3OBJECTIVES Highlight OSHA PPE Standards (Subpart I) Occupational Noise ExposureRespiratory ProtectionWritten PPE Program ElementsPPE Selection and LimitationsTraining TipsComplete a Hazard Assessment
4What percentage of disabling work-related injuries will involve the head, eyes, hands or feet?
5Why Must Employers Provide PPE? OSHA requires certain PPE based on the hazards employees are exposed to.OSHA also requires training for employees in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of PPE.
6Protecting Employees from Workplace Hazards OSHA regulations require employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury.Employers must institute all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards before using PPE to protect against hazards.
7Engineering Controls If . . . Then . . . You can physically change the machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the potential hazard,Then . . .You have eliminated the hazard with an engineering control.
8Engineering Controls Examples… Initial design specifications VentilationSubstitution with less harmful materialEnclosure of processIsolation of processChange of process
9Work Practice Controls If . . .You can remove your employees from exposure to the potential hazard by changing the way they do their jobs,Then . . .You have eliminated the hazard with a work practice control.
10Work Practice Controls Examples . . .Job Rotation of WorkersWet MethodsPersonal HygieneHousekeeping and Maintenance
11Establishing a PPE Program A written PPE program sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employer’s routine operation.The first essential step is to assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE.Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE
12PPE Assessment (d)Assess the nature and degree of the workplace hazards.Select PPE and require use.Communicate selection decisions.PPE should properly fit employees.
13Written Certification Documentation must include:workplace identificationperson conducting the certificationdate(s) of hazard assessmentdocument shall be identified as a certificate of hazard assessment
14Training Apply to all employees that wear PPE Conditions when PPE is requiredSelection criteriaHow to properly wear PPELimitations of PPEProper care, maintenance and useful life of PPEDemonstrate that they understand the training
15Training – Cont’d Re-train when changes in workplace occurs Re-train when there are changes in the type of PPERe-train when the employee has inadequacies in knowledge and use of PPECertification of training:name of employeedate of training
16Examples of PPE Eye - safety glasses, goggles Face - face shields Head - hard hatsFeet - safety shoesHands and arms – glovesBodies – vestsHearing - earplugs, earmuffs
17True or False?Wearing PPE, even if improperly is better than not wearing it at all.False- It may cause additional hazards (loose fit)
18Limitations of PPEFirst use engineering controls and workplace controls then, use PPEThe protection is only as good as the PPE selected; PPE must be appropriate for job task and hazardPPE may interfere with other PPE or work operationsPPE must be properly wornPPE must be maintained and stored properlyPPE must be inspected
20Causes of Eye InjuriesDust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or wool fibersMolten metal that might splashAcids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splashBlood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatterIntense light such as that created by welding and lasers
21Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection Must protect against specific hazard(s) encountered by employeesMust be comfortable to wearMust not restrict vision or movementMust be durable and easy to clean and disinfect
22Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection Must not interfere with the function of other required PPEMust meet the requirements of ANSI Z for devices purchased after July 5, 1994, and ANSI Z for devices purchased before that date
23Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses Eyeglasses designed for ordinary wear do not provide the required protection against workplace hazards.Proper choices include:Prescription spectacles with side shields and protective lenses meeting requirements of ANSI Z87.1 that also correct the employee’s vision
24Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses Proper choices include:Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind protective lensesGoggles that can fit comfortably over corrective eyeglasses without disturbing their alignment
25Eye Protection Eye protection comes in different types: Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye.Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood.
26Eye ProtectionEyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision
27Eye/Face ProtectionFor more severe hazards, full face protection is needed:Heavy grinding and heavy spraying/splashing.The full face shield should not only protect the eyes, but the entire facial area as well.The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals.Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.
28QuestionCan more than one employee wear the same set of protective eyewear?Yes
29QuestionAre you required to disinfect the eyewear between uses by different employees?Yes
30Everyone who has suffered an eye injury: A. Thought it would never happen to them.B. Would wear eye protection if they had it to do over again.
31Safety Spectacles Made with metal/plastic safety frames Most workplace operations require side shieldsUsed for moderate impact from particles produced by such jobs as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, and scalingWhat are tips for proper care?
32GogglesProtect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashesSome goggles fit over corrective lensesWhat are tips for proper care?
33Face ShieldsProtect face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquidsDoes not protect employees from impact hazardsWhat are tips for proper care?
34Welding ShieldsProtect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting.What are tips for proper care?
35Laser Safety GogglesProvide a range of protection against the intense concentrations of light produced by lasers.What are tips for proper care?
36Hazard AssessmentIn a machine shop, a milling operation produces large quantities of metal chips that fly all over the surrounding work areas. How should the owner best protect the workers?
38Causes of Head Injuries Falling objects from aboveBumping the head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beamsContact with exposed electrical conductors
39Head ProtectionHard hats are necessary to protect workers against falling objects and overhead hazards in general.Some hard hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects.Hard hats should be designed to reduce electrical shock when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical conductors.
40Head ProtectionHard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard.What are tips for proper care?
41Types of Head Protection Which class of hard hat types will protect you fromelectric shock as well as falling objects?Class AB. Class BC. Class CD. Class A and B
42Types of Head Protection Class A HelmetsFor impact, penetration, and electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (tested to 2,200 volts).Class B HelmetsFor impact, penetration, and electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (tested to 20,000 volts).Class C HelmetsFor impact and penetration hazards hazards only. Usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity, and should not be worn around electrical hazards.
44Causes of Foot Injuries Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees’ feetSharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoesMolten metal that might splash on feetHot or wet surfacesSlippery surfaces
45Foot Protection Criteria for Selection Selection depends upon specific workplace hazards identified and the specific parts of the feet exposed to potential injurySafety footwear must meet minimum compression and impact performance standards and testing requirements established by ANSIProtective footwear must comply with ANSI Z if purchased after July 5, 1994) or ANSI Z (if purchased before this date)
46Foot ProtectionProper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes:Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handlingRubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS.Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface:Sturdy, puncture-resistant soles for sharp object hazards
47True or False?Leather shoes or boots offer good protection against spills of caustic chemicals.False…caustic eats right through the leather and can cause permanent injury.
48Safety Shoes Have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles Some have metal insoles to protect against puncture woundsMay be designed to be electrically conductiveWhat are tips for proper care?
49Metatarsal GuardsAn integral part of shoes or strapped to the outside of them to protect the instep area from impact and compression.What are tips for proper care?
51Causes of Hand Injuries BurnsBruisesAbrasionsCutsPuncturesFracturesAmputationsChemical ExposuresTemperature Extremes
52QuestionIs there one kind of glove that will protect against all workplace hazards?No
53Hand Protection Criteria for Selection Nature of the hazard(s) and the operation to be performed will determine the selection of glovesVariety of potential occupational hand injuries may make selecting the appropriate pair of gloves more difficult than choosing other protective equipment
54Hand Protection Gloves should be selected according to the hazard. Handling hot materials usually requires leather gloves.Heavy cotton glove usually afford ample protection against scratch and abrasive hazards.Rubber gloves are usually necessary for electrical and chemical hazards.There are gloves designed to protect against cut hazards, as in the meat industry.Check with your MSDS and/or your glove supplier for more information.
55Norfoil laminate resists permeation and breakthrough by an array of toxic/hazardous chemicals Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors; frequently used for ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) and esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate)
56Viton is highly resistant to permeation by chlorinated and aromatic solvents Nitrile provides protection against a wide variety of solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts, snags, punctures and abrasions
57Kevlar protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion Stainless steel mesh provides protection from cuts and lacerations
59Hazard Assessment- Gloves Laboratory technicians handle strong solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. What type of gloves should the employer provide?What type of gloves should be provided for protection from chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene?
60Hazard Assessment- Gloves Production operators handle acetone and methyl alcohol to clean parts. What type of gloves should the employer provide?What options does an employer have if an employee develops an allergic reaction?
62Causes of Body Injuries? Intense heatSplashes of hot metals and other hot liquidsImpacts from tools, machinery, and materialsCutsHazardous chemicalsContact with potentially infectious materials, like bloodRadiation
63Body Protection Criteria for Selection Need to provide protective clothing only for the parts of the body exposed to possible injuryDepending upon hazards in the workplace, protection may be provided by:VestsApronsSurgical gownsJacketsFull coveralls
66Body Protection Use and Care Verify that the material selected will provide protection from the specific hazardAdjust for comfort and effective fitIdentify signs of wear:Rips, tears, scuffsLoss of elasticityClean and disinfect properlyStore properly* See 29 CFR for further guidance on selection of chemical protective clothing for workers involved in hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
67Hazard Assessment Summary Assess the workplace for hazardsImplement engineering controls and work practices to control or eliminate these hazards to the extent feasibleSelect appropriate PPE to protect employees from hazards that cannot be eliminated or controlled through engineering controls and work practices
68Hazard Assessment Summary Inform employees why the PPE is necessary and when it must be wornTrain employees how to use and care for the selected PPE and how to recognize deterioration and failureRequire employees to wear the selected PPE in the workplaceDocument assessment and training
75Anatomy of the EarCochleaEar DrumEar BonesSemi-Circular Canals
76How Do We Hear? The outer ear collects the soundwaves The waves hit the eardrum and cause it to vibrateThe vibrations are sent through the ear bones to the cochlea
77Inside the Cochlea (snail shell) Delicate hair cells vibrate to different frequenciesHair cells detect the vibration and send a signal to the brainLoud sounds destroy the hair cells and they stop functioning FOREVER!
78The Ear Does Something Else Too! The Semi-circular canalsThree tubes laying perpendicular to one anotherFilled with fluid and tiny hair cellsDepending on which way your head is tilted, the fluid moves the hair cells, and they send a signal to your brainResponsible for balance
79How to Measure Noise Decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale If you double the sound pressure of the noise, the sound pressure level will increase 6dB80 dB86 dB
80ExampleIn the field, we determined the loudness of two compressors right next to each otherHow loud is this area?Do we add?Do we add and take the average?89 dB87 dB
81Example Neither, because it is a log scale We use the following chart 82 dB + 83 dB = 86 dB87 dB + 89 dB = 91 dB
82How are Noise Levels Determined? Personal DosimetersWorn by employeesMeasures the average loudness in an 8 hour work shift“8hr TWA” (Time Weighted Average)Can also measure noise doseSound level meterDetermine the loudness (dB) of noise at any given moment
83What does OSHA say? At 85 dB (8hr. TWA) (50% Dose) At 90 dB or more Sample for noise levelsTrain employeesMake hearing protection availableDo hearing testsNotify employees of resultsAt 90 dB or more(100% Dose)Train employeesHearing protection is mandatoryHearing protection must attenuate levels at or below 90 dBDo hearing testsNotify employees of results
85True or False?Plain cotton will effectively protect against occupational noise.No
86Hearing Protection Criteria for Selection Attenuation characteristics of a particular hearing protector must be consideredWork area of use important, e.g., earmuffs not practical for work in confined areas with little head clearanceWhen using earmuffs in areas with electrical hazards, use nonconductive suspension systems
87Hearing Protection Criteria for Selection When eye protection is also required, use earplugs or earmuffs with cable-type templesEarmuffs preferable to earplugs when noise exposure is intermittent, since they are easier to put on and remove
88ExamplesEarmuffsEarplugsCanal CapsWhat are tips for proper care?
89True or False?Hearing protection worn incorrectly is like wearing none at all.
90Hearing Tests We must determine a baseline audiogram We test your hearing every year to determine if you have experienced a hearing loss (Standard Threshold Shift)Standard Threshold Shift - A loss of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, or 4000 Hz.
92Hearing Loss Impact - One loud bang Cumulative - Years of a noisy environmentTinnitus - Ringing in the earsPresbycusis - Hearing loss due to aging
93Hearing Protection NRR - Noise reduction rating Express NRRClassic NRRMax Lite - 33 NRRDO NOT Subtract the NRR from the 108 dBA noise levelWRONG (108 dBA - 33 dB = 75 dBA)You must subtract 7 dB from the NRR: (33-7)CORRECT (108 dBA – 26dB = 82 dBA)Is this adequate protection?
94Safety Factor-Recommended OSHA says the hearing protection is designed to reduce the noise by the NRR, but that is unlikely to happen due to :Leaks in the sealVibrationImproper insertionOSHA takes (NRR - 7) / 2
95Example of NRR Protection The noise at a large compressor is 108 dBAYou are wearing the Max Lite plugs with an NRR of 33 dBDo you have enough protection to place you at or below 90 dBA level?
96Example of NRR Protection (NRR ) = 26 dB26 / 2 = 13 dB108 dBA dB = 95 dBAYOU ARE ABOVE OSHA LIMITS OF 90 dBA95 dBA108 dBA
97Example of NRR Protection Will double protection help?Add 5 dB to the field adjusted NRR(33 – 7) / dB = 18 dB108 dBA dB = 90 dBAIs this protection adequate?90 dBA
98Summary for Hearing Protection Hearing is importantIn time, noise levels at 85 dBA can permanently damage your hearingWear your hearing protection both at work and at homeChoose hearing protection with a high NRR, and wear it properly
102Respirator Selection Chemical and Physical Properties Toxicity and ConcentrationOxygen LevelNature and Extent of HazardLimitations and Characteristics of Respirators
103Question Will a bandana provide protection against particulates? How about two bandanas?
104Respirator Types Air Purifying Respirators dust masks gas masks chemical cartridgesAir-Supplying Respiratorsair-line respiratorsSCBAs
105Medical Evaluation 1910.134(e) Paid by EmployerPhysician or Licensed Health Care ProviderMedical Questionnaire vs. ExaminationWritten DeterminationAdditional Medical Evaluations
106Fit Testing - 1910.134(f) Required for tight fitting face pieces Fit testing is conducted annuallyQualitativeall positive pressure respiratorsnegative pressure respirators (< 10 X PEL)Quantitativehalf mask: achieve fit factor > 100full face: achieve fit factor > 500
107Respirator Use 1910.134(g) Donning and doffing Maintain face-to-face piece and valve sealNegative and positive fit checkChange out schedulesEmergency situations
108Maintenance and Storage 1910.134(h) Cleaning and disinfecting proceduresProper storageRegular inspectionsRepair methods
109Training 1910.134(k) Frequency prior to initial use annual refreshers change in workplace conditionsretraining determined necessaryAppendix D for voluntary use
110Training – Cont’d Content necessity and consequences of misuse limitations and capabilitiesemergency useinspect, don, doff, use, check sealsmaintenance and storagegeneral requirements of standard
111Written Program Elements 1910.134(c) SelectionMedical EvaluationsFit TestingProper UseMaintenanceTrainingEvaluation of Program
112Summary Conduct air monitoring Choose the right respirator Make sure employees wear their respiratorsPerform fit testingTrain employeesTake care of respiratorsReview program
113Hazard Assessment - Workshop Complete the worksheet for one high hazard area at your company.What type of limitations and proper care for the PPE would you discuss with your employees during training?