Presentation on theme: "Personal Protective Equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)"— Presentation transcript:
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
l Highlight OSHA PPE Standards (Subpart I) l Occupational Noise Exposure l Respiratory Protection l Written PPE Program Elements l PPE Selection and Limitations l Training Tips l Complete a Hazard Assessment OBJECTIVES
l A. 10% l B. 25% l C. 5% What percentage of disabling work-related injuries will involve the head, eyes, hands or feet?
l OSHA requires certain PPE based on the hazards employees are exposed to. l OSHA also requires training for employees in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of PPE. Why Must Employers Provide PPE?
Protecting Employees from Workplace Hazards l OSHA regulations require employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury. l Employers must institute all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards before using PPE to protect against hazards.
Engineering Controls If... You can physically change the machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the potential hazard, Then... You have eliminated the hazard with an engineering control.
Engineering Controls Examples… l Initial design specifications l Ventilation l Substitution with less harmful material l Enclosure of process l Isolation of process l Change of process
Work Practice Controls If... You can remove your employees from exposure to the potential hazard by changing the way they do their jobs, Then... You have eliminated the hazard with a work practice control.
Work Practice Controls Examples... l Job Rotation of Workers l Wet Methods l Personal Hygiene l Housekeeping and Maintenance
Establishing a PPE Program l A written PPE program sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employers routine operation. l The first essential step is to assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE. l Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE
PPE Assessment (d) l Assess the nature and degree of the workplace hazards. l Select PPE and require use. l Communicate selection decisions. l PPE should properly fit employees.
Written Certification l Documentation must include: workplace identification person conducting the certification date(s) of hazard assessment document shall be identified as a certificate of hazard assessment
Training l Apply to all employees that wear PPE l Conditions when PPE is required l Selection criteria l How to properly wear PPE l Limitations of PPE l Proper care, maintenance and useful life of PPE l Demonstrate that they understand the training
Training – Contd l Re-train when changes in workplace occurs l Re-train when there are changes in the type of PPE l Re-train when the employee has inadequacies in knowledge and use of PPE l Certification of training: name of employee date of training
Examples of PPE l Eye - safety glasses, goggles l Face - face shields l Head - hard hats l Feet - safety shoes l Hands and arms – gloves l Bodies – vests l Hearing - earplugs, earmuffs
True or False? l Wearing PPE, even if improperly is better than not wearing it at all.
Limitations of PPE l First use engineering controls and workplace controls then, use PPE l The protection is only as good as the PPE selected; PPE must be appropriate for job task and hazard l PPE may interfere with other PPE or work operations l PPE must be properly worn l PPE must be maintained and stored properly l PPE must be inspected
Causes of Eye Injuries l Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or wool fibers l Molten metal that might splash l Acids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splash l Blood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatter l Intense light such as that created by welding and lasers
Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection l Must protect against specific hazard(s) encountered by employees l Must be comfortable to wear l Must not restrict vision or movement l Must be durable and easy to clean and disinfect
l Must not interfere with the function of other required PPE l Must meet the requirements of ANSI Z for devices purchased after July 5, 1994, and ANSI Z for devices purchased before that date Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection
Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses l Eyeglasses designed for ordinary wear do not provide the required protection against workplace hazards. l Proper choices include: Prescription spectacles with side shields and protective lenses meeting requirements of ANSI Z87.1 that also correct the employees vision
Proper choices include: l Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind protective lenses l Goggles that can fit comfortably over corrective eyeglasses without disturbing their alignment Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses
l Eye protection comes in different types : Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood. Eye Protection
l Eyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision
l For more severe hazards, full face protection is needed: Heavy grinding and heavy spraying/splashing. l The full face shield should not only protect the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield. Eye/Face Protection
Question Can more than one employee wear the same set of protective eyewear?
Question Are you required to disinfect the eyewear between uses by different employees?
Everyone who has suffered an eye injury: A. Thought it would never happen to them. B. Would wear eye protection if they had it to do over again.
Safety Spectacles l Made with metal/plastic safety frames l Most workplace operations require side shields l Used for moderate impact from particles produced by such jobs as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, and scaling l What are tips for proper care?
Goggles l Protect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashes l Some goggles fit over corrective lenses l What are tips for proper care?
Face Shields l Protect face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids l Does not protect employees from impact hazards l What are tips for proper care?
Welding Shields l Protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting. l What are tips for proper care?
Laser Safety Goggles l Provide a range of protection against the intense concentrations of light produced by lasers. l What are tips for proper care?
Hazard Assessment l In a machine shop, a milling operation produces large quantities of metal chips that fly all over the surrounding work areas. How should the owner best protect the workers?
Causes of Head Injuries l Falling objects from above l Bumping the head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams l Contact with exposed electrical conductors
Head Protection l Hard hats are necessary to protect workers against falling objects and overhead hazards in general. Some hard hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. Hard hats should be designed to reduce electrical shock when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical conductors.
Head Protection Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard. What are tips for proper care?
Types of Head Protection Which class of hard hat types will protect you from electric shock as well as falling objects? A.Class A B. Class B C. Class C D. Class A and B
Types of Head Protection Class A Helmets For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (tested to 2,200 volts). Class B Helmets For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (tested to 20,000 volts). Class C Helmets For impact and penetration hazards hazards only. Usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity, and should not be worn around electrical hazards.
Causes of Foot Injuries l Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees feet l Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes l Molten metal that might splash on feet l Hot or wet surfaces l Slippery surfaces
Foot Protection Criteria for Selection l Selection depends upon specific workplace hazards identified and the specific parts of the feet exposed to potential injury l Safety footwear must meet minimum compression and impact performance standards and testing requirements established by ANSI l Protective footwear must comply with ANSI Z if purchased after July 5, 1994) or ANSI Z (if purchased before this date)
Foot Protection l Proper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes: Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS. l Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface: Sturdy, puncture-resistant soles for sharp object hazards
True or False? l Leather shoes or boots offer good protection against spills of caustic chemicals.
Safety Shoes l Have impact-resistant toes and heat- resistant soles l Some have metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds l May be designed to be electrically conductive l What are tips for proper care?
Metatarsal Guards l An integral part of shoes or strapped to the outside of them to protect the instep area from impact and compression. l What are tips for proper care?
Causes of Hand Injuries l Burns l Bruises l Abrasions l Cuts l Punctures l Fractures l Amputations l Chemical Exposures l Temperature Extremes
Question l Is there one kind of glove that will protect against all workplace hazards?
Hand Protection Criteria for Selection l Nature of the hazard(s) and the operation to be performed will determine the selection of gloves l Variety of potential occupational hand injuries may make selecting the appropriate pair of gloves more difficult than choosing other protective equipment
Hand Protection l Gloves should be selected according to the hazard. Handling hot materials usually requires leather gloves. Heavy cotton glove usually afford ample protection against scratch and abrasive hazards. Rubber gloves are usually necessary for electrical and chemical hazards. There are gloves designed to protect against cut hazards, as in the meat industry. l Check with your MSDS and/or your glove supplier for more information.
Norfoil laminate resists permeation and breakthrough by an array of toxic/hazardous chemicals Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors; frequently used for ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) and esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate)
Viton is highly resistant to permeation by chlorinated and aromatic solvents Nitrile provides protection against a wide variety of solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts, snags, punctures and abrasions
Kevlar protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion Stainless steel mesh provides protection from cuts and lacerations
Gloves l What are tips for proper care?
Hazard Assessment- Gloves l Laboratory technicians handle strong solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. What type of gloves should the employer provide? l What type of gloves should be provided for protection from chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene?
Hazard Assessment- Gloves l Production operators handle acetone and methyl alcohol to clean parts. What type of gloves should the employer provide? l What options does an employer have if an employee develops an allergic reaction?
Causes of Body Injuries? l Intense heat l Splashes of hot metals and other hot liquids l Impacts from tools, machinery, and materials l Cuts l Hazardous chemicals l Contact with potentially infectious materials, like blood l Radiation
Body Protection Criteria for Selection l Need to provide protective clothing only for the parts of the body exposed to possible injury l Depending upon hazards in the workplace, protection may be provided by: Vests Aprons Surgical gowns Jackets Full coveralls
Cooling VestSleeves and Apron Examples
CoverallsFull Body Suit Examples
Body Protection Use and Care l Verify that the material selected will provide protection from the specific hazard l Adjust for comfort and effective fit l Identify signs of wear: Rips, tears, scuffs Loss of elasticity l Clean and disinfect properly l Store properly * See 29 CFR for further guidance on selection of chemical protective clothing for workers involved in hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
Hazard Assessment Summary l Assess the workplace for hazards l Implement engineering controls and work practices to control or eliminate these hazards to the extent feasible l Select appropriate PPE to protect employees from hazards that cannot be eliminated or controlled through engineering controls and work practices
Hazard Assessment Summary l Inform employees why the PPE is necessary and when it must be worn l Train employees how to use and care for the selected PPE and how to recognize deterioration and failure l Require employees to wear the selected PPE in the workplace l Document assessment and training
Objectives l What is sound? l How the ear works l How to measure noise l What does OSHA say about noise? l Reading hearing tests l Hearing Protection
What is Sound? l Hertz (Hz) Frequency a high or low pitch l Decibels (dB) The loudness of the sound
Frequency l Humans can typically hear between ,000 Hz. l You can hear different frequencies better than others.
Decibels l The quietest sound most humans can detect is 0 dB l Some humans can even hear sounds as quiet as -5 dB
The Loudness of Common Sounds
Anatomy of the Ear Cochlea Ear Drum Ear Bones Semi-Circular Canals
How Do We Hear? l The outer ear collects the soundwaves l The waves hit the eardrum and cause it to vibrate l The vibrations are sent through the ear bones to the cochlea
Inside the Cochlea (snail shell) l Delicate hair cells vibrate to different frequencies l Hair cells detect the vibration and send a signal to the brain l Loud sounds destroy the hair cells and they stop functioning FOREVER!
The Ear Does Something Else Too! l The Semi-circular canals Three tubes laying perpendicular to one another Filled with fluid and tiny hair cells Depending on which way your head is tilted, the fluid moves the hair cells, and they send a signal to your brain l Responsible for balance
How to Measure Noise l Decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale l If you double the sound pressure of the noise, the sound pressure level will increase 6dB 80 dB86 dB
l In the field, we determined the loudness of two compressors right next to each other l How loud is this area? Do we add? Do we add and take the average? Example 89 dB87 dB
l Neither, because it is a log scale l We use the following chart l 82 dB + 83 dB = 86 dB l 87 dB + 89 dB = 91 dB Example
How are Noise Levels Determined? l Sound level meter Determine the loudness (dB) of noise at any given moment l Personal Dosimeters Worn by employees Measures the average loudness in an 8 hour work shift 8hr TWA (Time Weighted Average) Can also measure noise dose
What does OSHA say? l At 85 dB (8hr. TWA) (50% Dose) Sample for noise levels Train employees Make hearing protection available Do hearing tests Notify employees of results l At 90 dB or more (100% Dose) Train employees Hearing protection is mandatory Hearing protection must attenuate levels at or below 90 dB Do hearing tests Notify employees of results
What does the Std Require?
True or False? l Plain cotton will effectively protect against occupational noise.
Hearing Protection Criteria for Selection l Attenuation characteristics of a particular hearing protector must be considered l Work area of use important, e.g., earmuffs not practical for work in confined areas with little head clearance l When using earmuffs in areas with electrical hazards, use nonconductive suspension systems
Hearing Protection Criteria for Selection l When eye protection is also required, use earplugs or earmuffs with cable-type temples l Earmuffs preferable to earplugs when noise exposure is intermittent, since they are easier to put on and remove
EarmuffsEarplugsCanal Caps Examples What are tips for proper care?
True or False? l Hearing protection worn incorrectly is like wearing none at all.
Hearing Tests l We must determine a baseline audiogram l We test your hearing every year to determine if you have experienced a hearing loss (Standard Threshold Shift) l Standard Threshold Shift - A loss of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, or 4000 Hz.
Hearing Loss l Impact - One loud bang l Cumulative - Years of a noisy environment l Tinnitus - Ringing in the ears l Presbycusis - Hearing loss due to aging
Hearing Protection l NRR - Noise reduction rating Express - 25 NRR Classic - 29 NRR Max Lite - 33 NRR l DO NOT Subtract the NRR from the 108 dBA noise level WRONG (108 dBA - 33 dB = 75 dBA) l You must subtract 7 dB from the NRR: (33-7) CORRECT (108 dBA – 26dB = 82 dBA) Is this adequate protection?
Safety Factor-Recommended l OSHA says the hearing protection is designed to reduce the noise by the NRR, but that is unlikely to happen due to : Leaks in the seal Vibration Improper insertion l OSHA takes (NRR - 7) / 2
Example of NRR Protection l The noise at a large compressor is 108 dBA l You are wearing the Max Lite plugs with an NRR of 33 dB l Do you have enough protection to place you at or below 90 dBA level?
l (NRR ) = 26 dB l 26 / 2 = 13 dB l 108 dBA - 13 dB = 95 dBA l YOU ARE ABOVE OSHA LIMITS OF 90 dBA 95 dBA 108 dBA Example of NRR Protection
l Will double protection help? l Add 5 dB to the field adjusted NRR l (33 – 7) / dB = 18 dB l 108 dBA - 18 dB = 90 dBA l Is this protection adequate? 90 dBA Example of NRR Protection
Summary for Hearing Protection l Hearing is important l In time, noise levels at 85 dBA can permanently damage your hearing l Wear your hearing protection both at work and at home l Choose hearing protection with a high NRR, and wear it properly
Program Elements l Program Administrator l Workplace Evaluation l Respirator Selection l Medical Evaluation l Fit Testing l Respirator Use l Maintenance and Storage l Training
Workplace Evaluation l Identify Respiratory Hazards particulates, gases, vapors, oxygen deficiency l Determine Exposure monitoring, calculations, historical data l Control Hazard engineering controls, administrative controls
Respirator Selection l Chemical and Physical Properties l Toxicity and Concentration l Oxygen Level l Nature and Extent of Hazard l Limitations and Characteristics of Respirators
Question l Will a bandana provide protection against particulates? l How about two bandanas?
Respirator Types l Air Purifying Respirators dust masks gas masks chemical cartridges l Air-Supplying Respirators air-line respirators SCBAs
Medical Evaluation (e) l Paid by Employer l Physician or Licensed Health Care Provider l Medical Questionnaire vs. Examination l Written Determination l Additional Medical Evaluations
Fit Testing (f) l Required for tight fitting face pieces l Fit testing is conducted annually l Qualitative all positive pressure respirators negative pressure respirators (< 10 X PEL) l Quantitative half mask: achieve fit factor > 100 full face: achieve fit factor > 500
Respirator Use (g) l Donning and doffing l Maintain face-to-face piece and valve seal l Negative and positive fit check l Change out schedules l Emergency situations
Maintenance and Storage (h) l Cleaning and disinfecting procedures l Proper storage l Regular inspections l Repair methods
Training (k) l Frequency prior to initial use annual refreshers change in workplace conditions retraining determined necessary Appendix D for voluntary use
Training – Contd l Content necessity and consequences of misuse limitations and capabilities emergency use inspect, don, doff, use, check seals maintenance and storage general requirements of standard
Written Program Elements (c) l Selection l Medical Evaluations l Fit Testing l Proper Use l Maintenance l Training l Evaluation of Program
Summary l Conduct air monitoring l Choose the right respirator l Make sure employees wear their respirators l Perform fit testing l Train employees l Take care of respirators l Review program
Hazard Assessment - Workshop l Complete the worksheet for one high hazard area at your company. l What type of limitations and proper care for the PPE would you discuss with your employees during training?