies and other dispensers. Enhanced KASPER (eKASPER) is the real-time web accessed database that provides a tool to help address the misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled pharmaceutical substances.

5 Problems with Controlled Substances

6 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Misuse, Abuse, Diversion Misuse: –When a schedule II – V substance is taken by an individual for a non-medical reason. Abuse: –When an individual repeatedly takes a schedule II – V substance for a non-medical reason. Diversion: –When a schedule II – V substance is acquired and/or taken by an individual for whom the medication was not prescribed.

7 Cabinet for Health and Family Services A National Perspective From 1992 to 2003 the 15.1 million Americans abusing controlled prescription drugs exceeded the combined number abusing: –Cocaine (5.9 million), –Hallucinogens (4.0 million), –Inhalants (2.1 million), and –Heroin (.3 million). Source: Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled Prescription Drugs in the U.S. Published by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), July 2005.

8 A National Perspective Opioid pain relievers involved in more than 15,000 deaths in the United States 1 in 20 people in the U.S. reported using prescription painkillers for nonmedical reasons in the last year Enough prescription painkillers were prescribed in 2010 to medicate every adult American around the clock for a month Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Vitalsigns newsletter, November 2011.

9 Cabinet for Health and Family Services ED Visits involving Narcotic Pain Relievers

10 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Prescription Drug Abuse in Kentucky 6.6% of Kentuckians (ages 12+) have used prescription pain relievers for nonmedical reasons in past year. (KY tied for second in nation) –National average = 4.9% Kentucky prescription opioid pain reliever overdose death rate is 17.9 per 100,000 of population (KY ranks sixth in the nation) –National average is 11.9 per 100,000 of population Source: Data from the 2007, 2008 and 2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, published by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Behavioral Statistics and Quality.

11 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Opioid Analgesics Most Frequently Detected in Kentucky Overdose Deaths Source: Annual reports of the Office of the Kentucky Medical Examiner, compiled by Dr. Len Paulozzi, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, 2012.

12 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Generation Rx 19% of teens report abusing prescription medications to get high. 40% of teens agree that prescription medicines, even if not prescribed by a doctor, are safer than illegal drugs. 29% of teens believe prescription pain relievers are not addictive. 62% of teens say prescription pain relievers are easy to get from parents medicine cabinets Source: 2005 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study on Teen Drug Abuse, The Partnership for a Drug-Free America, May 16, 2006.

13 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Pharm Parties Short for pharmaceutical party, often attended by teens and young adults. Bowls and baggies of random prescription drugs called trail mix. Collecting pills from the family medicine cabinet called pharming. Internet chat rooms are used to share recipes for getting high with prescription drugs. Reported by Donna Leinwand, USA Today, June 13, 2006

14 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Hydrocodone 1. Source: The Facts About Hydrocodone Addiction. 2. Source: 2008 Annual Report of the International Narcotics Control Board. DEA believes hydrocodone the most abused prescription drug in the U.S. 1 Usage increased 400% in last 10 years Hydrocodone attributed ER visits increased 500% in last 10 years The U.S. has approximately 4.6% of the worlds population and consumes 99% of all the hydrocodone produced 2 The Cocktail: hydrocodone, Xanax and Soma

15 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Hydrocodone Photo from Broadband DSLReports.com

16 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Oxycodone 1. Source: 2008 Annual Report of the International Narcotics Control Board. Street names: OC, Oxies, Roxies, Oxycotton, Hillbilly Heroin, Blue Highly addictive opioid OxyContin, Percodan, Percocet > 79,000,000 doses dispensed in KY in 2011 The U.S. consumes 83% of all the oxycodone produced 1

17 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Study Drugs: Adderall & Ritalin Highly addictive amphetamine based stimulants used to treat ADHD –2 - 4% of college students on ADHD medication (1) –An estimated 5 – 10% of youth are misusing or abusing ADHD medications (2) As many as 20% of college students have use Adderall and Ritalin to study, write papers and take exams (1) –Most obtained from fellow students –Pill prices increase during exam time (1)Source: Adderall Used for Recreation and Study on UMass Campus, Michelle Williams, The Massachusetts Collegian, December 7, (2)Source: Dr. Timothy Wilens, Center of Addiction Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, August 15, 2012.

18 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Fentanyl Synthetic opioid delivered via transdermal patch or lozenge 1 (fentanyl lollipops - Actiq) 50 to 100 percent more potent than morphine Patches stolen from nursing home patients Methods of abuse: 1 Applying multiple patches to the body at one time Eating or sucking on a patch Extracting the drug from a patch, mixing it with an alcohol solution, and injecting it with a hypodermic needle 1. Source: Abuse of High-Potency Fentanyl Skin Patches Linked to Hundreds of Deaths.

19 The Faces of Prescription Drug Abuse

20 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Jeff and Chris George Photos from Palm Beach Post

21 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Dr. Paul H. Volkman Story: Bill Estep, Lexington Herald-Leader, February 14, AP Photo released by U.S. Marshals Service (undated)

22 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Care More Pain Management Clinic Photo: Scott Utterback, Louisville Courier-Journal, January 25, 2012

23 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Care More Pain Management Clinic Photo: Scott Utterback, Louisville Courier-Journal, January 25, 2012

24 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Celebrities Photos from The Internet Movie Database

25 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Stevie Nicks Photo from starpulse.com

26 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Heather Locklear Photo from Huffpost Celebrity on Moviefone

27 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Sarah McKinley AP Photo

28 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Dr. Dennis Sandlin Associated Press Photo, The Mountain Eagle, December10, 2009

29 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Tasha Parsons/Devin Parsons Source: Decatur County Jail

30 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Erica Hughes Photo by Pam Spaulding, The Louisville Courier-Journal, November 30, 2009

31 Provider Shopping

32 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Provider Shopping Provider shopping is when controlled substances are acquired by deception. Acts related to attempting to obtain a controlled substance, a prescription for a controlled substance or administration of a controlled substance, prohibited under KRS 218A.140 include: Knowingly misrepresenting or withholding information from a practitioner. Providing a false name or address. Knowingly making a false statement. Falsely representing to be authorized to obtain controlled substances. Presenting a prescription that was obtained in violation of the above. Affixing a false or forged label to a controlled substance receptacle.

33 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Patient BehaviorsExamples Multiple providers of the same type3 or more general practitioners, dentists, etc. Dispensers and prescribers are in different localities from each other and the patients home address Patient lives in Fayette county; prescriber in Franklin county; dispenser in Jessamine county Overlapping prescriptions of the same drug from different prescriber types Oxycodone scripts from dentist, family physician, and pain management doctor within 30 days Excessive emergency room visits for non-emergency issues 3 or more emergency room visits in a month for chronic pain conditions Requesting replacement for lost medications regularly Patient states that controlled substance is lost and requests new prescription Requesting early refillsPatient requests early refills due to extended out- of-state trip Pressuring prescribers to prescribe specific controlled substances for the patients family members Parent requests the pediatrician prescribe a specific controlled substance for their child stating that it is the only medication that works Typical Provider Shopping Behaviors

34 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Typical Provider Shopping Behaviors (Cont.) Patient BehaviorsExamples Using multiple names, social security numbers, addresses, etc. Patient fills three scripts under three different names Seeking referrals to multiple pain management clinics Patient requests referrals to pain management clinics without a specific diagnosis Associating with others known to be pharmaceutical controlled substance provider shopping Patient travels to clinic with another patient exhibiting shopping behavior and requests similar prescription Self-mutilationPatient presents with potential self-inflicted wound Cash transactionsPatient prefers to pay cash when insurance available Requesting partial dispensing of controlled substance script Patient requests half of the script and returns for the rest within 72 hours After-hour, weekend and holiday calls for prescriptions Patient calls prescriber at midnight on Friday to request a controlled substance script

35 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Dentists can be Targets! Police believe Michael Osswald had a good con going: –He would visit a dentist, complain of tooth pain, and receive a prescription for painkillers. According to arrest warrant Osswald visited 28 dentists in four months and received 541 hydrocodone during three of those months. As a result of HB1, the targets of Osswalds alleged scams used KASPER to determine he had received prescriptions from other dentists, and at least one alerted police. –Sgt. John McGuire - Louisville Metro Police Department prescription drug diversion unit. Osswald charged with 22 counts of obtaining a controlled substance by fraud. Story: Mark Vanderhof, Louisville Courier-Journal, December 10, 2012

36 KASPER Program Update

37 Status of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) Research is current as of February 1, 2012 AK AL AR CA CO ID ILIN IA MN MO MT NE NV ND OH OK OR TN UT WA AZ SD NM VA WY MI GA KS HI TX ME MS WI NY PA LA KY NC SC FL NH MA RI CT NJ DE MD DC VT WV Operational PDMPs Enacted PDMP legislation, but program not yet operational Legislation pending GU

38 2011 KASPER Reports Requested Cabinet for Health and Family Services

39 KASPER Operation KASPER tracks most Schedule II – V substances dispensed in KY. –Over 11 million controlled substance prescriptions reported to the system each year. KASPER data is 1 to 7 days old. –Dispensers have 7 days to report. –Health Information Designs processes & provides data once per day. Reports available to authorized individuals. –Available via web typically within 15 seconds (90% of requests). –Available 24/7 from any PC with Web access.

40 2012 Controlled Substances Dispensed Cabinet for Health and Family Services

41 2012 KASPER Reports Requested Cabinet for Health and Family Services

42 Top Prescribed Controlled Substances by Therapeutic Category by Doses Hydrocodone 41.5% Lortab Lorcet Vicodin Alprazolam 11.8% Xanax Tramadol 6.9% Ultram Oxycodone 15.9% OxyContin Percodan Percocet Clonazepam 6.6% Klonopin Diazepam 4.5% Valium Phentermine 2.4% Adipex-P Amphetamine 2.7% Adderall Zolpidem 3.5% Ambien Lorazepam 4.0% Ativan

43 Cabinet for Health and Family Services KASPER Stakeholders Licensing Boards – to investigate potential inappropriate prescribing by a licensee. Practitioners and Pharmacists – to review a current patients controlled substance prescription history for medical and/or pharmaceutical treatment. Law Enforcement Officers, OIG employees, Commonwealths attorneys, county attorneys - to review an individuals controlled substance prescription history as part of a bona fide drug investigation or drug prosecution. Medicaid – to screen members for potential abuse of pharmacy benefits and to determine lock-in; to screen providers for adherence to prescribing guidelines for Medicaid patients. A judge or probation or parole officer – to help ensure adherence to drug diversion or probation program guidelines.

44 Cabinet for Health and Family Services KASPER Usage December 31, 2012 Law Enforcement =.5% (17% of KY LE have accounts) Prescribers = 97.3% (83% of KY prescribers have accounts) Pharmacists = 2.1% (83% of KY pharmacists have accounts) Judges, Other =.1%

45 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Goals of KASPER KASPER was designed as a tool to help address prescription drug abuse and diversion by providing: –A source of information for health care professionals –An investigative tool for law enforcement and regulatory agencies KASPER was not designed to: –Prevent people from obtaining prescription drugs –Decrease the number of doses dispensed

46 Using eKASPER

47 Cabinet for Health and Family Services To Request an eKASPER Report Via secure WEB application. Application accessible from any PC with WEB access. Practitioners and pharmacists can receive a report often within 15 seconds (as long as the report does not require further review by the KASPER staff). Available 24 / 7. URL: https://ekasper.chfs.ky.gov.

48 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Report Processing 92% of reports auto-matched by eKASPER –Available within seconds Manual Queue: –Processed 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday –Weekday manual reports typically available within one hour

49 eKASPER Report Request - Master Cabinet for Health and Family Services

50 eKASPER Report Request - Delegate Cabinet for Health and Family Services

51 eKASPER Support Help desk Help desk phone –(502) Account assistance:

52 Cabinet for Health and Family Services KASPER Cautions The Master Account Holder is responsible for all usage under the account including delegates! Do not share your userid/password! –A subordinate may order an inappropriate report under your name. –Delegate accounts have their own userid/password and provide you the ability to review all reports delegates request under your master account. Verify the information in the report! –KASPER may contain inaccurate data. –Assume the data on the report is inaccurate before assuming the patient is doing something wrong.

53 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Intervention Utilize KASPER to screen for potential prescription drug related problems. Dont just stop treating or dispensing to the patient. Consult with the other prescribers or other dispensers on the KASPER report. Health care providers have an excellent opportunity and a professional responsibility to address concerns about a patients prescription drug problem.

54 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Diversion What do you do when diversion is suspected? If you suspect an individual is involved in diverting controlled substances, we ask that you please report them to the proper law enforcement authorities. If unsure who to contact please call the Drug Enforcement and Professional Practices Branch of the Office of the Inspector General for assistance. –(502) –http://www.chfs.ky.gov/os/oig/auditsinv.htm

55 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Diversion Reporting Provider Shoppers/Diverters KRS 218A.280 Controlled substances – Communications with practitioner not privileged. –Information communicated to a practitioner in an effort unlawfully to procure a controlled substance, or unlawfully to procure the administration of any controlled substance, shall not be deemed a privileged communication.

56 Drug Enforcement and Professional Practices Branch Cabinet for Health and Family Services Duncan McCrackenChris Johnson Amanda Ward Laura Beth WellsJill Lee Paula York Open DEPPB Phone Number:

57 Controlled Substance Prescribing in Kentucky Recent Legislative Changes

58 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Reporting Schedule II controlled substances and Schedule III controlled substances that contain hydrocodone administered to a patient –Beginning July 1, 2013 Controlled substance dispensing must be reported within seven days of dispensing through June 30, 2013 –Must be reported within one day of administration on or after July 1, 2013

59 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Accounts eKASPER registration is mandatory for Kentucky practitioners or pharmacists authorized to prescribe or dispense controlled substances to humans.

60 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Master Accounts 12/31/201104/24/201207/20/201202/11/2013 Doctor*5,470 5,680 11,923 16,931 APRN ,523 1,895 Pharmacist1,385 1,450 3,602 5,036 Total7,545 7,911 17,048 23,862 *Includes physicians, dentists, optometrists and podiatrists

61 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Dentist Usage - KRS 218A.172 (HB1) eKASPER must be queried: –Prior to initial prescribing or dispensing of a Schedule II controlled substance, or a Schedule III controlled substance containing hydrocodone –No less than every three months –Before issuing a new prescription or refills for a Schedule II controlled substance or a Schedule III controlled substance containing hydrocodone Does not apply to prescribing of a 3 day supply of a CIII controlled substance following performance of oral surgery by a dentist

62 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Dentist Usage – 201 KAR 8:540 (Proposed) eKASPER must be queried prior to initial prescribing of any CS except: –prescribing of a 3 day supply of a C-III or the following C- IVs following performance of oral surgery: –Prescribing or dispensing a C-IV or C-V not listed above –Prescribing pre-appointment anxiety medication up to a 2 day supply with no refills Ambien Anorexics Ativan Klonopin Librium Nubain Oxazepam Phentermine Soma Stadol Stadol NS Tramadol Valium Versed Xanax

63 Cabinet for Health and Family Services KASPER Reports 2011 weekday average: 2,888 Current weekday average: 18,722

64 Cabinet for Health and Family Services What if I cannot Query KASPER? If eKASPER indicates manual process –Record the eKASPER report request number in the patients chart If the eKASPER system is unavailable or Internet access unavailable –Document circumstances why eKASPER could not be queried –If eKASPER outage, record the date and time, and eKASPER system outage logs will confirm lack of system availability

65 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Delegate Accounts eKASPER delegate accounts allowed for: –An employee of the practitioners or pharmacists practice acting under the specific direction of the practitioner or pharmacist

66 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Prescriber Reports CS prescribers can obtain an eKASPER report on themselves: –To review and assess the individual prescribing patterns –To determine the accuracy and completeness of information contained in eKASPER –To identify fraudulent prescriptions

67 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Patient Reports eKASPER reports can be shared with the patient or person authorized to act on the patients behalf eKASPER reports can be placed in the patients medical record, with the report then being deemed a medical record subject to disclosure on the same terms and conditions as an ordinary medical record

68 Cabinet for Health and Family Services eKASPER Error Correction Patient or provider should contact the dispenser to correct records in error Inaccurate KASPER reports due to system errors should be reported to the Drug Enforcement and Professional Practices Branch –

69 Cabinet for Health and Family Services HB1 Early Results DrugAug-Dec 2011Aug-Dec 2012Change Hydrocodone100,870,39788,754, % Oxycodone36,897,80732,517, % Oxymorphone852,124467, % Alprazolam30,790,37926,352, % Methylphenidate4,376,8414,622, % Amphetamine 5,608,4446,050, % All Controlled Substances 313,183,827278,118, % Figures shown in doses dispensed

70 Controlled Substance Trends in Kentucky

71 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Controlled Substance Prescribing 2011

72 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Controlled Substance Usage 2011

73 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Hydrocodone Prescribing 2011

74 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Hydrocodone Usage 2011

75 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Oxycodone Prescribing 2011

76 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Oxycodone Usage 2011

77 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Oxymorphone Prescribing 2011

78 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Oxymorphone Usage 2011

79 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Alprazolam Prescribing 2011

80 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Alprazolam Usage 2011

81 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Tramadol Prescribing 2011

82 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Tramadol Usage 2011

83 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Methadone Prescribing 2011

84 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Methadone Usage 2011

85 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Buprenorphine Prescribing 2011

86 Cabinet for Health and Family Services Buprenorphine Usage 2011

87 KASPER Web Site: David R. Hopkins Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services 275 East Main Street, 5ED Frankfort, KY ext


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