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Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Training Presented by Refrigeration Service Engineers Society.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Training Presented by Refrigeration Service Engineers Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Training Presented by Refrigeration Service Engineers Society

2 1.Uses of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants 2.HC Regulations and Standards 3.Refrigerant Properties and Safety 4.The Refrigerant Cycle 5.System Components 6.Servicing Procedures Topics to Cover

3 1900s - HCs used in infancy of the refrigeration industry; 1930s - CFCs developed (non-flammable), HC use reduces; 1970s - Ozone depletions by CFCs discovered; HFC and HC start to replace CFCs; Launch of HC ice cream cabinets; Over 50,000 HC cabinets in use in Europe. History of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants

4 Must follow recommended safety practices when working with these approved flammable refrigerants R-600a-Isobutane R-290-Propane R-441A-Flammable blend

5 Why use Flammable Refrigerants? The Montreal Protocol Reduces CFC and HCFC Production EPA Approves Use of HCs through the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Low Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Less than 3 Zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP)

6 Technician servicing procedures need to change with the introduction of flammable refrigerants

7 HCs already used worldwide; Over 80 million domestic refrigerators in use worldwide; HCs also used in commercial appliances-bottle coolers, chest freezers, commercial refrigerators; Also used in split system and portable AC systems in use, however not yet approved in USA

8 R-600a and R-441A – New Household Refrigerators and Refrigerator/Freezers-57 grams (2.0 ounces) Equipment Constructed following UL250-Current Edition R-290 – New Retail Food Refrigerators Freezers-150 grams (5.3 ounces) Equipment Constructed following UL471-Current Edition Applications and Limits R-600a-Isobutane R-290-Propane R-441A-Flammable blend

9 Common Regulator Agencies EPANFPA CSAEC ISOIEC ASHRAEUL Ultimately the technician is responsible for knowing the local regulations Understanding HC Regulations

10 Keeping Up with Regulations

11 HCs allowed for use in only new systems under the SNAP approved program; NO RETROFITTING allowed in the USA (retrofitting is allowed in other countries). Unauthorized Applications

12 Before servicing equipment look for MATCHING refrigerants equipment labels (the unit and compressor) If the compressor and refrigerant match then it should be acceptable to service the system If the labels do not match assume the system has been retrofitted and –STOP work on this system immediately –Contact the owner –Inform owner of system violations –Refuse to service –Offer to replace system with approved systems Unauthorized Refrigerants

13 Be an qualified refrigeration technician; Be familiar with the safety precautions for flammable refrigerants; Be familiar with the information provided by other sources, such as the manufacturers of the system equipment, component manufacturers, and refrigerant suppliers. EPA Further Information Statement

14 Identification Labeling Compressors and systems will have labels identifying the type of flammable refrigerant. UL 250 and 471 require labeling as part of the SNAP approval

15 "DANGER- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing." Further Labeling Requirements Labeling attach on or near any evaporators Evaporator Labeling Requirements

16 "DANGER- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing." Further Labeling Requirements Attach near the machine/compressor compartment Machine/Compressor Labeling Requirements CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owners Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed."

17 CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used." Further Labeling Requirements Attach on the exterior of the refrigerator Exterior Labeling Requirements

18 CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used." Further Labeling Requirements Attach near any and all exposed refrigerant tubing Near Refrigerant Tubing Labeling Requirements

19 All of these markings shall be in letters NO LESS than 6.4 mm (1/4) high. Further Labeling Requirements CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used." Letter Sizing

20 The refrigerator or freezer must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, such as any service port; This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes). The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed, repaint if necessary Further Labeling Requirements Service Access &Tubing Painting

21 Working with any refrigerant carries a certain liability Check with your insurance carrier before with HC refrigerants Liability

22 SAFETY GROUP Increasing Flammability Higher Flammability A3B3 Lower Flammability A2B2 A2L*B2L* No Flame Propagation A1B1 Lower Toxicity Higher Toxicity Increasing Toxicity A2L and B2L are lower flammability refrigerants See ASHRAE Standard 34 for full Details Refrigerant Safety Group Classification ASHRAE Refrigerant Ratings

23 Sudden release of refrigerant can result in proper concentrations for: Flash Fire Sustained Fire Explosion Flammability and Ignition

24 Temperatures greater than 460°C or 860°F; Flame from a match; Torch including halide leak detectors. Ignition Sources

25 Electric sparks from: Light and Socket Switches Unsealed Relays and Overloads On Off switches Contactors Pressure Switches Defrost Timers Thermostats Vacuum Pump Switches Electronic Leak Detectors Ignition Sources

26 LEL -Lower Explosive Limits R % R600a-1.8% UEL-Upper Explosive Limit R % R600a-8.5% Upper and Lower Explosive (Flame) Limits

27 Material Safety Data Sheets Required to be availability to all employees Also required to be available to local Fire Departments MSDS CHECK WITH THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICATION (AHJ) FOR LOCAL REGULATIONS

28 Never store or expose to temperatures above 125°F (52°C); Never apply open flame; Never heat with water or heat blanket above 110°F (43°C); Never refill single trip cylinders; Never exceed refillable limits; Never remove labels; Never smoke near flammable refrigerant cylinders. Cylinder Safety

29 Department of Transportation Division 2.1 Classification-Flammable Gas –Transport in upright position –Label vehicle as carrying flammable gas –Inventory vehicle contents Some jurisdictions require –Storage in explosive proof cabinets –Venting of cabinet to exterior Check the local Authority Having Jurisdiction Cylinder Transport

30 Store in a locked cage; Store at ground level; Store away from air intakes; Keep ignition sources away from area; Limit access; Install combustible gas monitors. Cylinder Storage Check the local Authority Having Jurisdiction

31 Recover refrigerant; Ventilate the area; Wear personal protection equipment (PPE); Check brazing equipment for leaks and proper pressure settings; Purge with inert gas while brazing (Nitrogen); Only trained and qualified personal should be brazing. Brazing Requirements

32 Flammable gas leak detectors and monitors; Personal safety monitors. Rated Equipment

33 All refrigerants in confined space have inherent dangers. Remember to: Use a combustible gas detector and /or monitor Ventilate area and clear the area of any potential LEL or UE; Eliminate alll sources of ignition Confined Space

34 Basic cycle is the same as it is for CFCs, HCFCs, & HFCs Refrigerant Cycle

35 What is different Additional safety requirements Monitor area and prevent possible ignition sources Ventilate area when required Using tubing cutting to remove refrigeration components – do not use a torch Refrigerant Cycle

36 Generally Same Components Used Condenser Evaporator Metering Device Lubricants Gaskets, Seals, O-rings Refrigerant Cycle Always Use Approval Components When Replacing

37 Use only spark proof equipment-like a brass screwdriver, Use non-ignitable type detectors such as UV additive, liquid detection solution, electronic leak detectors for flammable gasses or ultra sonic leak detectors Servicing Procedures

38 Use standard evacuation and pressure testing procedures Use standard recovery methods Use standard charging methods (weigh in) Servicing Procedures

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