7Kinetic Nature of Matter Matter consists of atoms and molecules in motion.
8STATES OF MATTERSolids — have rigid shape, fixed volume. External shape can reflect the atomic and molecular arrangement.Liquids — have no fixed shape and may not fill a container completely.Gases — expand to fill their container.
9OTHER STATES OF MATTERPLASMA — an electrically charged gas; Example: the sun or any other starBOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE — a condensate that forms near absolute zero that has superconductive properties; Example: supercooled Rb gas
10Physical PropertiesCharacteristic of a substance that can be observed (using your senses) without changing the substance into something else.Physical properties are used to identify, describe and classify matter.HardnessTextureColorOdorTasteTemperature
11More EXAMPLES - Physical size, shape, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, magnetism, viscosity, density, luster and many more.Viscosity - The resistance of a liquid to flowing.Examples:Low viscosity-water, rubbing alcoholHigh viscosity-honey
12Physical Changescan be observed without changing the identity of the substanceSome physical changes would beboiling of a liquidmelting of a soliddissolving a solid in a liquid to give a homogeneous mixture — a SOLUTION.
13Creating a new chemical product Chemical PropertiesChemical properties are characteristics involved when a substance interacts with another substance to change its chemical make-up.FlammabilityRustingCreating gas bubblesCreating a new chemical productReactivity with waterpH
14Chemical Change Burning hydrogen (H2) in oxygen (O2) gives H2O. Chemical change or chemical reaction — transformation of one or more atoms or molecules into one or more different molecules.
15Classification of Matter Now that we have defined chemical and physical properties of matter, we can use that to help us classify it.One way chemists classify matter is based on its purity.
16Heterogeneous Mixture MatterCan be separated physicallyCannot be separated physicallyMixturePure SubstanceCannot see the partsCan be separated chemicallyCan see the partsCannot be separatedHeterogeneous MixtureHomogeneous MixtureCompoundElementsuspensioncolloidMost impureMost pure
17SuspensionHeterogenous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation (or settling).Example: sand in water
18ColloidA colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance.Dispersed particles are very small and have a diameter of between approximately 2 and 500 nanometers.Example: homogenized milk
19Classification of Matter Pure Substance – Matter that has only 1 set of chemical and physical properties.Example: Pure water always has the exact same chemical and physical properties under the same conditions.If water ever tastes different then it isn’t pure water; it fits into our next category.
20Classification of Matter Mixture – Two or more pure substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties.Example: Copper and Zinc can be mixed together to produce brass.Even though it may look different, it is still copper and zinc. Each metal retains its own properties like melting point.
21Classification of Matter Mixture – Two or more pure substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties.Unlike pure substances, mixtures can always be separated by physical means.How could we separate the copper and zinc back out?
22MixturesMixture – Two or more pure substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties.If a sample of sand contains iron and salt, how could you separate them from the other minerals?
23Pure SubstancesPure substances can also be divided into 2 categories: compounds and elements.
24Pure SubstancesCompound – Two or more elements chemically bonded together.Examples:Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Water (H2O)Salt (NaCl)Sucrose (C12H22O11)
25Pure SubstancesCompounds have only 1 set of properties. They cannot be separated by any physical process.- Can only be separated by a chemical reaction.Water can be separated into Hydrogen and Oxygen by a process called Electrolysis.
26Pure SubstancesElements – Substances made up of only one type of atom.- Cannot be separated by any physical OR chemical process.Examples:CarbonHeliumGold
27Classify the following slide using these five classifications: - Non-matter - Heterogeneous Mixture - Homogeneous Mixture - Compound - Element
29RAFTRole: Forum/Blog poster. You can be either a “Troll” or a model poster. Create screen name and avatar.Audience: Readers in the forum “Safety in the Chemistry Classroom.Format: Internet Forum PostTopic: Respond to Free4All’s post: “I don’t see why my teacher is always on me about my goggles. They are MY eyes! Such a pain”