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Basics of NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX.

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Presentation on theme: "Basics of NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basics of NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX

2 Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. Thank you!

3 Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. 2009

4 Presentation Overview What is a Laboratory? What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Unit Classification Laboratory Unit Classification Flammable and Combustible Liquid Limits Flammable and Combustible Liquid Limits Fire Protection Fire Protection Explosion Hazards Explosion Hazards Laboratory Ventilation Laboratory Ventilation Chemical Storage and Handling Chemical Storage and Handling Gas Storage and Use Gas Storage and Use Laboratory Operations Laboratory Operations Hazard Identification Hazard Identification

5 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Laboratory A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis. A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis. A facility where the containers used for reactions, transfers, and handling of chemicals are designed to be manipulated by one person. A facility where the containers used for reactions, transfers, and handling of chemicals are designed to be manipulated by one person.

6 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Work Area Laboratory Work Area A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals. A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals.

7 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Unit Laboratory Unit An enclosed space used for experiments or tests. An enclosed space used for experiments or tests. May include one or more laboratory work areas. May include one or more laboratory work areas. May include offices, lavatories, corridors, and other incidental contiguous rooms. May include offices, lavatories, corridors, and other incidental contiguous rooms. May be a floor in a building May be a floor in a building May be an entire building. May be an entire building.

8 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Building Laboratory Building A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units. A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units.

9 Laboratory Units NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(a)

10 Laboratory Units NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(b)NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(c)

11 Laboratory Units NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(d)NFPA edition, Figure D.2.4(e)

12 Applicability of NFPA 45 NFPA edition, Figure A.1.3

13 Objective of NFPA 45 Limit injury to: Occupants at the point of fire origin Emergency response personnel Limit property loss to a single laboratory unit

14 Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification Class A Unit = High Fire Hazard Class A Unit = High Fire Hazard Class B Unit = Moderate Fire Hazard Class B Unit = Moderate Fire Hazard Class C Unit = Low Fire Hazard Class C Unit = Low Fire Hazard Class D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard Class D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard

15 Laboratory Unit Classification Based on the quantity of: Based on the quantity of: Flammable liquids Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids Flammable gases Flammable gases Includes quantities in storage and use Includes quantities in storage and use

16 Laboratory Unit Classification Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquids Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquids How to classify hazardous materials? How to classify hazardous materials? CD ROM database: CD ROM database: Hazardous Materials Expert Assistant Hazardous Materials Expert Assistant Ask users to inventory existing materials Ask users to inventory existing materials Look at worst-case user – types and quantity Look at worst-case user – types and quantity

17 Laboratory Unit Classification Lab Unit Classification Maximum Quantity Class I Liquids per Lab Unit (gal) Maximum Quantity Class I, II, IIIA Liquids per Lab Unit (gal) A 20 gal/100 ft 2 1,200 (max) 40 gal/100 ft max B 10 gal/100 ft max 20 gal/100 ft max C 4 gal/100 ft max 8 gal/100 ft max D 2 gal/100 ft max 2 gal/100 ft max Includes quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans

18 Laboratory Unit Classification Lab Unit Classification NFPA 101 Occupancy Classification Area Limit per Lab Unit (ft 2 ) Vertical Fire Separation (hours) AIndustrial10, min openings BIndustrial10, min openings CIndustrial No Limit NotRequired DBusiness NotRequired

19 Laboratory Unit Classification No limit on number of lab units per floor No limit on number of lab units per floor No reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical location No reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical location Supporting construction must carry corresponding fire rating Supporting construction must carry corresponding fire rating Difficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building! Difficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building!

20 Lab Units vs. IBC Control Areas IBC/IFC IBC/IFC Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) Hazardous Materials Hazardous Materials Physical/Fire Hazards Physical/Fire Hazards Health Hazard Health Hazard Control Areas Control Areas Control Area ~ Lab Unit Control Area ~ Lab Unit Some jurisdictions require application of both control areas and lab units – use most restrictive Some jurisdictions require application of both control areas and lab units – use most restrictive

21 Laboratory Unit Exit Access 2 nd means of exit access required from lab work area if: 2 nd means of exit access required from lab work area if: Class A lab unit >500 ft 2 Class A lab unit >500 ft 2 Class B, C, or D lab unit >1,000 ft 2 Class B, C, or D lab unit >1,000 ft 2 Threat to exit access from: Threat to exit access from: Explosion hazard Explosion hazard Hood adjacent to primary exit access Hood adjacent to primary exit access Flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4 >lecture bottle size Flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4 >lecture bottle size Cryogenic flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4 Cryogenic flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4

22 Laboratory Unit Exit Access Exit access door swing Exit access door swing Class A and B lab work areas Class A and B lab work areas Direction of exit travel Direction of exit travel Any occupant load Any occupant load Class C and D lab work areas Class C and D lab work areas May swing against the direction of exit travel if occupant load < 50 May swing against the direction of exit travel if occupant load < 50 May be a horizontal sliding door per NFPA 101 May be a horizontal sliding door per NFPA 101

23 Fire Protection Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs Sprinkler Density: Sprinkler Density: Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab units Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab units Ordinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab units Ordinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab units Portable Fire Extinguishers Portable Fire Extinguishers Class A Units = Extra (high) Hazard Class A Units = Extra (high) Hazard Class B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) Hazard Class B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) Hazard Standpipes Standpipes Lab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade Lab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade

24 Fire Protection Fire Alarm System Fire Alarm System Class A and B Units – manual system required Class A and B Units – manual system required Must alert local emergency responders or public fire department Must alert local emergency responders or public fire department Fire Prevention Procedures Fire Prevention Procedures Chemical handling and storage Chemical handling and storage Hot work permits Hot work permits Portable electric cords Portable electric cords Smoking areas Smoking areas

25 Fire Protection Laboratory Emergency Plans Laboratory Emergency Plans Alarm activation Alarm activation Evacuation and building re-entry Evacuation and building re-entry Equipment shut down Equipment shut down Fire fighting operations Fire fighting operations Non-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations Non-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations

26 Explosion Hazards Storage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4 Storage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4 Highly exothermic reactions Highly exothermic reactions Polymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc. Polymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc. High pressure reactions High pressure reactions Explosion hazards as determined by a qualified person Explosion hazards as determined by a qualified person

27 Explosion Protection Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklers Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklers Local fume hood suppression Local fume hood suppression Explosion suppression Explosion suppression Explosion resistant construction Explosion resistant construction Explosion venting Explosion venting

28 Laboratory Ventilation Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouse Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouse Fire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systems Fire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systems Potential alternatives: Potential alternatives: Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetration Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetration Use sub-ducts per NFPA 45: A Use sub-ducts per NFPA 45: A Dedicated exhaust duct risers Dedicated exhaust duct risers 22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement 22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement

29 Laboratory Ventilation Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab area Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab area Ducts Ducts Non-combustible materials Non-combustible materials Combustible material with Flame Spread 25 Combustible material with Flame Spread 25 Fans Fans Conveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vapors Conveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vapors Flame Spread 25 Flame Spread 25 Non-ferrous or spark-resistant Non-ferrous or spark-resistant

30 Laboratory Ventilation Hood interiors Hood interiors Flame Spread 25 by NFPA 255 Flame Spread 25 by NFPA 255 Sprinklered for special cases Sprinklered for special cases Flame spread > 25 Flame spread > 25 Hazard analysis Hazard analysis Airflow measuring device at each hood Airflow measuring device at each hood

31 Chemical Storage and Handling Container types and maximum sizes listed in Table : Container types and maximum sizes listed in Table : Material Material Flammable liquids Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids Container type Container type Glass Glass Safety can Safety can Metal and Metal DOT Metal and Metal DOT Polyethylene Polyethylene

32 Chemical Storage and Handling Educational and Instructional Labs Containers Educational and Instructional Labs Containers Maximum 2.1 gallon size for Class I or Class II liquids Maximum 2.1 gallon size for Class I or Class II liquids 1.0 gallon maximum for safety cans 1.0 gallon maximum for safety cans Transfer of Class I liquids from < 5 gallon containers: Transfer of Class I liquids from < 5 gallon containers: In lab hood In lab hood Ventilated area with LEL < 25% Ventilated area with LEL < 25% NFPA 30 compliant room NFPA 30 compliant room Transfer of Class I liquids from 5 gallon containers: Transfer of Class I liquids from 5 gallon containers: In separate area outside building; or In separate area outside building; or In NFPA 30 compliant room In NFPA 30 compliant room

33 Gas Storage and Use Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles: Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles: Health hazard 3 or 4 Health hazard 3 or 4 Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning properties Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning properties Pyrophoric gases Pyrophoric gases Gas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders: Gas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders: Health hazard 3 or 4 Health hazard 3 or 4 Health hazard 2 with no warning properties Health hazard 2 with no warning properties Sprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders Sprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders

34 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft 2 : Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft 2 : Flammable – 6.0 ft 3 Flammable – 6.0 ft 3 Oxidizing – 6.0 ft 3 Oxidizing – 6.0 ft 3 Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft 3 Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft 3 Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft 3 Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft 3

35 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft 2 : Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft 2 : Flammable – ft 3 per ft 2 Flammable – ft 3 per ft 2 Oxidizing – ft 3 per ft 2 Oxidizing – ft 3 per ft 2 Liquefied flammable – ft 3 per ft 2 Liquefied flammable – ft 3 per ft 2 Health hazard 3 or 4 – ft 3 per ft 2 Health hazard 3 or 4 – ft 3 per ft 2

36 Gas Storage and Use Cylinders not in use shall not be stored in a laboratory unit. Cylinders not in use shall not be stored in a laboratory unit. Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximum Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximum Outdoor storage Outdoor storage No toxic or flammable gas cylinders: No toxic or flammable gas cylinders: Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openings Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openings Within 30 feet of ventilation intakes Within 30 feet of ventilation intakes

37 Laboratory Operations Unattended electrical heating operations Unattended electrical heating operations Manual reset over-temperature shutoff Manual reset over-temperature shutoff Electrical equipment (eg. hot plates) classified for flammable or combustible liquids and installed per NFPA 70, National Electric Code Electrical equipment (eg. hot plates) classified for flammable or combustible liquids and installed per NFPA 70, National Electric Code Ovens and Furnaces – per NFPA 86 Ovens and Furnaces – per NFPA 86

38 Hazard Identification Aid Emergency Operations Aid Emergency Operations Identification of entrances to labs Identification of entrances to labs Fire fighting plans Fire fighting plans Marking of hazardous exhaust systems Marking of hazardous exhaust systems Container labeling Container labeling

39 Thank You For Your Time! Questions?www.rjainc.com RJA


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