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Implementation of best available techniques (BAT) under the new

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1 Implementation of best available techniques (BAT) under the new
European Union Industrial Emissions (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive A step forward for controlling pollution from industrial activities Ivan Jankov European IPPC Bureau Sustainable Production and Consumption Unit Joint Research Centre – Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

2 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)
IPTS in the context of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)  20 staff within the Sustainable Production and Consumption (SPC) Unit of the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS)

3 What is an EU Directive? A Directive lays down the aims, scope and key requirements that the Member States must transpose into their national legislation It does not prescribe all details – many detailed issues must be determined by the Member States themselves, e.g. limit values, permit fees, inspections, penalties for breaches Member States free to: extend scope of activities covered implement before Directive deadlines superimpose national policies / impose stricter requirements choose different permitting procedures

4 Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996
Evolution of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) regulatory framework Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control Directive 2008/1/EC of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (Codified version) Directive 2010/75/EU of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) (Recast)

5 IED amends a number of EU legislations
It amends existing legislation concerning industrial emissions: Large Combustion Plants (LCP) Directive 2001/80/EC Waste Incineration (WI) Directive 2000/76/EC Directive on VOC emissions from solvents 1999/13/EC Directives related to the titanium dioxide industry 78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC and 92/112/EEC European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) Regulation 166/2006 5

6 ~ 50 000 IPPC installations in Europe
Annex 1 to the IED Wide range of industrial activities listed: Energy industries – LCP, refineries Production and processing of metals Mineral industries Cement, lime, glass, ceramics Production of chemicals Waste management industries Incineration Some recovery or disposal operations ‘Other’ industries: Pulp and paper, textile processing Tanning of hides and skins Intensive farming of pigs and poultry, slaughterhouses and animal by-product processing, food drink and milk processing, surface treatment using solvents IPPC requires permits to be based on BAT and this is defined within the Directive itself. The IPPC concept of BAT is quite complex seeking to find the best overall environmental option with regards to emissions which cannot be prevented. Inherent to BAT is a balance of likely costs and advantages and here it can be seen that BAT may be represented by an environmental optimum for energy or waste minimisation which goes beyond the normal economically attractive option for the companies. Cost neutral options for energy efficiency or waste minimisation are unlikely to be adopted by companies unless there is some external driver for them to do so. Often the most cost effective measures are not end of pipe but process integrated measures and here it can be seen that BAT focuses on the way in which activities are carried on, not just the emissions themselves. The way in which BAT is defined in the Directive and the way in which the information exchange on BAT works out - BAT usually reflects good current practice observed somewhere in the world - this is how we gather evidence that it is indeed both technically and economically viable - by examining how the best environmental performance is achieved. ~ IPPC installations in Europe

7 Timeline: making the IED real
1/1/2016 6/1/2013 6/1/2011 6/1/2014 6/7/2015 30/6/2020 31/12/2023 Entry into force of the Directive on industrial emissions (IED). Member States fully transpose the IED. The Directive applies to all new installations from this date onwards. All existing installations previously subject to IPPC, WI, SE and the TiO2 Directives must meet the requirements of the IED. LCP do not yet need to meet the new ELVs (Ch. III, Annex V). Existing installations operating newly prescribed activities (e.g. waste installations, wood-based panels, wood preservation) must meet the requirements of the IED. Existing LCP must meet the requirements set out in Chapter III and Annex V. Transitional National Plan provisions for LCP end. Limited lifetime derogation provisions for LCP end.

8 Other related legislation
Seveso Directive (industrial accidents) Water Framework Directive (quality standards for 41 priority substances) Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (for municipal sewage) Air Quality Directive (quality standards for NOX, SO2, PM, lead, benzene, CO) National Emission Ceilings Directive (national total emission controls for NOX, SO2, VOCs, ammonia) Landfill Directive (technical requirements for landfills) Environmental Liability Directive (in the case of environmental damage) EMAS Regulation (voluntary environmental management, audit and reporting scheme)

9 The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control System
Key instrument for minimising emissions and consumptions from most industrial activities. General framework: The purpose is to prevent and, if not feasible, reduce pollution from industrial activities; Achieve a high level of protection for the environment as a whole (avoiding shifting pollution from one environmental medium to another); Installations must be operated according to an integrated permit issued by competent authorities, containing emission limit values based on Best Available Techniques (BAT). 9

10 Definition of BAT Best Most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole; Available Developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions; Techniques Both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned. Note: in determining BAT, special consideration should be given to the criteria listed in Annex III of IED

11 Annex III of the IED in summary (criteria for determining BAT)
Waste minimisation – prevention, recycling, reuse, recovery Use of less hazardous substances – substitution Efficient use of resources and energy Information published by international organisations The nature, effects and volume of emissions Prevention of accidents and consequential environmental impacts ….

12 ‘BAT reference documents’ (BREFs)
Provide ‘BAT conclusions’ which shall be the reference for setting permit conditions Structured and prepared on the basis of established guidelines Based on an intensive exchange of information on: the performance of installations and techniques in terms of emissions and consumptions, etc. the techniques used, associated monitoring, economic and technical viability, etc. best available techniques and emerging techniques identified after considering all the issues concerned 12

13 Industrial Emission Directive (IED) operating scheme
Prevention and control of pollution arising from industrial installations Industrial Emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) Directive 1 legislation Application of the best available techniques (BAT) described in BAT reference documents (BREFs) 35 BREFs BAT-based permit and emission limit values ~ installations 13

14 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)
Purpose and actors (1) Article 75 Committee Article 13 Forum TWG members: Collect and exchange information Provide expert opinions Contribute to discussions Participate in TWG meetings Comment on BREF drafts European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission 35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)

15 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)
Purpose and actors (2) EIPPCB: Steer exchange of information and work of TWG Analyse / validate information from TWG Actively participate in collection of information Propose draft texts for BREF Present BREF at the Forum Article 75 Committee Article 13 Forum European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission 35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)

16 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)
Purpose and actors (3) Article 75 Committee Forum: Oversee exchange of information Nominate experts to TWG Give opinion on the BREFs Give opinion on the guidance documents Advise on EIPPCB work programme Article 13 Forum European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission 35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)

17 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)
Purpose and actors (4) Committee: Vote on the BAT conclusions Vote on the guidance documents Article 75 Committee Article 13 Forum European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission TWG Industry Member States NGOs Commission 35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)

18 Member States + EFTA and Accession Countries
The ‘Sevilla process’ TWG kick-off meeting Industry Member States + EFTA and Accession Countries Env. NGOs Commission/ EIPPCB Draft 1 (D1) Draft 2 (D2) Comments Bulk of info. needed (incl. questionnaires) Final TWG meeting Forum opinion on BREF Adoption of BAT conclusions through the Committee BREF Final draft BAT conclu- sions BAT conclu- sions

19 What a BREF is: the instrument through which best available techniques (BAT) and emerging techniques are determined based on sound techno-economic information; a comprehensive techno-economic assessment of the polluting and consuming potentials of an industrial sector and of the ways to control them; a document that contains BAT conclusions and emission and consumption levels associated with the best available techniques; the result of an information exchange organised under Article 13 of the Industrial Emissions Directive; a publicly available document (http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/). 19

20 What a BREF is NOT: it does not interpret the IE Directive;
it does not define or alter legal obligations; it cannot be exhaustive or take full account of detailed local considerations. 20

21 Information exchange tool: BATIS
TWG scattered around Europe => infrequent face-to-face interactions Electronic tool: BAT Information System (BATIS)

22 Dynamic aspects of BAT and review of BREFs
BAT is a dynamic concept, e.g.: New techniques may emerge; Science and technology in constant evolution; New environmental processes are being successfully introduced into the industry; Costs of techniques change. Since the elements of BAT change over time, BREFs have to be reviewed and updated as appropriate. Purpose of a BREF review: Not to rewrite the whole BREF; Review new information which may affect BAT; Correct errors and inconsistencies with other BREFs; Improve user-friendliness and fill possible gaps.

23 Review of BREFs First series (33 documents) completed in 2007
Review process started: Cement & Lime (2005); Iron & Steel, Pulp and Paper, Glass (2006); Non-Ferrous Metals, Tanneries, Common Waste Water/Waste Gas (2007); Refineries, Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs, Ferrous Metals (2008); Chlor-Alkali (2009); Large Volume Organic Chemicals (2010); Large Combustion Plants, Wood-based Panels (2011). Work program 2012 – 2013: 2 reviews start per year; : Wood Preservation with Chemicals Products, Waste Treatments, Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Solids and others, Waste Incineration.

24 for the Iron and Steel Industry BREF
Review process for the Iron and Steel Industry BREF

25 Milestones in the review process for the IS BREF
October 2005 Activation of the TWG for the review of the Iron and Steel BREF and submission of TWG wishes September 2006 TWG kick off meeting February 2008 First draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF (1250 comments received) July 2009 Second draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF (1385 comments received) January 2010 Third draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF February 2010 Final TWG meeting April 2010 Fourth draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF October 2010 Fifth draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF June 2011 Final draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF September 2011 Forum opinion on the full BREF including BAT conclusions November 2011 Adoption of the BAT conclusions by the Committee

26 Main updates and changes in the revised IS BREF
Restructuring and rewriting of the document, including: introduction of 115 new references; improving or replacing of 160 pictures; improving and updating of 180 tables. Assessing and consideration of approximately 3000 comments; Adoption and modification necessary according to the IED: 95 BAT conclusions in one chapter of the BREF with a new format (including description, applicability) the BAT conclusions will be a stand-alone document); adapting of standard texts.

27 Scope of the IS BREF This document addresses industrial activities specified in Annex I to the IED, namely: Activity 1.3: Production of coke; Activity 2.1: Metal ore (including sulphide ore) roasting and sintering; Activity 2.2: Production of pig iron or steel (primary and secondary fusion) including continuous casting, with a capacity exceeding 2.5 tonnes per hour. The document also covers pelletisation plants.

28 Scope of the IS BREF 1 2 Sinter Plant Casting / Pelletisation Blast
ores hot blast oxygen fluxes Casting / Pelletisation Blast hot metal Basic Oxygen Secondary Rolling / Plant Furnace Furnace Metallurgy Finishing Slag reductant coal Processing Coking injection Steel products Plant 2 Casting / scrap Electric Arc Secondary Rolling / Furnace Metallurgy hot metal Finishing electric energy 28

29 The key environmental issues in IS Production
The key environmental issues are: the reduction of emissions to air and water; efficient energy and raw material usage; minimisation, recovery and the recycling of process residues; effective environmental and energy management systems; nuisance by noise emissions.

30 Structure of the revised IS BREF
Preface Scope Chapter 1: General Information (Steel production related data and key environmental issues) Chapter 2: General processes and techniques Chapter 3: Sinter plants Chapter 4: Pelletisation plants Chapter 5: Coke oven plants Chapter 6: Blast furnaces Chapter 7: Basic oxygen steelmaking and casting Chapter 8: Electric arc steelmaking and casting EMS, LCP, materials and water management, monitoring, noise Section 1- Applied processes and techniques Section 2- Current consumption and emission levels Section 3- Techniques to consider in the determination of BAT

31 Structure of the revised IS BREF
Chapter 9: BAT conclusions for iron and steel production Chapter 10: Alternative ironmaking techniques Chapter 11: Emerging techniques (related to chapter 2 – 8) Chapter 12: Concluding remarks and recommendations References Glossary Chapter 13: Annexes

32 Example for BAT conclusions: Sinter strand
32

33 Example for BAT conclusions: Sinter strand
Sinter plants are the major source for dust, heavy metal and dioxin emissions in IS production from ores Untreated waste gases from sinter plants are characterized by: high content of fine particles; high concentrations of dioxins, Hg, SO2, HF and HCl; high specific dust resistivity due to high alkaline content.

34 Example for BAT conclusions: Sinter strand
mixing mixing drum drum Option: Option: return to return to sinter sinter strand strand sinter strand sinter strand treatment treatment disposal disposal waste waste gas gas suction suction Additive injection Additives Stack Cyclone ESP ESP ESP Bag filter Bag filter Cyclone Cyclone required: required: optional: required: pre pre - - dedusting dedusting filter internal filter internal dust return dust return Water, lime (SO2) Carbon additive (PCDD/F, Hg) (HCl, HF, precoating) Lime Disposal Disposal treatment Return to sinter strand return to sinter strand Typical system arrangement for control of dust, PDCC/F, HCl, HF and SOx emissions

35 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dust emissions from sinter strands
20. BAT for primary emissions from sinter plants is to reduce dust emissions from the sinter strand waste gas by means of a bag filter. BAT for primary emissions for existing plants is to reduce dust emissions from the sinter strand waste gas by using advanced electrostatic precipitators when bag filters are not applicable. The BAT-associated emission level for dust is <1 – 15 mg/Nm3 for the bag filter and <20 – 40 mg/Nm3 for the advanced electrostatic precipitator (which should be designed and operated to achieve these values), both determined as a daily mean value. Bag Filter Description: Bag filters used in sinter plants are usually applied downstream of an existing electrostatic precipitator or cyclone but can also be operated as a standalone device. Applicability: For existing plants requirements such as space for a downstream installation to the electrostatic precipitator can be relevant. Special regard should be given to the age and the performance of the existing electrostatic precipitator.

36 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dioxin emissions from sinter strands
25. BAT for primary emissions from sinter strands is to reduce emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by using injection of adequate adsorption agents into the waste gas duct of the sinter strand before dedusting with a bag filter or advanced electrostatic precipitators when bag filters are not applicable. The BAT- associated emissions level for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) is <0.05 – 0.2 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 for the bag filter and <0.2 – 0.4 ng-I-TEQ/Nm3 for the advanced electrostatic precipitator, both determined for a 6 – 8 hour random sample under steady-state conditions.

37 Example for BAT conclusions: Electric Arc Furnace

38 Example for BAT conclusions: Electric Arc Furnace
Typical system arrangement for control of dust and PDCC/F emissions

39 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dust emissions from electric arc furnace
89. BAT for the electric arc furnace (EAF) primary and secondary dedusting (including scrap preheating, charging, melting, tapping, ladle furnace and secondary metallurgy) is to achieve an efficient extraction of dust emissions from all emission sources by using one of the techniques listed below and to use subsequent dedusting by means of a bag filter: I. a combination of direct off-gas extraction (4th or 2nd hole) and hood systems II. direct gas extraction and doghouse systems III. direct gas extraction and total building evacuation (low-capacity electric arc furnaces (EAF) may not require direct gas extraction to achieve the same extraction efficiency). The overall average collection efficiency associated with BAT is >98 %. The BAT-associated emission level for dust is <5 mg/Nm3, determined as a daily mean value.

40 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dioxin emissions from electric arc furnace
90. BAT for the electric arc furnace (EAF) primary and secondary dedusting (including scrap preheating, charging, melting, tapping, ladle furnace and secondary metallurgy) is to prevent and reduce polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) emissions by avoiding, as much as possible, raw materials which contain PCDD/F and PCB or their precursors (see BAT 6 and 7) and using one or a combination of the following techniques in conjunction with an appropriate dust removal system: I. appropriate post-combustion Applicability of BAT I: In existing plants, circumstances like available space, given off-gas duct system, etc. need to be taken into consideration for assessing the applicability. II. appropriate rapid quenching III. injection of adequate adsorption agents into the duct before dedusting. The BAT-associated emission level for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) is <0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, based on a 6 – 8 hour random sample during steady-state conditions. In some cases, the BAT-associated emission level can be achieved with primary measures only.

41 Thank you for your attention
European IPPC Bureau Tel.: European IPPC Bureau


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