Presentation on theme: "6.02 ChemLive Exothermic and Exothermic Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
16.02 ChemLive Exothermic and Exothermic Reactions
2Chemical bonds are formed during exothermic reactions. Exothermic chemical reactions cause their surroundings to warm up by giving off heat.Chemical bonds are formed during exothermic reactions.Exothermic reactions are usually spontaneous.This is a reaction that takes place on its own without an external force and another reaction needed to drive it.Example: Lighting a match. When the head of the match is struck, it results in the spontaneous release of stored energy (heat) from the reactants into the surroundings.
3Potential Energy Diagram-Exothermic The reactants contain more stored energy than the product because energy from external sources is not required, but given off. This gives the product more stability due to the lower amount of energy needed.
4Endothermic Reactions Energy is drawn in from the external environment, causing its surroundings to loose heat, or "cool down."Chemical bonds are broken with endothermic reactions.Most endothermic reactions are not spontaneous.A non spontaneous reaction is a reaction that doesn't occur naturally and it normally tends to favor the reactants of a chemical reaction.Example: Photosynthesissunlight + 6CO2(g) + H2O(l) = C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
5Potential Energy Diagram- Endothermic The endothermic chemical reaction creates a product that has a higher energy level than the original materials, causing the reactant's stored energy to decrease.
6Exothermic/Endothermic Examples Exothermic ReactionsEndothermic Reactionsrusting ironcooking an eggcondensation of rain from water vaporevaporation of waterformation of snow in cloudsconversion of frost to water vapormaking ice cubesmelting ice cubesburning sugarproducing sugar by photosynthesis
7Measuring HeatreactionExothermic reaction, heat given off & temperature of water risesreactionEndothermic reaction, heat taken in & temperature of water drops
86.02 Endothermic and Exothermic lab activity Hands-on Assignment ChoicesChoice One: Steel Wool and VinegarChoice Two: Baking Soda and Vinegar
9Choice One: Steel Wool and Vinegar Materials:one piece of steel woolvinegarthermometer (if you have one)glass jar with lid, or disposable plastic cup (not polystyrene—also referred to as Styrofoam™) with lid/plastic wrapnewspaper (Use it to cover the countertop next to the kitchen sink. This could get a little messy!)
10Choice One: Steel Wool and Vinegar Procedure:Place the steel wool in a jar or cup and cover with vinegar.Let the steel wool soak in the vinegar for one minute.If you have a thermometer, measure the temperature of the vinegar and steel wool.Squeeze the vinegar out of the steel wool and pour the vinegar from the jar into the sink.Place the steel wool immediately back into the jar/cup and seal the lid. You should be able to see it start rusting over the next few minutes.Place your hands on the outside of the container after sealing the lid and record any temperature change that you observe.When you think the temperature change is complete, open the jar. If you have a thermometer, measure the temperature of the steel wool.When you are done making observations, it is safe to dispose of the steel wool in the trash. Be sure to wash the glass jar and thermometer before putting them away.
11Choice One: Steel Wool and Vinegar Observations to help you with your 6.02 quiz that follows the activity:1.What was the initial temperature in the jar______ degrees Celsius.2.What was the temperature after the reaction? _____degrees Celsius.3.What was the change in temperature? Increase or decrease?4.Based on information from Part I and from observations, was this reaction Exothermic or Endothermic?An increase would be exothermic. A decrease would be endothermic5.Are chemical bonds forming or breaking? Observation- What do you see happening?6.In this experiment, the acidic vinegar dissolved a protective coating off the steel wool, allowing the oxidation of the steel to begin. This process is called rusting. In this reaction, iron (III) is combined with oxygen gas to form iron oxide.Write the balanced chemical reaction for the rusting of iron. __Fe+__O2 __FeO3
12Choice Two: Baking Soda and Vinegar Materials:one disposable plastic (not polystyrene—also referred to as Styrofoam™) cupone disposable plastic spoon (plastic fork or knife may be used)thermometer (if you have one)measuring cup and spoonnewspaper (Use it to cover the countertop next to the kitchen sink. This could get a little messy!)baking sodavinegar
13Choice Two: Baking Soda and Vinegar ProcedureMeasure two tablespoons of baking soda and pour it into the clean, dry plastic cup.Measure out one cup of vinegar.If you have a thermometer, place it in the measuring cup of liquid and write down the initial temperature.Grasping the plastic cup near the bottom with one hand, pour the liquid into the plastic cup with your other hand.Continue to grasp the cup as you stir the solution gently with the plastic spoon. Observe any temperature change felt through the plastic cup.If you have a thermometer, record the temperature change as you stir the solution very gently.When you are done making observations, it is safe to pour the solution down the sink and to dispose of the plastic cup and spoon in the trash. Be sure to wash the measuring spoon, measuring cup, and thermometer before putting them away.
14Choice Two: Baking Soda and Vinegar Observations to help you with your 6.02 quiz that follows the activity: 1.What was the initial temperature in the jar of vinegar?______ degrees Celsius. 2.What was the temperature after the reaction with baking soda? _____degrees Celsius. 3.What was the change in temperature? Increase or decrease? 4.Based on information from Part I and from observations, was this reaction Exothermic or Endothermic? An increase would be exothermic. A decrease would be endothermic 5.Are chemical bonds forming or breaking? Observation- What do you see happening? 6.In this experiment, the acidic vinegar reacted with baking soda producing sodium acetate and carbonic acid. The carbonic acid quickly decomposes into carbon dioxide and water. The chemical reactions involved: HC2H3O2 + NaHCO3 ===> NaC2H3O2 + H2CO3 H2CO3 ---> H2O + CO2