2VOCABULARY Tragedy Pathos Hamartia Catharsis Comedy Low Comedy Farce Screen SceneAsideBurlesqueParodyCaricatureHigh ComedyComedy of mannersSatireFantasyRomantic comedySentimental comedy- Melodrama- Play of ideasTheatrical conventionsRepresentationalPresentational-Allegory
3TRAGEDY • Humanity’s highest literary achievement • focus upon Protagonist’s struggle which he fails, or is overcome by opposing forces.• Outcome appears predestined - nothing the character can do to avoid it (inevitability)• Pathos: the quality of the drama that raises the audience’s pity and compassion• Antagonist wins!
4TRAGEDYCatharsis - the feeling of release felt by the audience by the end of the tragedy, because the pathos has been purged.Pathos - represents an appeal to the audience’s emotions.
6TragedyHamartia - the cause of the protagonist’s difficulties brought on by a character weakness or error in judgment.Hubris - excessive pride - the most common form of hamartiaWhile viewing a tragedy the audience must be made to feel pity and fear.
7COMEDYThe greatest comedies have situations and characters with which the audience can identify.The protagonist overcomes opposing forces or achieves desired goals or both
8Elements of ComedyExaggeration - overstatement, physical characteristicsIncongruity - anything that seems out of placeAnticipation - looking forward to a potential laughProtection - its all fake anywayRelief - all tension dissolves into a grand laugh
9Types of ComedyLow Comedy: focus upon physical antics and physical humor to generate laughter
10Types of Low ComedyFarce: based upon improbable characters implausible coincidences and events
11Types of Low ComedyBurlesque: a mockery of a broad topic such as a style, societal view, or literary form and the audience should have previous knowledge of the play’s subject or they will not understand the humor.
12Types of Low ComedyParody: a mockery of a certain person or work incorporating a caricature or exaggerated feature of the subject.
13High Comedy Intellectual or, “Thinking man’s” humor Must pay close attention to the dialogue because not dependant upon physical comedy
14Types of High ComedyComedy of manners - mocks the pretenses of the upper class. Built on the clever use of language includes puns, paradoxes, and ironies.
15Types of High ComedySatire - ridicules human folly, societal views, or individuals with the goal of changing something for the better
16OTHER TYPES OF DRAMAFantasy- unreal characters, dreams, imaginary times and places• Romantic Comedy - happy-ending love affairs between attractive charactersMelodrama - 19th century, stock characters and implausible plots - virtuous maiden, threatened by evil villain, rescued by flawless hero• Play of Ideas - social problem, racism, sexism, classism, right or wrongPsychological Drama - serious play, penetrating and often painful to view
17EVEN MORE TYPES OF DRAMA The “Whodunit” - suspenseful solving of a crime or courtroom dramaAllegory - a play that teaches moral concepts through characters who personify abstract qualities ie. Truth, justice, love, death, and humanityChildren’s Theater - written, designed, and performed for children.Puppet Theater - ‘nuf saidMonodrama - play written to be performed by just one actorPerformance Art - monodrama that involves juxtaposing many different elements of theater in a novel way
19Let’s All Match! 1. Fantasy Muppets 2. Romantic Comedy 3. Melodrama4. Play of Ideas5. Psychological Drama6. “Whodunit”7. Allegory8. Children’s Theater9. Puppet Theater10. MonodramaMuppets“My Best Friend’s Wedding”Lost“101 Dalmations”Hal Holbrook as “Mark Twain”Lord of the Rings“Bridget Jones’s Diary”“Mississippi Burning”“Murder on the Orient Express”“Aesop’s Fables”1-F, 2-B, 3-G, 4-H, 5-C, 6-I, 7-J, 8-D, 9-A, 10-E
20Let’s All Match! (answers) 1. Fantasy - “F” “Lord of the Rings”2. Romantic Comedy - “B” “My Best Friend’s Wedding”3. Melodrama - “G” “Bridget Jones’s Diary”4. Play of Ideas - “H” “Mississippi Burning”5. Psychological Drama - “C” “Lost”6. “Whodunit” - “I” “Murder on the Orient Express”7. Allegory - “J” “Aesop’s Fables”8. Children’s Theater - “D” “101 Dalmations”9. Puppet Theater - “A” Muppets10. Monodrama - “E” Hal Holbrook as “Mark Twain”1-F, 2-B, 3-G, 4-H, 5-C, 6-I, 7-J, 8-D, 9-A, 10-E
21STYLES OF DRAMADramatic style - the way in which the play is written, produced, and acted. It relies heavily on Theatrical Conventions, setting and other visual elements to create a style.Types:- Representational - most common style, audience watches the action like a fly on the, “fourth wall,” as if they were there in someone else’s situation, yet removed.- Presentational - acknowledges the audience is present andcharacters address the audience- Avant-Garde - new and experimental styles, found off-Broadway, and off-off Broadway
2220th Century Styles of Drama Romanticism - focuses upon emotion and imagination, such as “Romantic Comedies” where love is primary theme
2320th Century Styles of Drama Realism - presents life as it actually is. Characters talk and act as people in ordinary life do. The outcome of the play makes sense in the real world. Can be blended into other styles, such as horror, to chilling effect. Consider…
2420th Century Styles of Drama Naturalism - grew out of realism and the idea that humans have little self-determination but act in response to forces in nature and society that are beyond their control. Life with, “No Holds Barred.”
2520th Century Styles of Drama Symbolism- 19th century French reaction against Realism with symbolic elements to represent emotions, ideals, and values.
2620th Century Styles of Drama Expressionism - the uselessness of human hopes and dreams in the face of mechanistic forces. Distorted, oversimplified, and symbolic characters and sets. German.
2720th Century Styles of Drama Constructivism - Russian, mechanical skeletons at various levels as sets, connected by ramps, ladders, arches, and platforms. Actors communicated only through symbolic movement.
2820th Century Styles of Drama Theater of the Absurd: Mid-Twentieth-century- the absurdity of human life. Think French philosopher Albert Camus “The Myth of Sisyphus,” wherein human hopes and plans are ridiculous b/c the universe is a random place where things happen for no reason. Very existentialist.
29Obscure Theatrical Styles… Theater of Involvement: participation by members of the audience, performers enter audience and address individuals.Theatricalism: Makes no pretense of reality b/c drama on stage are not real situations. “This is the theater. Accept it for what it is, as it is.”Total Theater - a fusion of all the performing arts into one presentation; includes dance, mime, music, staging, lighting, and costuming. Then add the highest-tech audio-visual special effects. Rock out!
30In Review… Romanticism Theater of the Absurd Theater of Involvement TheatricalismTotal Theater RealismNaturalism SymbolismExpressionism Constructivism
31CHapTEr ReView… Tragedy - Pathos - Hamartia - Catharsis Comedy - Low Comedy - Farce - Screen Scene - AsideHubris - Exaggeration - Incongruity - AnticipationIncompletion Foreshadowing - Ambiguity - RecognitionProtection - Relief - Farce - BurlesqueParody - High Comedy of Manners - Satire - Fantasy- Romantic comedy - Melodrama - Play of IdeasPsychological drama - “Whodunit” - Allegory Children’s theater- Puppet theater Melodrama - Performance art