Presentation on theme: "WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Presentation to Asia Pacific Bureau of Adult Education International Conference on Women in Development, Suva."— Presentation transcript:
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Presentation to Asia Pacific Bureau of Adult Education International Conference on Women in Development, Suva Fiji, 1999 Dr Shirley Randell AM PSC/Performance Improvement Adviser Vanuatu Public Service Reform Project
Outline My background and consultancies Women in skills development in PNG and Sri Lanka - challenges Womens policy in Solomon Islands Womens networks in Fiji Customs and the Vanuatu Public Service Policy recommendations for womens central agencies in ASP
My Background Teaching Aboriginal children in rural schools Nine years in education in PNG 15 years in reform in Commonwealth and ACT Govt central and line agencies Two years in university reform at Ballarat CEO of CAE and City of Whitehorse managing quality reform Emphasis on gender equity and womens networking
Consultancy Experience Short consultancies 1974-90 1997WDScott, ADB, Skills Development Reform, PNG - women, youth and NGOs 1998OPCV, AusAID, Fiji Islands Customs Service - Performance Improvement inc. GAD 1999PCDM, ADB, Skills Development Reform in Sri Lanka - Quality and GAD 1999SRIPSR, ADB, Provincial Government Reform, Solomon Islands - inc GAD 1999-2001UniQuest, AusAID, Public Sector Reform in Vanuatu - Perform. Improve. inc GAD
PNG Constitution We declare our second goal to be for all citizens to have an equal opportunity to participate in and benefit from development of our country, emphasising equal participation by women citizens in all political, economic, social and religious activities
PNG: Womens Contribution to Development Women make a critical contribution to development as the primary food producers, processors and distributors in PNG agriculture and fisheries small animal husbandry cottage industries, particularly food processing and clothing
PNG: Womens Contribution to Development (cont) 60% of women compared with 77% of men were considered economically active in 1990 women were almost equal with men in their employment in cash farming (27 percent) and in subsistence farming (24 per cent) (1960 Census).
Importance of Womens Involvement in Business Carpenters, tea plantations Coffee Industry Corporation Village development and community income generating projects Liklik Dinau Arbitore Trust –Women seen as: dependable employees resourceful small business people reliable borrowers
Importance of Industry in Supporting Training for Women
Importance of Women in Small Enterprises Computer education in Sallys Business School Betty Higgins Fisheries, hostel irrigation gardening, Simbu Province, building Baloiloi Committee, NARI Maggie Leahy, Haus Poroman, WHP Margaret, Daulo Security
Womens readiness to utilise cash earning opportunities piggeries and poultry farming in the Highlands provinces coffee and copra plantations in New Britain trade stores in East Sepik cooking, baking, sewing and handcrafts in Milne Bay In many cases the whole family is involved in supporting women in these projects.
Major Implementation Constraints Entrenched traditional stereotyped attitudes and expectations of society on the status of women and their perceived role in employment and training with a lack of resources and materials to support awareness campaigns for more active participation by women Weak management and organisational structures with very poor representation of women in the governing bodies and committees that make decisions about womens education and training at national, provincial and institutional levels..
Major Implementation Constraints Poor planning, coordination and lack of clear priorities, with a paucity of statistical data desegregated by gender and a failure to integrate womens issues into the overall national planning and implementation of programs. Lack of critical policies that affect both men and women, such as a national employment policy and a small and medium enterprise policy, and a failure to implement policies that have been given government approval.
Major Implementation Constraints Outdated legislation with unnecessary regulations and practices impeding women from engaging in home based industries and local marketing especially in urban areas. Irrelevant curriculum at all levels of schooling and, in particular, a lack of appropriate curriculum development to ensure that technical and vocational training is relevant to women and suits the local environment.
Major Implementation Constraints Insufficient funds, materials and technical support for the devolution of programs to provincial, district and local government levels. Limited boarding facilities, which are often neither safe nor adequate in TCs and VTCs, limited accommodation for single working women in urban areas, and inadequate facilities in workplaces for womens particular needs, such as childcare.
Major Implementation Constraints Social problems, including high illiteracy rates, poor transport infrastructure, health and nutrition problems and relative isolation. Limited research with a lack of follow up studies on female students who graduate from technical and vocational education courses, and little study of issues that would facilitate womens involvement in income generation projects, such as business opportunities, cottage industries, food processing and marketing.
Womens Organisations Recommendations Setting of realistic, measurable targets for womens participation in decision making and skills development Collection and publication of gender specific data Review of legislation and regulations to remove obstacles to womens progress Investment in accommodation specifically for women at training institutions - all would contribute to improving womens access to skills development
Sri Lanka: Government Commitment Constitution guarantees freedom of discrimination on grounds of sex Signature to UN Conventions Womens Charter National Plan of Action for Women Sexual Harassment legislation
Womens Charter of Sri Lanka access to same opportunities to TEVT as men access to same curricular, teaching quality access to career & vocational guidance elimination of gender role-stereotyped content and materials reduction of early school leaving and education programs for school leavers
Womens Employment Young women find it harder to get jobs Education levels of both employed and unemployed women higher than men Demand in casual and marginalised activities, low wage and low skill Gender based occupational segregation Poor representation in senior levels
Women in Senior Positions A few very prominent women One female Secretary in a Cabinet Ministry One Supreme Court Judge 4.7% women in Parliament 2.3% women in Provincial Councils 9.9% women professors in universities 17.5% women in Class 1 of Public Service
Womens Participation in Skills Development Half applicants and half participants But, women in female courses that do not always generate an income or sustainable job opportunities Men have near monopoly of technology and management
Government Skills Development 70% of female trainees in Technical Colleges in secretarial, commercial, HE Most female trainees in VTA VTCs in typing, sewing, beauty culture, low income Only 17% of all technical apprentices in NAITA, and 3.4% of those in tech trades 92% of female trainees in NYSC in dressmaking etc, but new policies
Constraints to Change Prevailing cultural attitudes Different socialisation of boys and girls Media stereotyping Lack of awareness in girls and women Lack of policies to facilitate Lack of employment opportunities Lack of resources and materials
Government Initiatives In TVET, the CENWOR project - Steering committee - materials production, media - awareness creation - training and workshops NYSC - open up all courses women - gender inclusive materials NAITA - attempt to recruit to board
Women in Non-traditional Skills Development Ministry of Womens Affairs - entrepreneurial training for self employment Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources - fish farming technology - ornamental fish culture
NGOs Small but significant success by NGOs - WUSC: over 30% of trainees - target of 40-45 % - tracer studies positive - Swiss Contact - carpenters and masons - GTZ - bakery -50% of female trainees - Sarvodaya - small business - ++ loans for income generating activities
Womens Participation in Management Critical absence from Boards and Committees in TEVT sector Invisible in policy making Critical absence in management in Colleges, and VTCs Invisible in decision making
Proposed Policies Sharing power and decision making - targets Improve the database for planning and coordination - collect all data by gender Increase enrolments in non- traditional courses and on-the job training
Proposed Programs Establish Gender in Development Units and Steering Committees Build awareness - information and advocacy materials - media - TV, radio and print - workshops - parents, trainees, employers, managers, instructors, counsellors
Proposed Programs Develop Staff - Training of trainers - Counsellors - Administrators and instructors - Management training for women - Fellowships Credit Schemes
Proposed Programs Expand credit schemes Provide facilities Ensure ongoing monitoring and research - tracer studies - selection and promotion - curriculum - special groups, widows, disabilities
The Future Growing awareness of the issues - raised in every SDP workshop and donors forum Critical to harmonious future and productive economy for Sri Lanka Rich benefits to be gained from the whole range of human experience represented in management and decision making A world that is better for women is better for men too
Solomon Islands Provincial Government Reform The Solomon Islands Government has endorsed the Solomon Islands National Womens Policy as the translation of the Governments policies on the development of women and its commitment for the enhancement of womens participation in decision making and national development
Solomon Islands Provincial Government Reform One of the Guiding Principles of the National Womens Policy is Partnership in Development (3.1): That men and women are equal partners and that by involving women and through working together, both partners can make a difference to the development of our country. This involves equal participation in decision making at all levels and in areas of concern to women and in the overall national development.
Fiji Customs & Vanuatu Public Service Womens Networks Raise matters which are of concern to female staff in the Public Service. Report on action taken to increase abilities and opportunities for women in the Public Service. Motivate female staff to increase their qualifications and apply for promotion.
Fiji Customs & Vanuatu Public Service Womens Networks Exchange information, ideas, practices and resources across Ministries on all Public Service matters of relevance to women. Hear invited speakers who are in senior management positions in the public and the private sectors who can be role models and mentors for female staff.
Fiji Customs & Vanuatu Public Service Womens Networks Conduct seminars to improve organisational and management capacity of women. Support and assist the sustainable development of women in the Public Service so that they develop similar levels of self confidence and management skills as men.
Fiji Customs & Vanuatu Public Service Womens Networks The Public Service Womens Network (PSWN) Steering Committee meets between meetings of the PSWN to organise the agenda, invite speakers and follow up issues raised in PSWN meetings.
Sunset Clause Continuing until the Public Service has achieved a sustainable equality between men and women such that it no longer needs affirmative action for women. There will be a large cadre of experienced women managers at senior levels of the Public Service (only X percent in 1999, target for sunset is 30 percent), and women's opportunities to participate in decision making will be equal to men's.
Policy recommendations Empowerment of women –leadership training and confidence building –conflict resolution - supporting womens organisations to work together –access to information and communication –mentoring opportunities –training on Conventions etc
Policy recommendations -Research –Gender issues in relation to public sector reform –influence of church and culture on gender –base data on participation levels of women in PS and business –impact of donor cuts of funding for NGOs –impact of targeted womens programs
Policy recommendations Income generating activites - urban and rural Services for women with disabilities Awareness raising/gender education for men
Policy recommendations Conflict resolution workshops –VNCWs and DWAs together with Womens research/resource centres and Church womens groups