6Note: Working Memory is the same as short term memory Echoic MemoryNote: Working Memory is the same as short term memory
7State Dependent Memory Maintenance Rehearsal – increase short term memory to 30 seconds more
8Eidetic MemoryThe ability to maintain exact detailed visual memories over a significant period of time.
9Creativity The ability to use information in new and original ways All problem solving requires creativityCreativity includes flexibilityRecombination and insightBullet # 1 Creativity involves using information we’ve acquired in new and original ways. Psychologists do not know why some people can think more creatively than others.Bullet # 2 All problem solving requires some degree of creativity.Bullet # 3 “Flexibility” is the opposite of rigidity. For example, how many uses can you think of for a brick? The more uses a person can come up with, the more flexibility he or she shows.Bullet # 4 “Recombination” means to rearrange the basic elements of a problem in order to arrive at a solution. Recombination forms a vital part of creativity. “Insight” is the sudden realization of a solution to a particular problem. When a person gets stumped by a problem and takes a break to engage in another activity, the solution to the problem might suddenly present itself. It can seem as if the answer has come out of nowhere.
105 components to creative thinking Expertise – The more you know in a specific area, the more solutionsImaginative thinking skills – cartoon thinking, (living on sun not earth)Venturesome personality – perseveres obstaclesIntrinsic environment – satisfactionCreative environment -
11Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
15Examples of each w/partner Representativeness HeuristicAvailability Heuristic
16What hinders our problem solving? (examples w/partner) Confirmation Bias –searching for ideas to confirm your own theoriesFixation-inability to see a problem from fresh perspectiveMental set- mindset of what has worked by others or self in pastFunctional fixedness- searching for screwdriver when a penny could of done the job.
20AlgorithmStep by step procedure that guarantee a solution. But step by step algorithm can be tiring!!algorithms concerns a specific set of finite steps in order to bring about a solution whereas heuristics offer possible means to arrive upon an answer.
22Example AlgorithmSomeone who has forgotten their glasses may develop an algorithm for copying the correct information from a white board at school similar to:1. Attempt to read information. If this is possible, copy it down. If not, refer to step Squint eyes in an attempt to read the information. If this is possible, copy it down. If not, refer to step Ask a neighbor what the information says. If this is possible, copy this down. If not, refer to step 4.The steps of this algorithm will carry on until the objective, namely copying down the notes, is reached.
23HeuristicsA simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; using speedier but also more detail than algorithm.Forgot my glasses:Call mom to drop offBorrow my friend who has same prescriptionPage 300 in book ; grocery vs. grocery isleExamples w/partner of heuristic vs. algorithm
24AmnesiaOften caused by a traumatic injury to the brain, such as a concussionRetrograde amnesia Past memoriesAnterograde amnesia New Memories
25Retrospective vs. Prospective Memory (examples) Retrospective memory: past experience or events and previously acquired information.elementary school memorieschildhood memoriesProspective memory: things you need to do in the futureHomeworkGraduateChronology distinguishes retrospective memory from prospective memory: retrospective memory focuses on the past; prospective memory focuses on the future. Remembering appointments, who to call in case of an emergency, and what we need to buy at the grocery store are all parts of prospective memory.
28Childhood AmnesiaA normal phase of development that accounts for the lack of memory before the ages of 3Bullet # 1 What’s your earliest memory? Most people can’t recall events that occurred before they were three or four years old (Pillemer, 1999), probably because children at that age lack sufficient language acquisition. Memories that form before language develops don’t get organized the same way in the brain.Freud called the failure to recall early life experiences “infantile amnesia.” He believed that painful memories were selectively repressed or forgotten and pushed deep into the unconscious.Bullet # 2 Dissociative amnesia involves memory loss that has not been caused by injury, disease, or other physical factors. It often results from stress.
29How Do Children Learn Language? B.F. Skinner and operant conditioningBehavior is reinforced with smiles and attentionChildren understand before they speakChildren learn language through observationBullets # 1–2 B.F. Skinner theorized that children learn language through operant conditioning. When children utter sounds similar to adult speech, adults reinforce their behavior with smiles, hugs, etc. This encourages children to repeat those sounds, and eventually they learn to talk.Bullet # 3 Many psychologists have criticized Skinner’s ideas. For example, they cite the fact that children can understand language before they can speak or receive any rewards for speech-like sounds.Bullet # 4 Some psychologists believe that children learn language through simple observation.
30Noam Chomsky A mental program LAD – language acquisition device Infants possess an innate capacity for languageTransformational grammar – rules oflang.In 1957, Noam Chomsky theorized that children inherit a mental program that enables them to learn grammar. He called this program “LAD,” which stands for “language-acquisition device.” He also believed that infants possess an innate capacity for language. Chomsky created the notion of “transformational grammar,” which he defined as “a system for describing the rules that determine all the sentences that can possibly be formed in any language.”
31Stages of Language Development Birth/infancy: cries, distress2 months: cooing4 months: babble9 months: babbling is refinedInfants go through four stages of language development.Bullet# 1-4 At birth, infants cry and make sounds which indicate some distress. By the age of two months, they begin to “coo” (i.e., long, drawn-out sounds like “oooh”). At four months, infants reach the first stage of language development and begin to babble. By the time children learn to babble, they have begun to gain some control over their vocal chords. By nine months, infants have refined their babbling to include sounds that comprise words in their native language. Deaf children “babble” by using hand signals, which they repeat over and over again.
32Stages (continued)examples By 1 year: single words are uttered(dadda)By 2 years: two words together (50–100 words)(me play)By 4 years: complete sentencesBullet # 1 By about one year of age, infants begin to utter single words. They often describe familiar objects or people (“dada,” “mama,” “doggie”). At this stage, children may use single words to express or describe more complicated thoughts. For example, if they say “da” they may want to know where their daddy is.Bullet # 2 Toward the end of the second year, children begin to place two words together to express ideas (e.g., “me play”). “Right there” might mean, “You stay right there, I will be right back.” By two years of age, children often have a vocabulary of between 50 and 100 words.Bullet # 3 By the age of four, children begin to form complete sentences.
33The Structure of Language Four rules1. Phonemes2. Morphemes3. Syntax4. SemanticsNo special notes. See the next slides for an explanation of each.
34PhonemesIndividual sounds that are basic structural elements of language100 different and recognizable soundsEx. Sh or t, vowelsExampleBullet # 1 Phonemes are individual sounds that provide the basic structural elements of language. For example, consonants and vowels are phonemes. Phonemes can even be a single letter like a “t” or a combination of letters like “sh.”Bullet # 2 Humans can produce about 100 different, distinct sounds. Languages do not use all 100 sounds: for example, English employs about 43 sounds, other languages use as few as 15 sounds, and some languages incorporate as many as 85 sounds.Note: Just as we form spoken words from phonemes, signs in any sign language also are made up of basic components. The Dictionary of American Sign Language lists 18 or 19 hand shapes, 24 movements, and 12 locations.
35Morphemes The smallest unit of meaning in a given language Made up of one or more phonemesPhonemes are units of sound, morphemes are units of meaningExample; a word, prefix or suffix, ex. Book, love, reason are single morphemesLove is morpheme but loves have 2 morphemes Love + s = 2A morpheme is a unit of meaning made up of one or more phonemes. A morpheme can be a word, a letter, a prefix, or a suffix. The words “book,” “love,” and “reason” are single morphemes. “Loves,” “relearn,” and “walked” have two morphemes (“love” and “s,” “re” and “learn,” “walk” and “ed”).
36SyntaxLanguage rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentencesSyntax varies from language to language“I would like a muffin”, shouted John.Bullet # 1 “Syntax” is a set of rules for combining phrases, sentences, or words in order to express thoughts. We need syntax in order to understand what others say and to be understood by others. English syntax follows certain grammatical rules such as placing adjectives in front of nouns.Bullet # 2 Every language has its own particular rules of syntax.
37Semantics The study of meaning in language The same word can have different meanings“Do you mind if I sit next to you?” and “A mind is a terrible thing to waste.” Clearly the word “mind” has different meanings in each of these sentences. Our knowledge of semantics helps us realize which meaning applies to which instance. In the first sentence, “mind” functions as a verb; in the second sentence, it functions as a noun.“Semantics” focuses on the meanings of different words. It also looks at how the same word can have two different meanings. These two sentences illustrate how semantics operate: “Do you mind if I sit next to you?” and “A mind is a terrible thing to waste.” Clearly the word “mind” has different meanings in each of these sentences. Our knowledge of semantics helps us realize which meaning applies to which instance. In the first sentence, “mind” functions as a verb; in the second sentence, it functions as a noun.