Presentation on theme: "AUGMENTING USE OF NON-COKING COAL IN STEEL INDUSTRY:"— Presentation transcript:
1 AUGMENTING USE OF NON-COKING COAL IN STEEL INDUSTRY: A C R DasIndustrial AdviserMinistry of SteelGovernment of IndiaNew Delhi4th Coal Summit19-20th NovemberHotel The Ashok, New Delhi
2 An Overview of Indian Iron & Steel Industry World Production of Crude Steel(2011): MTChinese production (46%) : MTIndia’s Crude Steel Production( 2011) : 72 MTIndia is the 4th Largest Producer in the world.India is the largest producer of Sponge Iron.Indian Steel Production 8-10%(Decadal)India to reach to 2nd position by end of 12th Five Yr. PlanPresent & Projected Steel Capacity in India:MTMTMTMT by 2050
3 STRUCTURE OF INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY There are 11 Integrated Steel Plants (ISP)ISPs adopt different process routes namely, BF-BOF, BF-BOF/THF, BF/Corex-BOF, DRI/HBI-EAF and DRI/BF-EAF plantsThere are a large number of Mini Steel Plants(MSPs) comprising of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)/ Energy Optimising Furnace (EOF) and Electric Induction Furnace (EIF) units.MSPs includes:Stand-alone plants dependent on purchased inputs (steel scrap and sponge iron) andcomposite plants having captive sponge iron making facilities.
4 TECHNOLOGY MIX OF IRON & STEEL MAKING Process RouteWorldIndiaOxygen Route (%)70BF/COREX/BOF/THF/EOF: 40Electric Route (%)30EAF/DRI-EAF :EIF/DRI-EAF :NB: As per future projections, proportion of steel production through BF-BOF route in expected to increase in years to come
5 Techno-Economic Efficiency Parameters ItemGlobal BenchmarkIndian Iron & Steel sectorBF Productivity (t / day / m3 of working volume/2.8Coke rate (Kg / t HM)PCI (kg / t HM)50-150Energy Consumption (G cal / TCS6-6.5CO2 emission (t / TCS)1.7 – 1.92.8 – 3.0
6 INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY: CHALLENGES Poor techno-economic performance parameters of Indian steel industry reflects that it is trailing behind the global standardsMain problems relate to:technological obsolescence in principle process sandLack of timely technological intervention and R&DLack of dedicated technologies for harnessing waste heat/ energyInferior quality of Raw Materials/ Inputs:High Alumina and high Alumina/Silica Ratio in Iron OreHigh ash in Coking/ Non-Coking Coal
7 Overview of Blast Furnace(BF) Iron making BF is the oldest and most established and also most efficient process of iron makingOver 90% of total iron produced in the world comes from BF processBlast Furnace essentially requires coke made from cooking coal.Coke is made in coke oven (by-product/heat recovery)Coke has three important functions in Blast Furnace:Thermal (source of heat)Chemical (reductant)Physical (Supporting Burden & Imparting Bed Permeability)Coke must satisfy some basic minimum quality parameters viz., composition (high FC & low ash), proper size range, high strength (Cold & Hot), good reactivity etc. to ensure efficient BF operation with maximum productivity & minimum coke rate/energy consumption.
8 Problems and issues with Indian Coking Coal BF Coke-making requires good quality of cooking coal usually prime cooking coal.Prime Coking-Coal is relatively scarce and costly and its availability is depleting sharplyPrime Coking coal reserves limited and constitute only about 14 % of the total coal reserves of 252 Billion Tonnes in IndiaThe ash content in ROM Coking is very high (30-45%) and washing/ beneficiation is difficult because of techno-economic reasonsPoor coke and iron ore quality are primarily responsible for poor performance of Indian BFs and higher energy consumption.
9 Alternative Iron Making Technologies: Development of Alternative technlogies/ Practices for substitution of Coking-CoalPulverised Coal Injection (PCI)/ Coal Dust Injection (CDI) to partially substitute Coking-Coal (Coke) in Blast Furnace by Non-Coking Coal/ other reductants.Alternative Iron Making Technologies:Direct Reduction of Iron Ore to produce sponge iron/ DRI using non-coking coal/ natural gas.Smelting Reduction (SR) of Iron Ore using non-coking coal.
10 Effect of PCI/CDI in BFs CDI/PCI has picked up over the years across the world to minimise coking coal use in BFs in view of its scarcity and cost1 ton of coal dust/ pulverised coal replaces about 1 ton of coke resulting in saving of approx 1.4 ton of coking coal and equivalent coke making capacity thereby avoiding emission of pollutants/ GHGsPCI also helps in smooth operation of Blast Furnace with improvement in productivityPCI in Indian BFs is low, varying in the range of kg/thm as compared to 250 kg/thm (max) in the world.
11 Techno-Economic Parameters in Europe CountryBelgiumFranceFinlandGermanyNetherlandWorksAM GentAMDunkerqueRuukki RaaheHKMTKSCorusCoke RateKg/t/HM261.9266.1319.0289.0262.6289.5245.6271.1Nut Coke66.547.839.066.870.953.535.332.1Total Coke328.4313.9358.0355.8333.5343.0280.9303.2Coal Injection169.7171.5-165.4159.8235.1214.9Oil Injection100.523.50.9Natural Gas84.9Oxygen in blast%26.224.3126.96.36.1996.436.232.3Blast FurnaceProductivityt/m3 (WV) x 24 hr188.8.131.522.572.802.493.182.64
12 Enablers for High PCI rate in BFs Injection of High PCI in BFs is dependant on several factors:Good Coke quality (Coke M10 value 7 (max), M40 value 81-88%, CSR 66% (min)Slag Rate (max): 300 kg/thm (preferably 280 Kg/thm)Hot Blast Temperature: 1150 C (min)Oxygen enrichment: 3-5% or morePCI coal essentially requires appropriate quality of non-coking coal characterized by low Ash: 12%, VM: 12-15%, CSN: (-) 3%, HGI: (+) 75%, Ash Fusion Temp: IDT- 1300°C and Final Flow Temp: 1500°CSuch PCI coal is not readily available in India and is being imported
13 ALTERNATIVE IRON MAKING Direct Reduction of Iron OreProcess of directly reducing iron ore (lumps/ Pellets) in solid form itselfProduct known as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) or Sponge IronTwo main Processes:Non-Coking Coal based Rotary KilnsNatural Gas Based Shaft FurnacesSyn-Gas Based Shaft FurnacesModular Sizes of Rotary Kilns: low (100 – 500 TPD)Modular Size of Gas Based Plants: high (upto 2 MTPA)
14 DRI PRODUCTION IN INDIA/WORLD CountryProduction, MT200820092010India21.122.0323.81Venezuela6.875.65.80Mexico6.014.155.22Iran7.468.29.10Saudi Arabia4.975.035.96Russia4.564.674.60World666571India is the largest DRI producer (75% Coal Based & 25% gas based)
17 Alternate Iron Making – Smelting Reduction Process of converting Iron Ore into Hot Metal/ Pig Iron using non-coking coal directly bypassing conversion of coal into cokeAlso known as Direct SmeltingSeveral Processes have been developed, some of which are commercially available and others are in the process of developmentCommonly known SR Processes are:CorexFinexITmk3HISmeltHIsarnaFastMeltTechnored
23 Production of Iron nuggets Ore + coal composite pellets: Reduction & melting at 1500C in RHFIt produces almost low sulphur pure iron nuggets (& slag globules)Technology: Kobe Steel, Japan0.50 MT: Minnesota, USA0.50 MT: ASP, Durgapur (Proposed): Rs 1500 Crores
27 Key features of HIsarna Smelter Technology of ULCOS ULCOS: Ultra-low Carbon di-oxide Steeelmaking: European consortium of 48 companies: Cooperative R&D Programme: Develop processes for reducing CO2 emission of today’s best routes by at least 50%:HIsarna for ironmaking (HIsarna for the process ("HI" from HIsmelt and "sarna" from Isarna, a celtic word for iron).BF Top gas recycling, etc.HIsarna is a single-step technology based on bath-smelting of iron ore to produce liquid iron like HM of BF.The main purpose is to improve energy efficiency by at least 20%.
28 Hisarna Ironmaking Technology CO2 gasCoalIron Ore FinesMelting cycloneOxygenSmelting ConverterHot Metal
29 Discussions & Conclusions BF has been and will continue to be the workhorse for Hot Metal production.BF process has undergone substantial improvements in terms of size, capacity, efficiency, use of coke, waste heat recovery etc.Coke-making has also undergone several changes to produce good quality coke from inferior coking coal/ non-coking coal.From 100% use of coke in the past, modern BFs use only 50-60% coke, balance being non-coking coal (PCI/CDI).Indian BFs need to bring in Technological upgradations to introduce/ improve PCI/ CDI rate.Good quality coke/coal is key to BF operation and also to reduce coke rate in BF. Good quality NCC is also necessary to enhance PCI/CDI rate
30 Discussions & Conclusions (Contd.) Overall DRI production (and particularly natural gas based DRI production in middle east countries) increasingDR & SR process will continue to play complementary/ supplementary role in overall iron/steel production.Coal /Coke consumption cannot be reduced below a theoretical minimum. Worldwide R&D in progress for development of path breaking processes to further reduce use of fossil fuel in BF and /or substitute use of coal by non-fossil fuel for addressing climate change issues.