Presentation on theme: "Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX"— Presentation transcript:
1 Thomas Izbicki, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. Plano, TX Basics of NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using ChemicalsThomas Izbicki, P.E.Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc.Plano, TX
2 Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request.This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.Thank you!
4 Presentation Overview What is a Laboratory?Laboratory Unit ClassificationFlammable and Combustible Liquid LimitsFire ProtectionExplosion HazardsLaboratory VentilationChemical Storage and HandlingGas Storage and UseLaboratory OperationsHazard Identification
5 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis.A facility where the containers used for reactions, transfers, and handling of chemicals are designed to be manipulated by one person.
6 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Work Area A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals.
7 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Unit An enclosed space used for experiments or tests.May include one or more laboratory work areas.May include offices, lavatories, corridors, and other incidental contiguous rooms.May be a floor in a buildingMay be an entire building.
8 What is a Laboratory? Laboratory Building A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units.
12 Applicability of NFPA 45NFPA edition, Figure A.1.3
13 Objective of NFPA 45 Limit injury to: Occupants at the point of fire originEmergency response personnelLimit property loss to a single laboratory unit
14 Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification Class A Unit = High Fire HazardClass B Unit = Moderate Fire HazardClass C Unit = Low Fire HazardClass D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard
15 Laboratory Unit Classification Based on the quantity of:Flammable liquidsCombustible liquidsFlammable gasesIncludes quantities in storage and use
16 Laboratory Unit Classification Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquidsHow to classify hazardous materials?CD ROM database:Hazardous Materials Expert AssistantAsk users to inventory existing materialsLook at worst-case user – types and quantity
17 Laboratory Unit Classification Includes quantities in storage cabinets or safety cansLab Unit ClassificationMaximum QuantityClass I Liquidsper Lab Unit (gal)Class I, II, IIIA Liquids per Lab Unit (gal)A20 gal/100 ft21,200 (max)40 gal/100 ft21600 maxB10 gal/100 ft2600 max800 maxC4 gal/100 ft2300 max8 gal/100 ft2400 maxD2 gal/100 ft2150 max
18 Laboratory Unit Classification Lab Unit ClassificationNFPA 101 Occupancy ClassificationArea Limit per Lab Unit(ft2)Vertical Fire Separation(hours)AIndustrial10,000290-min openingsB145-min openingsCNo LimitNotRequiredDBusiness
19 Laboratory Unit Classification No limit on number of lab units per floorNo reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical locationSupporting construction must carry corresponding fire ratingDifficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building!
20 Lab Units vs. IBC Control Areas IBC/IFCMaximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ)Hazardous MaterialsPhysical/Fire HazardsHealth HazardControl AreasControl Area ~ Lab UnitSome jurisdictions require application of both control areas and lab units – use most restrictive
21 Laboratory Unit Exit Access 2nd means of exit access required from lab work area if:Class A lab unit >500 ft2Class B, C, or D lab unit >1,000 ft2Threat to exit access from:Explosion hazardHood adjacent to primary exit accessFlammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4 >lecture bottle sizeCryogenic flammable gas or health hazard 3 or 4
22 Laboratory Unit Exit Access Exit access door swingClass A and B lab work areasDirection of exit travelAny occupant loadClass C and D lab work areasMay swing against the direction of exit travel if occupant load < 50May be a horizontal sliding door per NFPA 101
23 Fire Protection Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs Sprinkler Density:Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab unitsOrdinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab unitsPortable Fire ExtinguishersClass A Units = Extra (high) HazardClass B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) HazardStandpipesLab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade
24 Fire Protection Fire Alarm System Fire Prevention Procedures Class A and B Units – manual system requiredMust alert local emergency responders or public fire departmentFire Prevention ProceduresChemical handling and storageHot work permitsPortable electric cordsSmoking areas
25 Fire Protection Laboratory Emergency Plans Alarm activation Evacuation and building re-entryEquipment shut downFire fighting operationsNon-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations
26 Explosion HazardsStorage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4Highly exothermic reactionsPolymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc.High pressure reactionsExplosion hazards as determined by a qualified person
27 Explosion Protection Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklersLocal fume hood suppressionExplosion suppressionExplosion resistant constructionExplosion venting
28 Laboratory Ventilation Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouseFire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systemsPotential alternatives:Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetrationUse sub-ducts per NFPA 45: ADedicated exhaust duct risers22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement
29 Laboratory Ventilation Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab areaDuctsNon-combustible materialsCombustible material with Flame Spread ≤ 25FansConveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vaporsFlame Spread ≤ 25Non-ferrous or spark-resistant
30 Laboratory Ventilation Hood interiorsFlame Spread ≤ 25 by NFPA 255Sprinklered for special casesFlame spread > 25Hazard analysisAirflow measuring device at each hood
31 Chemical Storage and Handling Container types and maximum sizes listed in Table :MaterialFlammable liquidsCombustible liquidsContainer typeGlassSafety canMetal and Metal DOTPolyethylene
32 Chemical Storage and Handling Educational and Instructional Labs ContainersMaximum 2.1 gallon size for Class I or Class II liquids1.0 gallon maximum for safety cansTransfer of Class I liquids from < 5 gallon containers:In lab hoodVentilated area with LEL < 25%NFPA 30 compliant roomTransfer of Class I liquids from ≥ 5 gallon containers:In separate area outside building; orIn NFPA 30 compliant room
33 Gas Storage and Use Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles: Health hazard 3 or 4Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning propertiesPyrophoric gasesGas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders:Health hazard 2 with no warning propertiesSprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders
34 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft2: Flammable – 6.0 ft3Oxidizing – 6.0 ft3Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft3Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft3
35 Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft2: Flammable – ft3 per ft2Oxidizing – ft3 per ft2Liquefied flammable – ft3 per ft2Health hazard 3 or 4 – ft3 per ft2
36 Gas Storage and UseCylinders not “in use” shall not be stored in a laboratory unit.Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximumOutdoor storageNo toxic or flammable gas cylinders:Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openingsWithin 30 feet of ventilation intakes
37 Laboratory Operations Unattended electrical heating operationsManual reset over-temperature shutoffElectrical equipment (eg. hot plates) classified for flammable or combustible liquids and installed per NFPA 70, National Electric CodeOvens and Furnaces – per NFPA 86
38 Hazard Identification Aid Emergency OperationsIdentification of entrances to labsFire fighting plansMarking of hazardous exhaust systemsContainer labeling