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Pearl Continental Hotel Lahore Assoc. Professor Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar

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1 Pearl Continental Hotel Lahore Assoc. Professor Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar
Third International Textile Conference on Textile and Clothing , Lahore ,Pakistan  28th and 29th March 2011 Pearl Continental Hotel Lahore A Study of Possibility of Improvement of Physical &Mechanical Characteristics of Damask Fabrics  Assoc. Professor Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering AL-Baath University - Syria  E - mail :

2 Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering
A Study of Possibility of Improvement of Physical &Mechanical Characteristics of Damask Fabrics   Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar Associate Professor Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering AL-Baath University Syria 

3 1-Introduction 1-Introduction:
Syrian textile industry works to enhancing the marketing of their products. The physical and mechanical properties play an important role in achieving competitiveness. The Damask Fabrics are a significant heritage products in Syria. Damask Fabrics manufacturing technology, was one of the five weaving technologies centers in Byzantine and Islamic in the early Middle Ages . It has been in the last century and in this century manufactured from silk , cotton... as Broker fabrics , Damask Fabrics , Al-Aagbani, Those textiles are still popular despite the competition with foreign industry . It draw the attention of foreigners in Damascus, and they buy them for their friends and relatives in their country. It is enough to know that the wedding dress of Queen Elizabeth II of Britain was made of the Damascus Brokar tissues. in 1947.

4 1-Introduction Today's Damask must achieve the requirements of international standard specifications, in order to withstand the challenges which it faces. We have been in this research the definition , Damask history production . Through the practical study in a national company (General Company for spinning and weaving Damascus) were studied physical and mechanical properties of Damask produced in the country (type of yarn used, the linear density of Yarns, tensile strength and elongation of the cloth in the direction of warp and weft, weight per square & longitudinal meter, weave, width, … ) We are produced two new improved varieties with new specifications according to international market requirements to enhance the competitiveness of the company, which makes the Syrian textile industry more effectively. Research constitutes an important contribution in continuous improvement & development of Syrian textile companies. The search results can be applied in all similar textile companies

5 2 –A brief history When you mention the word Damask, comes to mind immediately the name of Damascus, Syria , called Damask of Fame to Damascus produced by the manufacture of other textiles of high quality. These industries have become a distinctive part of the heritage of Syria. It was made of silk or cotton or linen and is now produced from any raw materials as possible. Damascus people transferred its industry to Andalusia so it's called according to Damascus, Damask has many types such as Atlas and Al-Thabori and Hermazi and AL-Munier (Enlightening) , AL-Mushem ( Contributor ) and Baptist and Corrugated and Ragged Rainy and Almekhel. Damask width was 145 cm , now has increased to 220 cm. It has lost market share after the nineteenth century out of Muslim Spain, but that it was rarely in some places in the thirteenth century. [2, 17, 18]. Italy Damask industry began in the fourteenth century. It is the fourteenth century until the sixteenth century Damask was made in one color drawings of shiny face on the cloth and normal ground. Then was woven from colors yarn , and have been introduced in the metal yarn in it's construction, such as gold and other weft yarn , which gave it a glamorous and beautiful.

6 2 –A brief history Damascus is famous in textile manufacturing . (Qaimariya) is called in small India , and depending on the popularity of this industry , the textile trade is concentrated in Damascus ...The industry is still present even today. During the reign of Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette of Austria at the age of 15 years, married to Louis XVI at the age of 19 years. After months attended a fashion designer and offered her a cloth and said she'll like it because it is very rare and is made in an eastern town known for textile industry and when she saw it said (this is what I want and what I wanted to, I've really liked Damask, Damascus Brokare (Brocade) is unmatched which is befitting for ladies. And spread the ancient The newly dramatically all over the world. Modern Damask produced by A Electronic Weaving Machinery equipped with electronic Jacquard and multi-threaded natural and artificial [1,5,8,15,21,24]. Used in addition to blankets to clothing and home furnishings, upholstery and many other uses. The Syrian textile industry has risen highly, it is one of the important industries which the government is trying through its plans to overcome all the obstacles encountered in order to create the right atmosphere for Arab and foreign investors to invest in it. It is an strategy industry, depends on the Syrian cotton yarn locally available in abundance.

7 3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
There are more than a hundred kind of traditional fabrics, each type of about twenty species, characterized by some of the material and color, drawing, patterns and trimmings, etc. Here are some of them: Brokare ( Brocade) : A silk cloth decorated with beautiful drawings interspersed with gold thread and silver.  Al-Dema : A fabric invented by man of Damascus . Al-Saieh : epigraphy technical fabric is characterized by bright, made from silk and cotton in different colors. Al-Alajh: type of Alsaih . Blanket: the advantage of fees obtrusive Al-Agbani: Cloth made from silk, embroidered after waving with brocaded thread or yellow or silver, each drawing or embroidering take a special name . Damask: Gabardine and thick fabric , tapestries weaved his body to the degree of innovation, has gained wide fame, fit the faces of mattresses and sofas. Poplars' Fashions : A modern industry based on making clothing suitable for use embroidered women blouses made of Brocade coats and women's decorative lacy and other popular clothing represent the various Syrian cities and rural areas. Table1 and Table 2 include Some types of a Damask fabrics. In spite of that machinery textile industries dominated heavily on fabrics manufactured on hand looms , but it are still top of wings exhibitions interested in this kind of art textile .

8 3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
Table 1 Some types of Damask fabrics Damask Digital Baby Damask Waverly Dandy Damask It is Damask Damask Shower

9 3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
Damask - Damask Fabric Classic Collection of Damask Fabric A fabric woven to achieve a tone on tone effect. Patterns are often floral. It is lighter weight than brocade. Sometimes referred to as Jacquard. Damask Fabric Exclusive Patterns Suitable for Upholstery and Drapery with a vintage appeal Includes Honeybee, Dragonfly, Hinsdale, Harrowgate & More. Damask Prints - Modern Damask Print Fabric - Contemporary Damask Print Fabric A new take on Classic Damask fabrics. These modern damask prints are the same design you love but are available in a variety of colors and fabric types.

10 4 - Methods of producing A Damask fabrics
4-1 - The traditional method for the manufacture of A Damask fabrics: Traditional fabrics are produced currently on hand looms and is as old and low-productivity, It's maintained for the purposes of tourism and are stationed in Damascus as a Professional market , Silk market and Azemeh Palace Museum Figure 1.[26 , 27] . Stages of the manufacturing from natural silk: Kababp( winder) to El-Fattal (twister), and Mosadi(wrapper) and dyer , Almozaiki , Mulki (drawing in) , Weaver and dakkak (dropper) and then turn the fabric to the piston.

11 4-1 - The traditional method for the manufacture
of A Damask fabrics From Damascus city – syria Figure 1 hand loom

12 4 2 - The mechanical method for the manufacture of A Damask
Figure 2 shuttle less weaving machine (Ruti)

13 4-3 – The electronically method for the manufacture of A Damask
New Damask are made of 100% cotton yarn on electronically jacquard weaving machines, used in upholstery and curtains, mattress covers and bedspreads. This development has allowed to move the hooks and speed of 700 rpm [6 , 7,8, 9, 10, 12, 13 ,14, 23,]. The manufacturers of jacquard machines are : Grosse and Schleicher (Germany) ,Bonas( England) and Staubli (France). Stages of technology for the manufacture of Damask of cotton yarn: warping - draw in - Weaving .

14 5- Case Study 5- Case Study
5- Case Study 5-1 - Introduction: The study was conducted in a public company (General Company for Spinning and Weaving Company Damascus), which produces cotton yarn & fabrics, dyed, mercerized and printed. It contains factories for the spinning and weaving, dyeing. 5-2 - Stages of technology for the manufacture Damask fabrics of cotton yarn Figure 3 Outline of processes for the production of a Damask fabrics on the modern weaving machinery . Figure 4 Outline of the indirect warping machine BENNINGER. -Weaving Machine: Rapier Weaving Machine G6200 SULZER TEXTIL equipped with electronic Jacquard machines GROSSE EJP-2 with 5376 hooks.

15 Figure 3 - technological stapes for the manufacture
of Damask fabrics of cotton yarn Yarns reception and testing Warp yarns preparation ,doubled ( dyed & white) Weft yarns preparation ,single ( dyed & white) Sectional warping Drawing-in , reeding , knotting Weaving Fabric quality control Damask fabrics packaging Damask fabrics storage &customer delivering Figure 3 - technological stapes for the manufacture of Damask fabrics of cotton yarn

16 Figure 4 A diagram of a indirect warping
machine BENNINGER Figure 4 A diagram of a indirect warping machine BENNINGER

17 5-3 - Steps of design and manufacturing of A Damask Fabric aided by computer computer
The design section consists of the following devices: scanner, computer and keyboard, graphic table unite and the printer. German software[ 10,20 ] : (GROSSE PROFETIONAL JACQUARD DESIGNE SYSTEM (JAC-ARTIST PRO)). Table 2 consists steps of design and manufacture of computer-assisted Damask: Table 2 the following steps for the implementation of computer-aided design Name of the process No. Electronic Reduction 7 Input Design 1 Design finishing 8 Cropping 2 Weave editor 9 Resizing 3 Harness preparation 10 Color Reduce 4 Weaving 11 Redrawing 5 Slow Reduction 6

18 5-4- laboratory equipment
count of yarn -SUPERBA to check sliver and yarns, Tex Techno Statimat Me: to examine the tensile strength of yarn and fabrics[3,4,16, 20,22.] . 5-5- Raw materials used for weaving Damask fabrics: Using single-threaded or doubling colored. The table 3 shows Results of tests: Table 3 shows Results of tests No Yarn count (Ne) using of Thread Twist (t/m) tension (yarn/cN) elongation (E) (%) CV (%) Length Cutter (Km) Dyed raw 1 2.5 weft 281 1980 1945 6.03 5.63 4.80 3.84 9.17 8.77 2 8.5/1 O.E 550 984.97 914.95 6.64 7.52 6.58 5.11 14.54 13.81 3 24/2 carded warp 639 794.70 780.08 6.34 5.36 4.59 5.54 16.25 4 30/2carded 650 703.66 555.48 5.50 6.39 5.06 4.65 15.76 14.49

19 5-6 - Types of Damask Fabrics which were studded :
Newly Damask are of cotton or synthetic yarn, silk, wool , used in modern varieties of clothing , apparel ,upholstery and curtains, mattress covers and bedspreads. Analysis was conducted and a study of A Damask fabrics produced in the company of the Spinning and Weaving was to extract data on the linear density for Yarns - warp and weft densities - weave - weight per square and longitudinal meter, Cloth width - uses of each type - the number of colors. Tables (from 4 to 6) consists the physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics which have been studied and laboratory tested.

20 Table 4 The physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
No. Testing item name Testing result Damask fabric 705-A Damask fabric 705- B 1 Damask fabric sample 2 Fabric width (cm) 182 3 Selvedge type & weds (cm) Cut- Selvedge 1cm 4 Squire meter weight (gr/m2) 254 257 5 liner meter weight (gr/m) 462.28 467.74 6 Repeat dimension(cm) 8.5 x 9.4 16.8 x 15.8 7 Warp density(yarn/cm) 36 35 8 Weft density (yarn/cm) 15 9 Weave in decorative section Twill 1/4 twill1/2 & 2/8 10 Weave in ground section Twill 1/3 Satin 2/5 11 Number of color 12 Type & count of warp (Ne) 29.84/ % cotton 29.46/2 100% cotton 13 twist direction of warp - Z 14 Type & count of weft (Ne ) % cotton % cotton resistance to tension in direction of the warp (N) 951.01 885.90 16 resistance to tension in direction of the weft (N) 661.63 627.80 17 Elongation in warp direction (%) 11.9 12.33 18 Elongation in weft direction) (% 12.79 11.42 19 Z 20 Weaving machine Sulzere G6200 21 Weaving machine weds (cm) 220 23 Weaving machine (rpm) 400

21 Table 5 physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
No. Testing item name Testing results Damask fabric (705-C ( Damask fabric ) 705-D) 1 Damask fabric sample 2 Fabric width (cm) 182 3 Selvedge type & weds (cm) 1 Cut- Selvedge 4 Squire meter weight (gr/m2) 262 254 5 liner meter weight (gr/m) 467.84 462.28 6 Repeat dimension(cm) 27.5X15.8 10.8X20.4 7 Warp density(yarn/cm) 34 38 8 Weft density (yarn/cm) 18 16 Weave in decorative section Weft Rips 1/4 Twil 5/1& 1/4 10 Weave in ground section Satan 5/2 11 Number of color 12 Type & count of warp (Ne) 30/ % cotton 30/ % cotton 13 twist direction of warp(T/M - Z 14 Type & count of weft (Ne) % cotton % cotton

22 Table 6 physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
No. Testing item name Testing results Damask fabric 710-A ( Damask fabric710-B 1 Damask fabric sample 2 Fabric width (cm) 136 3 Selvedge type & weds (cm) 1 Cut- Selvedge 4 Squire meter weight (gr/m2) 239 5 liner meter weight (gr/m) 326 325.04 6 Repeat dimension(cm) 7.9 X 12.4 10.8 X 20.4 7 Warp density(yarn/cm) 34 8 Weft density (yarn/cm) 13 18 9 Weave in decorative section Satin 5/2 10 Weave in ground section twill 1/2 twill 6/2 11 Number of color 12 Weaving machine RUTI - Automatic RUTI – Automatic Weaving machine (rpm) 120

23 5-7 The new and modern types of Damask fabrics
It was designed and produced two new types of Damask fabrics according to market needs . by GROSSE (CAD / CAM) System German company , It was conducted the tests of the physical and mechanical characteristics of Damask (1181 ) product , and Damask (2) by modern laboratory devices. Table (7) shows the results of a study of the physical & mechanical properties of the modern Damask fabrics.

24 Table 7 physical and mechanical properties of the new improved Damask fabrics:
No. Testing item name Testing results Damask fabric 1181 Damask fabric 2 1 Damask fabric samples 2 Fabric weds (cm) 182 3 Selvedge type & weds (cm) 1 Cut- Selvedge 4 Squire meter weight (gr/m2) 414 239 5 liner meter weight (gr/m) 753.48 325.04 6 Repeat dimension(cm) 30 X 41.5 28.5 X 25 7 Warp density(yarn/cm) 33 66 8 Weft density (yarn/cm) 22 15 9 Weave in decorative section 4 Damascus designs Traditional designs 10 Weave in ground section 11 Number of color 12 Type & count of warp (Ne) 20.73/2 Ne 100% cotton ) N d ( % shanel 13 direction of warp - Z 14 Type & count of weft(Ne ) % cotton shanel resistance to tension in warp direction (N) 16 resistance to tension in weft direction (N) 432.25 17 Elongation in warp direction (%) 17.65 11.08 18 Elongation in weft direction (%) 13.66 11.27

25 5-8 Discussion the results of tests
The Results of tests of tension resistance in direction of warp and weft for the variety Damask (1181) and Damask (2),were documented and analysed . We have established detailed reports of the analysis and testing results of physical and mechanical properties of Damask in the Department of jacquard fabric , and executive instructions relating to its production, and tension strength and elongation diagrams for produced fabrics, were identified as the values of the terms of the specifications. Observation: we prepared an attachment contains resistance to tension diagrams in direction of weft & warp for all samples

26 5-8 Discussion the results of tests
1 - The test results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of A Damask Fabrics , tables (from 4 to 7), and the results of tests of resistance to tension in direction of weft & warp of all fabrics produced meet the quality requirements of both functional and aesthetic, to increase the demand for modern products in market, absence of complaints by customers. 2 -The physical & mechanical properties of yarns affect on Damask fabrics , table (3) show disparity between values of the assumed specification and real values, which affect the physical and mechanical properties, it is necessary to provide good yarns for industry . 3 - Appears from the table 7 the high value of the resistance to tension in direction of warp of the new varieties and increase the weight per square meter of the Damask (1181) and Damask (2) compared with the value of the resistance to tension in direction of warp of the items ( ) in the tables (4-6), due to the use of thick weft yarn in 1181 and a synthetic yarn in the Damask (2) which gives good features .

27 6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
1 - It has been defined and determined the characterization and classification of Damask fabrics and the physical mechanical specification , and it indicate the need to update the design of Damask to meet the requirements of the tourist industry, which is reflected in the national income , and economic and social development. 2 - The study showed that Damask fabrics still enjoys a worldwide reputation for well-built through a long history back for several centuries is still required in the international market and reflects the Syrian heritage and the nobility of the textile Syrian industry where history come from deep road , for this reason it is recommended the revival of the industry and maintain.

28 6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
3 -The production of new Damask fabrics with new drawings and specifications fulfils the requirements of fashion leads to quality & productivity improvement, and increase the products added – value, as the selling price of new products increases to 60% . 4 - The development of scientific methodology to study, analyze and diagnose the problems of the textile industry, through the research model, which benefit from it the textile companies and the scientific institutes.

29 6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
5 - The information contained in the research contribute to identify the problems of the state and society and to find solutions and increase the stock of knowledge and keep pace with market requirements and develop product lines. 6 - The results, reports, laboratory analysis diagrams , which has been documented and saved, constitutes a scientific base for developing the Syrian Standard, which improve the prestige of Damask fabrics in the international market.

30 7- References 1 - ( Abed Albaki Sami 2001) , Computer aided textile design , Cairo , Egypt . 2 - (Al-Atrash, Reem Mansour. 1996), the Book of Silk in Syria, the banner of Iskenderun, Syria and Lebanon, a publication of the Syrian Ministry of Culture . 3 -(Adanur sabit ) , Hand book of weaving , Technomic Publishing Co. , Department of Textile Engineering , Abourn University, Alabama , U. S. A. 4 - Arindam, Basu ,2006 ,Textile Testing , Fiber , Yarn & Fabric , Published by: The South India Textile Research Association, Printed by: M/s .Shristi Impression, India. 5 - ASTM D upholstery fabric . 6 - BS 2543 – 91- upholstery fabric 7 – BSI - Global . Com. , (2010) , quality/standards/index . xalter, Available from: [Accessed5August 2010]. 8 - Bonas Griftith (2007) , Instruction Manual of Electronic Jacquard Machine , England. 9 – Giovanni , Castellei , Salvatore , Maietta , Giuseppe & others (2000) - Weaving-Reference Books of Textile Technologies , Milano , Italy . 10-Grosse (2004) , Operating Manual of Electronic Jacquard Machine,EJP-2 .Germany 11-INTI International University,Nilai,Malaysia, ASST Workshop on Engineering Education , Present Status , Trends and Challenges 19–23 July 2010 Damascus , Syria 12-Jenkins, David, ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,

31 7- References 13 -Kadolph, Sara J. ( 2007) , ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall. 14 - Mario, Bona, Textile Quality , physical methods of product and process control,Texilia, IStituto per la Tradizione la Tecnoloqia Tessile S.P.A,printed by: Nuova oflito, Mappano (Torino , Italy ) . 15 -Monnas, Lisa. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings London and New Haven, Yale University Press, 16--Praxiom Research Group Limited ,(2010) , ISO 9000 and ISO9001Plain English, Alberta , Canada , Available from : . , [ accessed 6 August 2010] . 17- Syrian Standard (m. S. O 1254/1993), upholstery fabrics. 18 - (Taher Kaddar ) , weaving technology (2), AL- Baath University Publishing directorate, Homs. 19 - (Taher Kaddar ), the entrance to the Total Quality Management and ISO 9000, Harvest House for printing, publishing, distribution, Damascus. 20 - Romanian STAS upholstery fabric 21 - Schleicher (2007) , Instruction manual of electronic jacquard machine , Germany . 22 - Sor Heoh Saw ( 2010 ) , Quality Assurance in Engineering Education in Far East , 23 - Spinning and Weaving General Corporation (2007) , Internal system , Jacquard Weaving Factory chapter , Damascus – Syria . 24-Staubli (2007), manual Instruction of electronic jacquard machine,Staubli CIX-4 . 25- Sulzer (2004) , Instruction manual of electronic jacquard machine Sulzer G 26 - Susan C . Wally , Dr Deborah Vess ( ) , The Art and History of Weaving , Georgia , Georgia College & State University and the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia . 27 - Wikimedia Foundation, Inc (2010) , the free encyclopedia , Jacquard weaving , Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License ; Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacquard-weaving , [Accessed 5 August 2010].

32 Fig. 5 Jacquard weaving factory, Damascus

33 Thank you Dr. Eng. Taher Rajab Kaddar Associate Professor
Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering AL-Baath University-Syria E- mail: Cell :


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