Presentation on theme: "Cognition 7B Thinking, problem solving creativity and language."— Presentation transcript:
Cognition 7B Thinking, problem solving creativity and language
Working with a partner to better understand Must submit example sheet at end of period
Slide # 3 Creativity The ability to use information in new and original ways All problem solving requires creativity Creativity includes flexibility Recombination and insight
5 components to creative thinking Expertise – The more you know in a specific area, the more solutions Imaginative thinking skills – cartoon thinking, (living on sun not earth) Venturesome personality – perseveres obstacles Intrinsic environment – satisfaction Creative environment -
Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7- J9A8UEERE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7- J9A8UEERE
Representativeness Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JJ21Kd0L O8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JJ21Kd0L O8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- VgF5xMqphE&feature=endscreen&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- VgF5xMqphE&feature=endscreen&NR=1
Examples of each w/partner Representativeness Heuristic Availability Heuristic
What hinders our problem solving? (examples w/partner) Confirmation Bias –searching for ideas to confirm your own theories Fixation -inability to see a problem from fresh perspective Mental set- mindset of what has worked by others or self in past Functional fixedness- searching for screwdriver when a penny could of done the job.
Algorithm Step by step procedure that guarantee a solution. But step by step algorithm can be tiring!! algorithms concerns a specific set of finite steps in order to bring about a solution whereas heuristics offer possible means to arrive upon an answer.
Example Algorithm Someone who has forgotten their glasses may develop an algorithm for copying the correct information from a white board at school similar to: 1. Attempt to read information. If this is possible, copy it down. If not, refer to step 2. 2. Squint eyes in an attempt to read the information. If this is possible, copy it down. If not, refer to step 3. 3.Ask a neighbor what the information says. If this is possible, copy this down. If not, refer to step 4. The steps of this algorithm will carry on until the objective, namely copying down the notes, is reached.
Heuristics A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; using speedier but also more detail than algorithm. Forgot my glasses: Call mom to drop off Borrow my friend who has same prescription Page 300 in book ; grocery vs. grocery isle Examples w/partner of heuristic vs. algorithm
Amnesia Often caused by a traumatic injury to the brain, such as a concussion Retrograde amnesia Past memories Anterograde amnesia New Memories
Slide # 14 Retrospective vs. Prospective Memory (examples) Retrospective memory: past experience or events and previously acquired information. elementary school memories childhood memories Prospective memory: things you need to do in the future Homework Graduate
Slide # 15 Childhood Amnesia A normal phase of development that accounts for the lack of memory before the ages of 3
Slide # 16 How Do Children Learn Language? B.F. Skinner and operant conditioning Behavior is reinforced with smiles and attention Children understand before they speak Children learn language through observation
Slide # 17 Noam Chomsky A mental program LAD – language acquisition device Infants possess an innate capacity for language Transformational grammar – rules of lange.
Slide # 18 Stages of Language Development Birth/infancy: cries, distress 2 months: cooing 4 months: babble 9 months: babbling is refined
Slide # 19 Stages (continued)examples By 1 year: single words are uttered(dadda) By 2 years: two words together (50–100 words)(me play) By 4 years: complete sentences
Slide # 20 The Structure of Language Four rules 1. Phonemes 2. Morphemes 3. Syntax 4. Semantics
Slide # 21 Phonemes Individual sounds that are basic structural elements of language 100 different and recognizable sounds Ex. Sh or t, vowels Example
Slide # 22 Morphemes The smallest unit of meaning in a given language Made up of one or more phonemes Phonemes are units of sound, morphemes are units of meaning Example; a word, prefix or suffix, ex. Book, love, reason are single morphemes Love is morpheme but loves have 2 morphemes Love + s = 2
Syntax Language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences Syntax varies from language to language I would like a muffin, shouted John. Slide # 23
Slide # 24 Semantics The study of meaning in language The same word can have different meanings Do you mind if I sit next to you? and A mind is a terrible thing to waste. Clearly the word mind has different meanings in each of these sentences. Our knowledge of semantics helps us realize which meaning applies to which instance. In the first sentence, mind functions as a verb; in the second sentence, it functions as a noun.
Turn in partner paper Make sure you both have your names written on it.