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15 The Tibetan communities have a new joint venture company – the only restaurant and souvenir stall complex inside the park. Turnover in 2008 est USD$12million.

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Presentation on theme: "15 The Tibetan communities have a new joint venture company – the only restaurant and souvenir stall complex inside the park. Turnover in 2008 est USD$12million."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 The Tibetan communities have a new joint venture company – the only restaurant and souvenir stall complex inside the park. Turnover in 2008 est USD$12million. The different restaurants seat 5000 There are 200 souvenir stalls inside the complex 28

2 Model iv) : the Private Sector operating in a four-way partnership with the community, the public sector and the Third Sector – I/NGOs; Example: EcoLodges Indonesia Graphics courtesy Steve Noakes, Director, Ecolodges Indonesia

3 Way Kambas Ecolodge: Example of private sector partnership with government, community, and Non Governmental Organizations Model iv)

4 Erakor Island Resort, Vila, Vanuatu Model v) International Investor-Local Village partnership with multiple dimensions. Income/poverty alleviation from three main sources: : 1. Erakor island Resort, Vila, Vanuatu is leased (50 years) from the Melanesian land-owning community with annual lease fees; 2. Two thirds of staff are from Erakor village 3. Wedding/honeymoon packages are a resort specialization for which the village community provides a Melanesian cultural context: a) The Erakor village pastor who officiates at weddings; b) A pikanini (childrens) choir from Erakor village c) A canoe for transporting the bride to the Island d) Erakor warriors welcome and escort e) a traditional Melanesian feast

5 Melanesian cultural context: a) A canoe for transporting the bride to the Island b) The pastor who officiates at weddings; c) A pikanini (childrens) choir d) A warriors welcome and escort e) a traditional Melanesian feast Here comes the bride!!!

6 Pikanini choir, Erakor village, Erakor Island Resort in partnership with the local village community provides a vibrant cultural experience for its guests.

7 Erakor village warrior escortTraditional Melanesian feast provided by the village community for weddings

8 Crucially, PPT relies on and must be integrated into, wider tourism systems and the private sector. It is not a stand-alone option. As Ashley et al indicate (2001), when reviewing the results of case studies of PPT financed by the UKs DFID, successful PPT depends on the poor – i) having access to markets (private sector), ii) on the commercial viability of PPT projects, iii) on a policy framework that provides a secure investment climate (including access to land) (government – public sector), and iv) on effective stakeholder co-operation and strategy implementation: public private sector partnerships (Harrison 2008). SUMMARY

9 The examples that have been presented here share the common factor of being private sector driven but requiring a partnership with the public sector They offer opportunities for poverty alleviation based on economies of scale and supply chain/value chain interventions that demonstrate mutual benefit for i) the private sector (a viable business); ii)the public sector ( achievement of policy) and iii) the poor (better livelihoods). SUMMARY

10 References Ashley, Caroline (2006) Facilitating pro-poor tourism with the private sector: Lessons learned from Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa. ODI Working Paper 257. London: Overseas Development Institute. Lengefeld, Klaus (2008) Integrated Resorts: An Evolution towards Sustainability. Berlin: GTZ. Lengefeld, Klaus & Stewart, Robert (2004) All-Inclusive Resorts and Local Development: Sandals Resorts as Best Practice in the Caribbean. Presentation, World Travel Mart, London, 10 November Li, F.M.S. (2006) Tourism Development, Empowerment and the Tibetan Minority, Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China. In: Anna Leask & Alan Fyall (eds.) Managing World Heritage Sites. Chapter 16. pp London: Elsevier. Mitchell, J., & Ashley C. (2010). Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity, Earthscan, London. Sofield, T.H.B. 2003, Empowerment for Sustainable Development. London: Elsevier Science and Pergamon.

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12 Additional References on Tourism, Value Chain Analysis and Poverty Alleviation Ashley, Caroline (2006) Facilitating pro-poor tourism with the private sector: Lessons learned from Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa. ODI Working Paper 257. London: Overseas Development Institute Ashley, Caroline (2006). Participation by the poor in Luang Prabang tourism economy: current earnings andopportunities for expansion, Working Paper 273, London: Overseas Development Institute. Ashley, Caroline (2008) Creating pro-poor linkages around Rwandan tourism, ODI and SNV Summary Brief. Ashley, Caroline & Roe, Dylis (2003) Working with the Private Sector on Pro-Poor Tourism. London: ODI. Ashley, Caroline, Roe, Dylis & Goodwin, Harold (2001). Pro-poor Tourism Strategies: Making Tourism Work for the PoorA Review of Experience. London: Overseas Development Institute, International Institute for Responsible Tourism and Centre for Responsible Tourism. Baltadzhiev, Svetoslav & Trevor Sofield (2004). Training Modules for Community Based Tourism Success in the Export-led Poverty Reduction Programme. (117pp.) Geneva: Centre for International Trade, UNCTAD. Bao Jigang, Xu Honggang, Sofield Trevor H.B., Sun Jiuxia & Ma Ling (eds) (2008). Tourism and Community Development - Asian Practices. Madrid: UN World Tourism Organization.

13 Additional References Bauer, Johannes, Sofield, Trevor, Webb, Julie, Battig, Marion and De Lacy, Terry (2003). Conservation, Poverty Alleviation and Community Development Through Tourism in Developing Countries. Brisbane: STCRC. Chok, S., Macbeth, Jim & Warren, Carol (2007). Tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of pro-poor tourism and implications for sustainability. Current Issues in Tourism, 10 (2–3), 2007, p 153. Dixey, L., Inventory and Analysis of Community Based Tourism in Zambia. USAID Production, Finance and Technology (PROFIT) Programme, Lusaka, Zambia. Goodwin, Harold (2005). Pro-poor tourism: principles, methodologies and mainstreaming. Keynote address to the International Conference on Pro-poor Tourism: Mechanisms and Mainstreaming, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, 4–6 May Harrison, David (2008). Pro-poor Tourism: a critique. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2008, pp 851 – 868 Harrison, D. & Schipani,Steven (2007). Lao tourism and poverty alleviation: community- based tourism and the private sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 10 (2–3), 2007, pp Halim, Mhd. Hazliza and Sofield, Trevor (2008) Mainstreaming Rural Poverty Alleviation Through Tourism in Malaysia: A theoretical study. IGU International Conference on Sustainable and Alternative Tourism, Guilin, China, Jul 2009.

14 Higginbottom, Karen (ed.) (2004). Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning. Altona: Common Ground Publishing & STCRC. Kaplinsky, R. & Morris, M. (2001). A Handbook for Value Chain Research. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. Lengefeld, Klaus (2008) Integrated Resorts: An Evolution towards Sustainability. Berlin: GTZ. Lengefeld, Klaus & Stewart, Robert (2004) All-Inclusive Resorts and Local Development: Sandals Resorts as Best Practice in the Caribbean. Presentation, World Travel Mart, London, 10 November McNab, D. With contributions from Ashley, C., Haysom, G., Nyathi, Z. & Poultney, C. (2005). Monitoring and Evaluation Report of the Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots Project. London: ODI. Mitchell, J., & Ashley C. (2010). Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity, Earthscan, London. Mitchell, J. & Faal. J. (2007). Holiday package tourism and the poor in The Gambia, Development Southern Africa, v.24 (3), 2007, pp Mitchell, J. & Faal, J. (2008). The Gambian tourism value chain and prospects for pro-poor tourism. ODI Working Paper 289. London: Overseas Development Institute. Mitchell, J. & L.C. Phuc (2007) Final Report on Participatory Tourism Value Chain Analysis in Da Nang, Central Vietnam. London: MCG Management Consulting & Overseas Development Institute. Additional References

15 Mosedale, J. (2006) Tourism commodity chains: market entry and its effects on St Lucia, Current Issues in Tourism, 9 (4–5), 2006, pp 436–458. Rossetto, A., Sofield, T. & Li, F.M.S. (2007) Harnessing tourism as a means of poverty alleviation: using the right language or achieving outcomes? Tourism Recreation Research, 32 (1), 2007, pp Scheyvens, Regina (2007). Exploring the tourism–poverty nexus, Current Issues in Tourism, 10 (2–3), 2007, pp 235–236. Schmitz, H. (2005). Value Chain Analysis for Policy-Makers and Practitioners. Geneva: International Labour Organisation. Sofield, T.H.B. (2003). Empowerment for Sustainable Development. 401pp. London: Elsevier Science and Pergamon. Sofield, T.H.B. (2004) Training Module for Community Based Tourism and Sustainable Environmental Management. (175pp). Geneva: Centre for International Trade, UNCTAD. Sofield, T.H.B. (2005). Community Based Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. Workshop, Urumqi: Xinjiang Province Ministry of Tourism and CNTA, 24 July Sofield, T.H.B. (2005). Mainstreaming Poverty Alleviation & Tourism – Exploring Links into Mass Tourism. Keynote address, Third Global Summit of the International Institute for Peace Through Tourism, Pattaya, Thailand, 2-5 October Sofield, T.H.B. (2005). Tourism as an Appropriate Tool for Poverty Alleviation. Keynote Address, Biennial Ministerial Council Meeting of the South Pacific Tourism Organization, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, October Additional References

16 Sofield, T.H.B. (2005). ST-EP: Tourism as a Change Agent for National Socio-Economic Development & Poverty Alleviation. Keynote address, Cambodian/Korean/WTO Workshop onST-EP: Sustainable Tourism as a Tool for the Elimination of Poverty, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 12 December Sofield, T..H.B. (2006). What is Sustainable Tourism and Poverty Alleviation? Keynote address, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, 3rd Intergovernmental Tourism Business Forum, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April Sofield, T.H.B. (2010). Strategy for Community-based Ecotourism for Poverty Alleviation for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines East Asia Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA). Manila: Asian Development Bank. Sofield, T.H.B., De Lacy, Terry, Lipman, Geoffrey & Daugherty, Sean. (2004) Sustainable Tourism ~ Eliminating Poverty (ST~EP). An Overview. 70pp. Brisbane: CRC for Sustainable Tourism. Sofield, T.H.B., Gurung, C., Hummel, J., Dhamala, B., and Shrestha, N. (1999). Tourism for Rural Alleviation of Poverty Programme (TRAPP). Kathmandu: United Nations Development Programme Nepal. Spenceley, Anna (ed) (2008) Responsible Tourism: Critical Issues for Conservation and Development. London: Earthscan. Additional References

17 Spenceley, Anna, Ashley, Caroline and de Koch, Julio (2002) Strategies, Impacts and Costs of Pro-Poor Tourism Approaches in South Africa. PPT Working Paper No. 11. Spenceley, A., Ashley, C., and de Koch, M. (2009) Tourism and local development: an introductory guide, Core training manual, Tourism Led Poverty Reduction Program, Office for Interregional Programs, International Trade Centre, UNCTAD World Tourism Organization (2002). Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. Madrid: WTO. Xu Honggang, Sofield Trevor H.B. & Bao Jigang (2008). Community tourism in Asia: an introduction. In: Bao Jigang Xu, Honggang, Sofield Trevor H.B., Sun Jiuxia & Ma Ling (eds) Tourism and Community Development - Asian Cases, Ch.1, pp Madrid: UNWTO. Yilmaz, Y. & Bititci, U. (2006). Performance measurement in tourism: a value chain model. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18 (4), 2006, pp 341–349. Yilmaz, Y. & Bititci, U. (2006) Performance measurement in the value chain: manufacturing v tourism, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 55 (5), 2006, pp 371– Additional References


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