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Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX

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1 Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX
Basics of NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX

2 Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc
Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. Thank you!

3 © Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. 2009
Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc

4 Presentation Overview
What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Unit Classification Flammable and Combustible Liquid Limits Fire Protection Explosion Hazards Laboratory Ventilation Chemical Storage and Handling Gas Storage and Use Laboratory Operations Hazard Identification

5 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory
A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis. A facility where the containers used for reactions, transfers, and handling of chemicals are designed to be manipulated by one person.

6 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Work Area
A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals.

7 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Unit
An enclosed space used for experiments or tests. May include one or more laboratory work areas. May include offices, lavatories, corridors, and other incidental contiguous rooms. May be a floor in a building May be an entire building.

8 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Building
A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units.

9 Laboratory Units NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(a)

10 Laboratory Units NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(b)
NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(c)

11 Laboratory Units NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(d)
NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(e)

12 Applicability of NFPA 45 NFPA edition, Figure A.1.3

13 Objective of NFPA 45 Limit injury to:
Occupants at the point of fire origin Emergency response personnel Limit property loss to a single laboratory unit

14 Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification
Class A Unit = High Fire Hazard Class B Unit = Moderate Fire Hazard Class C Unit = Low Fire Hazard Class D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard

15 Laboratory Unit Classification
Based on the quantity of: Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Flammable gases Includes quantities in storage and use

16 Laboratory Unit Classification
Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquids How to classify hazardous materials? CD ROM database: Hazardous Materials Expert Assistant Ask users to inventory existing materials Look at worst-case user – types and quantity

17 Laboratory Unit Classification
Includes quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans Lab Unit Classification Maximum Quantity Class I Liquids per Lab Unit (gal) Class I, II, IIIA Liquids per Lab Unit (gal) A 20 gal/100 ft2 1,200 (max) 40 gal/100 ft2 1600 max B 10 gal/100 ft2 600 max 800 max C 4 gal/100 ft2 300 max 8 gal/100 ft2 400 max D 2 gal/100 ft2 150 max

18 Laboratory Unit Classification
Lab Unit Classification NFPA 101 Occupancy Classification Area Limit per Lab Unit (ft2) Vertical Fire Separation (hours) A Industrial 10,000 2 90-min openings B 1 45-min openings C No Limit Not Required D Business

19 Laboratory Unit Classification
No limit on number of lab units per floor No reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical location Supporting construction must carry corresponding fire rating Difficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building!

20 Lab Units vs. IBC Control Areas
IBC/IFC Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) Hazardous Materials Physical/Fire Hazards Health Hazard Control Areas Control Area ~ Lab Unit Some jurisdictions require application of both control areas and lab units – use most restrictive

21 Laboratory Unit Exit Access
2nd means of exit access required from lab work area if: Class A lab unit >500 ft2 Class B, C, or D lab unit >1,000 ft2 Threat to exit access from: Explosion hazard Hood adjacent to primary exit access Flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4 >lecture bottle size Cryogenic flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4

22 Laboratory Unit Exit Access
Exit access door swing Class A and B lab work areas Direction of exit travel Any occupant load Class C and D lab work areas May swing against the direction of exit travel if occupant load < 50 May be a horizontal sliding door per NFPA 101

23 Fire Protection Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs
Sprinkler Density: Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab units Ordinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab units Portable Fire Extinguishers Class A Units = Extra (high) Hazard Class B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) Hazard Standpipes Lab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade

24 Fire Protection Fire Alarm System Fire Prevention Procedures
Class A and B Units – manual system required Must alert local emergency responders or public fire department Fire Prevention Procedures Chemical handling and storage Hot work permits Portable electric cords Smoking areas

25 Fire Protection Laboratory Emergency Plans Alarm activation
Evacuation and building re-entry Equipment shut down Fire fighting operations Non-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations

26 Explosion Hazards Storage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4 Highly exothermic reactions Polymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc. High pressure reactions Explosion hazards as determined by a qualified person

27 Explosion Protection Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals
Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklers Local fume hood suppression Explosion suppression Explosion resistant construction Explosion venting

28 Laboratory Ventilation
Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouse Fire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systems Potential alternatives: Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetration Use sub-ducts per NFPA 45: A Dedicated exhaust duct risers 22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement

29 Laboratory Ventilation
Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab area Ducts Non-combustible materials Combustible material with Flame Spread ≤ 25 Fans Conveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vapors Flame Spread ≤ 25 Non-ferrous or spark-resistant

30 Laboratory Ventilation
Hood interiors Flame Spread ≤ 25 by NFPA 255 Sprinklered for special cases Flame spread > 25 Hazard analysis Airflow measuring device at each hood

31 Chemical Storage and Handling
Container types and maximum sizes listed in Table : Material Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Container type Glass Safety can Metal and Metal DOT Polyethylene

32 Chemical Storage and Handling
Educational and Instructional Labs Containers Maximum 2.1 gallon size for Class I or Class II liquids 1.0 gallon maximum for safety cans Transfer of Class I liquids from < 5 gallon containers: In lab hood Ventilated area with LEL < 25% NFPA 30 compliant room Transfer of Class I liquids from ≥ 5 gallon containers: In separate area outside building; or In NFPA 30 compliant room

33 Gas Storage and Use Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles:
Health hazard 3 or 4 Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning properties Pyrophoric gases Gas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders: Health hazard 2 with no warning properties Sprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders

34 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft2:
Flammable – 6.0 ft3 Oxidizing – 6.0 ft3 Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft3 Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft3

35 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft2:
Flammable – ft3 per ft2 Oxidizing – ft3 per ft2 Liquefied flammable – ft3 per ft2 Health hazard 3 or 4 – ft3 per ft2

36 Gas Storage and Use Cylinders not “in use” shall not be stored in a laboratory unit. Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximum Outdoor storage No toxic or flammable gas cylinders: Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openings Within 30 feet of ventilation intakes

37 Laboratory Operations
Unattended electrical heating operations Manual reset over-temperature shutoff Electrical equipment (eg. hot plates) classified for flammable or combustible liquids and installed per NFPA 70, National Electric Code Ovens and Furnaces – per NFPA 86

38 Hazard Identification
Aid Emergency Operations Identification of entrances to labs Fire fighting plans Marking of hazardous exhaust systems Container labeling

39 Thank You For Your Time! Questions? RJA

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