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Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning

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3 Mr Powell 2012 Index What does this stand for?

4 C1.2 Limestone and Building Mr Powell 2012

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7 Index C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete.

8 Mr Powell 2012 Index Compounds.... The formula of a compound shows the number and type of atoms that are joined together to make the compound i.e. Calcium carbonate Calcium Oxide Carbon dioxide The names you see translate to atoms and chemicals. O O O O C C O O O O C C O O Ca TASK: Construct / Translate the information you see to match up the compounds, then draw them out. Ca O O

9 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. Limestone, containing the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), is quarried and can be used as a building material. Limestone and its products have many uses, including slaked lime, mortar, cement, concrete and glass. (Video Glass blowing!)

10 Mr Powell 2012 Index Making Glass…. Limestone, or calcium, is one of the three main ingredients in almost all glass sold commercially; the so called soda-lime-silicates. In the soda-lime-silicate family, silica (SiO 2 ) the calcium makes the glass more chemically durable. Without the calcium the glass would be susceptible to chemical attack by water (weathering). Without the Calcium the alkali at the surface would react to the atmosphere (namely water) and the surface would become hazy and degraded. Adding Calcium, which is a much less mobile ion than Sodium greatly reduces this surface interaction.

11 Mr Powell 2012 Index What is this concept...

12 Mr Powell 2012 Index b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate, CaCO 3. When it is heated, it breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. This is calledThermal decomposition. Limestone and its products have many uses, including being used to make mortar, cement, concrete and glass Calcium carbonate -> Calcium Oxide + Carbon dioxide CaCO 3 (s) -> CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) TASK: Watch out for heating CuCO 3 too strongly or it will spit! 1.Draw a diagram to show what happens? 2.Also take a note of the formulae in words and symbols. Book page 36

13 Mr Powell 2012 Index Carbonates Decomposition Summary Carbonate Colour before heating Colour after heating Gas evolved Ease of decomposition Potassium carbonate white nonevery difficult Sodium carbonate white nonevery difficult Zinc carbonatewhite yellow when hot, white when cool carbon dioxide fairly easy Lead carbonate white some melting / yellow carbon dioxide fairly easy Copper carbonate Green/blueblack carbon dioxide easy Strong bonds Weak bonds

14 Mr Powell 2012 Index Carbonates Decomposition Summary Carbonate Colour before heating Colour after heating Gas evolved Ease of decomposition Potassium carbonate white nonevery difficult Sodium carbonate white nonevery difficult Zinc carbonatewhite yellow when hot, white when cool carbon dioxide fairly easy Lead carbonate white some melting / yellow carbon dioxide fairly easy Copper carbonate Green/blueblack carbon dioxide easy Strong bonds Weak bonds

15 Mr Powell 2012 Index TASK: Using the diagram and formulae explain how it works. Use a diagram, bullet points and formulae as required. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. On an industrial scale the process can be achieved using a large rotary kiln. The whole kiln turns as it cooks limestone which has a supply of hot air. Calcium oxide (Lime) comes of the bottom of the kiln. Waste gases leave through the top. Air + carbon dioxide CaCO 3 Whole kiln rotates Hot air Lime out Calcium carbonate -> Calcium Oxide + Carbon dioxide CaCO 3 (s) -> CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Book page 37 CaO(s) CO 2 (g)

16 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) In the Quarry....

17 Mr Powell 2012 Index Exploiting Limestone Write an article considering and evaluating the environmental, social and economic effects of exploiting limestone and producing building materials from it. (i.e. Concrete, road building, agriculture) You will need to research the topic by reading about on the internet or from books in the local library. Use search terms like; limestone pavements or limestone and its uses As an alternative answer the questions on page 44 in the book. Book page 44

18 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. – self study How easy it is to extract metals from their carbonate ores depends on how easily metal carbonates decompose. In order to decide which metals can be obtained in this way, a student has planned the following experiment to compare how easily some metal carbonates decomposed. From this he could work out an order for the carbonates, from least stable to most stable. He used carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium. He was told that most metal carbonates decompose on heating, releasing carbon dioxide and that carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. The carbonate that takes the least time to turn the limewater cloudy is the least stable. Complete your worksheet... Book page 38

19 Mr Powell 2012 Index Work out the sentences... ed S

20 Mr Powell 2012 Index e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. TASK: Conduct the exp, then draw a story board for what you did to describe your method. Book page 40

21 Mr Powell 2012 Index Answers…. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Mini –Test – match them up Common Name Chemical NameSymbol NameUse limestonea)b)c) Quick limeCalcium OxideCaO Lime water (Roman times) d) Calcium Hydroxide (Alkali) e)f) 2) Calcium Carbonate 3) limewater 6) Ca(OH) 2 1) CaCO 3 5) Paving and decoration (cement when added to clay) 4) Cleaning products or detection of CO 2 gas Answers…. 1) b 2) a 3) d 4) f 5) c 6) e Self Assess X/6

22 Mr Powell 2012 Index Mini –Test - Answers Common Name Chemical NameSymbol NameUse limestoneCalcium Carbonate CaCO 3 Paving and decoration (cement when added to clay) Quick limeCalcium OxideCaO Lime water (Roman times) limewater Calcium Hydroxide (Alkali) Ca(OH) 2 Cleaning products or detection of CO 2 gas

23 Mr Powell 2012 Index e) Reactions....

24 Mr Powell 2012 Index d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. This idea is more simple than it seems. If you heat a limestone chip (calcium carbonate) it loses CO 2 from its structure so becomes CaO (calcium oxide) or quicklime Then you add water H 2 O and it forms calcium hydroxide. We call this slaked lime. TASK: Draw out the flow chart in your own form...

25 Mr Powell 2012 Index g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. TASK: Use the flowchart to tell another person about how we get from one chemical to another. Write a sequence for how... 1.Limestone forms mortar 2.Quicklime forms lime mortar 3.Limestone makes concrete Book page 42

26 Mr Powell 2012 Index Cycle... This process can in fact be turned into a simple cycle. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or from industrial combustion processes react with hydrated lime to convert it back to limestone.

27 Mr Powell 2012 Index Fill in the blanks Limestone CaCO 3 Slacked Lime Ca(OH) 2 Quicklime / Calcium Oxide CaCO Limestone CaCO 3 Quicklime / Calcium Oxide CaCO Slacked Lime Ca(OH) 2 Book page 36

28 Mr Powell 2012 Index f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. For example: Since limestone is mostly calcium carbonate, it is damaged by acid rain. Sodium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, zinc carbonate and copper carbonate also react with acids. They fizz when in contact with acids, and the carbon dioxide released can be detected using limewater. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid carbon dioxide + calcium chloride + water CaCO 3 + 2HCl CO 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O TASK: Use the information here to explain why acid rain is an issue for limestone statues, include the equations in your answer.

29 Mr Powell 2012 Index Making Concrete Blocks Here are some examples of types of brick or blocks that can now be cast in concrete rather than pressed in clay.

30 Mr Powell 2012 Index More on Concrete Blocks The most common size of solid concrete blocks is 300x200x150mm. The basic raw material is cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Very little water is used. This is possible only with mechanised compaction and vibration and gives the block high quality in spite of the lean mix, which uses very little cement. Weight of a concrete block is about kg. Concrete blocks can be surface engineered by using pieces of stone or ceramic waste on their face. Another common type is hollow concrete blocks. They are made with a richer mix, but offer a number of advantages, such as lighter weight, easier handling and facility for conducting or reinforcement through the hollows.

31 Mr Powell 2012 Index Quick Summary…. Cement can also be made into concrete by adding water, sand and small stones or gravel. Concrete is used for all kinds of building work, including paths, walls and large buildings. When limestone is heated with clay it forms cement, a substance that sets gradually when it reacts with water. Cement can be made into mortar by adding sand and water. Mortar is used to set the bricks in walls, as when it dries it acts as an adhesive between the bricks. Limestone is made up of the shells of millennia old dead sea creatures. Layers of these built up over millions of years, and were squashed together until they formed limestone. This means it is a sedimentary rock Learn this flowchart of information Copy and colour code!

32 Mr Powell 2012 Index Carbon Steel Reinforcing... Steel with a low carbon content has properties similar to iron. As the carbon content rises, the metal becomes harder and stronger but less ductile and more difficult to weld. In general, higher carbon content lowers the melting point and its temperature resistance. The carbon content influences the yield strength of steel because carbon atoms fit into the crystal lattice of the metal (BCC) and it turn hardens the iron. We call the carbon mixture a carbon steel alloy. TASK: Interpret and make a note of this key point in your book.

33 Mr Powell 2012 Index Exam Question HT Nov 07 The diagram shows some reinforced concrete. Which one of the following is the best material to use to reinforce concrete? 1.cast iron 2.low carbon steel 3.high carbon steel 4.stainless steel

34 Mr Powell 2012 Index True or False 1.Lime mortar can set under water. 2.The Roman method for making underwater mortar was used in the seventeenth century. 3.Portland cement is a mixture. 4.Concrete is poor at resisting compressive forces. 5.Concrete is poor at resisting tension. 6.Slacked lime is Ca(OH) 2. 7.Marble is a form of limestone. 8.CaO is the formula for calcium oxide 1.F 2.T 3.T 4.F 5.T 6.T 7.T 8.T 1.F 2.T 3.T 4.F 5.T 6.T 7.T 8.T

35 Mr Powell 2012 Index Fill in the blanks Limestone is mostly made of ……………… carbonate ( whose chemical formula is …………..) As well as being used to produce blocks of building material, limestone can be used to produce ……………, ……………….. and…………….. that can also be used in building. The process of converting calcium carbonate to calcium oxide is called thermal CaCO3 calcium decomposition cement concrete glass TASK: Copy & Complete calcium CaCO 3 concrete cement thermal decomposition glass

36 Mr Powell 2012 Index Exam Question FT Nov 07 The flow diagram shows what happens when a sample of limestone is strongly heated, and water is then added to the solid product. Match substances; A.calcium carbonate B.calcium hydroxide C.calcium oxide D.carbon dioxide

37 Limestone is mostly made of ……………… carbonate ( whose chemical formula is …………..) As well as being used to produce blocks of building material, limestone can be used to produce ……………, ……………….. and…………….. that can also be used in building. The process of converting calcium carbonate to calcium oxide is called Thermal CaCO3 calcium Decomposition cement concrete glass C1.2 Limestone and Building Sheet 1 Exam Question (FT)… The flow diagram shows what happens when a sample of limestone is strongly heated, and water is then added to the solid product. Match substances; A.calcium carbonate B.calcium hydroxide C.calcium oxide D.carbon dioxide

38 Limestone is mostly made of ……………… carbonate ( whose chemical formula is …………..) As well as being used to produce blocks of building material, limestone can be used to produce ……………, ……………….. and…………….. that can also be used in building. The process of converting calcium carbonate to calcium oxide is called Thermal CaCO3 calcium Decomposition cement concrete glass C1.2 Limestone and Building Sheet 1 Exam Question (FT)… The flow diagram shows what happens when a sample of limestone is strongly heated, and water is then added to the solid product. Match substances; A.calcium carbonate B.calcium hydroxide C.calcium oxide D.carbon dioxide

39 C1.2 Limestone and Building Sheet 2 - Homework Complete and explain these two equations, the information is on the web link below.... CaCO 3 + 2HCl CO 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O

40 C1.2 Limestone and Building Sheet 2 - Homework Complete and explain these two equations the information is on the web link below.... CaCO 3 + 2HCl CO 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O

41 Mr Powell 2012 Index Ideal Revision Notes...

42 C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. C1.2 Limestone and Building a) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. f) Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain. g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete.

43 Mr Powell 2012 Index Page 47 Exam Style Questions… 1 calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide (4 marks)

44 Mr Powell 2012 Index Page 47 Exam Style Questions… 2 a sodium carbonate (1 mark) b zinc carbonate (1 mark) c copper carbonate (1 mark) d calcium carbonate (1 mark) Carbonate Colour before heating Colour after heating Gas evolved Ease of decomposition Potassium carbonate white nonevery difficult Sodium carbonate white nonevery difficult Zinc carbonatewhite yellow when hot, white when cool carbon dioxide fairly easy Lead carbonate white some melting / yellow carbon dioxide fairly easy Copper carbonate Green/blueblack carbon dioxide easy Strong bonds Weak bonds

45 Mr Powell 2012 Index Page 47 Exam Style Questions… 3 reacts, produces, escapes, dissolves (4 marks)

46 Mr Powell 2012 Index Page 47 Exam Style Questions… b i calcium hydroxide (1 mark) ii Calcium hydroxide is made when calcium oxide reacts with water and this is alkaline/turns UI purple OR calcium carbonate/limestone does not react with water/is neutral and would give a green colour with UI. (2 marks) c i It is or contains calcium carbonate. (1 mark) ii No – because some limestone/calcium carbonate remained OR not all of the limestone/calcium carbonate decomposed on heating. (1 mark) d CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + 2H 2 O (3 marks) 4 a carbon dioxide (1 mark)


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