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1 Presentation by: David Gruber

2 What does the term the body mean? How does it compare to the figure? What does the term the body mean? How does it compare to the figure? What is the Western historical context for the body as art? What is the Western historical context for the body as art? How have critics of visual rhetoric dealt with… How have critics of visual rhetoric dealt with… The body as an object (Dickson / Bordo) The body as an object (Dickson / Bordo) The natural vs the plastic body (Jordan / Lock) The natural vs the plastic body (Jordan / Lock) The segmented body (Gruber /Gallagher/ Hariman) The segmented body (Gruber /Gallagher/ Hariman) The dead body (Hariman & Lucaites) The dead body (Hariman & Lucaites)

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5 Body vs Figure: Body vs Figure: Gent & Llewellyn (Renaissance Bodies: The Human Figure in English Culture) state, Figure is the symbol of life that representation itself stands for. Body, by contrast, suggests the solidly central unrepresented fact of existence, a materiality that of itself is inarticulate (2). Gent & Llewellyn (Renaissance Bodies: The Human Figure in English Culture) state, Figure is the symbol of life that representation itself stands for. Body, by contrast, suggests the solidly central unrepresented fact of existence, a materiality that of itself is inarticulate (2). For Gilles Deleuze, the body is the material of the figure (Hubert 1). To think of it as static, a mechanism made up of meat and bones, is limiting. The body is a flow, a transition, a becoming. This is what Deleuze called a body without organs (1). For Gilles Deleuze, the body is the material of the figure (Hubert 1). To think of it as static, a mechanism made up of meat and bones, is limiting. The body is a flow, a transition, a becoming. This is what Deleuze called a body without organs (1). For Deleuze, the figure was an outline of the body, a tracing of meat… the figure was, more precisely, the result or scene or invisible pulsations of the ID (Patton 260). It was a matrix of desires, but Delueze emphasized the figure as the imminent visible sensation as opposed to hidden desire. For Deleuze, the figure was an outline of the body, a tracing of meat… the figure was, more precisely, the result or scene or invisible pulsations of the ID (Patton 260). It was a matrix of desires, but Delueze emphasized the figure as the imminent visible sensation as opposed to hidden desire.

6 For Renaissance painters the visual body represented the ultimate visual compendium, the comprehensive method of methods, the organizing structure of structures. As a visible, natural whole made up of dissimilar invisible parts, it was the organic paradigm or architectural standard for all complex unions (Stafford 12). For Renaissance painters the visual body represented the ultimate visual compendium, the comprehensive method of methods, the organizing structure of structures. As a visible, natural whole made up of dissimilar invisible parts, it was the organic paradigm or architectural standard for all complex unions (Stafford 12). In short, the body was a metaphor. In short, the body was a metaphor.

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8 Socrates, stiff and naked in his Stoic uprightness, was pointedly contrasted to the pliant arcs and disheveled curves weighing down his lesser, suffering followers (Stafford 15) Socrates, stiff and naked in his Stoic uprightness, was pointedly contrasted to the pliant arcs and disheveled curves weighing down his lesser, suffering followers (Stafford 15) Contrasted a sickness prone physiology to a rational and unbendable intellect (15). Contrasted a sickness prone physiology to a rational and unbendable intellect (15). In a popular Enlightenment metaphor, the mind was incarcerated in the tenebrous cavern or prison and thus could not see. The value of ancient philosophy was made evident in Socrates posture, which signified sight and the moment of purification (15). In a popular Enlightenment metaphor, the mind was incarcerated in the tenebrous cavern or prison and thus could not see. The value of ancient philosophy was made evident in Socrates posture, which signified sight and the moment of purification (15).

9 During the Renaissance there was a strong belief that the success and progress of works of art were measured by their treatment of the human figure (Gent & Llewellyn 3). During the Renaissance there was a strong belief that the success and progress of works of art were measured by their treatment of the human figure (Gent & Llewellyn 3). Out of a surging humanism came a moment in human history when a tradition that was abstract and mathematical came together with the exemplary religious tradition [the body as made in Gods image] to create a new version of bodily perfection (3). Out of a surging humanism came a moment in human history when a tradition that was abstract and mathematical came together with the exemplary religious tradition [the body as made in Gods image] to create a new version of bodily perfection (3).

10 Vitruvius De Aritectura… provided a rational formula for the definition of bodily perfection… V described the body of a man with limbs outstretched, disposed within the basic, perfect geometrical shapes of the square and the circle (Gent & Llewellyn 3). Vitruvius De Aritectura… provided a rational formula for the definition of bodily perfection… V described the body of a man with limbs outstretched, disposed within the basic, perfect geometrical shapes of the square and the circle (Gent & Llewellyn 3). Michaelangelo called architects "figural artists" because of the way that the symmetry and apertures of buildings imitate the form and orifices of the human body (Gatto 1).

11 csmt.uchicago.edu/glossary2004/architecture.htm

12 In 1435, Leon B. Alberti argued that the greatest work of visual art was the istoria, whose power lay in its use of human figures to transmit important moral truths (Istoria translates as History Painting told by a means of human figures in poses) In 1435, Leon B. Alberti argued that the greatest work of visual art was the istoria, whose power lay in its use of human figures to transmit important moral truths (Istoria translates as History Painting told by a means of human figures in poses) Similarly, Georgio Vasari argued for a definition of the artistic picture that rested on a negotiation of the ideal body and actual representation. According to Vasaris Lives Massacio was a key master of the early Renaissance because his work seemed to stand upon that ground (both quotes from Gent & Llewellyn 4). Similarly, Georgio Vasari argued for a definition of the artistic picture that rested on a negotiation of the ideal body and actual representation. According to Vasaris Lives Massacio was a key master of the early Renaissance because his work seemed to stand upon that ground (both quotes from Gent & Llewellyn 4).

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14 The bodys status was reduced in the 16 th and 17 th centuries… Christian hierarchy made the body the container of the soul and thus lowered the importance of the body (Gent & Llewellyn 3-5). The bodys status was reduced in the 16 th and 17 th centuries… Christian hierarchy made the body the container of the soul and thus lowered the importance of the body (Gent & Llewellyn 3-5). The convention of the spiritualized interpretation of the body in the Renaissance has now been lost (Bordo 180). The convention of the spiritualized interpretation of the body in the Renaissance has now been lost (Bordo 180). Is this true? To what extent? Is this true? To what extent?

15 Images from Vanity Fair.com & Gucci Ad published in Bordos book

16 Dickson first discusses how Moore was pictured as an object, something to be desired. Dickson first discusses how Moore was pictured as an object, something to be desired.

17 Conclusion: the object of the cover shot disrupts the stable understanding of the de- eroticized pregnant body in popular American culture… Conclusion: the object of the cover shot disrupts the stable understanding of the de- eroticized pregnant body in popular American culture… Virginal sexless mother vs an object of sexual desire -- Julia Kristeva Tales of Love Virginal sexless mother vs an object of sexual desire -- Julia Kristeva Tales of Love Pregnancy as excluded from normative sexuality and beauty (magazine articles) Pregnancy as excluded from normative sexuality and beauty (magazine articles) The analysis furthers our understanding of the ways in which dominant discourses write our bodies, how those inscriptions are mobilized in material practices, and how the practices may be transformed through them (Dickson 312). The analysis furthers our understanding of the ways in which dominant discourses write our bodies, how those inscriptions are mobilized in material practices, and how the practices may be transformed through them (Dickson 312).

18 Bordo discusses Gucci Man and the shock and concern expressed in the New York Times magazine (and elsewhere) over the overexposure of bodies in a body- obsessed culture. Bordo discusses Gucci Man and the shock and concern expressed in the New York Times magazine (and elsewhere) over the overexposure of bodies in a body- obsessed culture. Butts! Oh NO! Butts! Oh NO! Stars no longer have private parts, the author observed. Stars no longer have private parts, the author observed.

19 Bordo asserts that all those naked female bodies have been overexposed for a long time, but those female bodies as objects did not call for alarm and were not bothersome. But why? Bordo asserts that all those naked female bodies have been overexposed for a long time, but those female bodies as objects did not call for alarm and were not bothersome. But why?

20 Answer: Cultural Conditioning Answer: Cultural Conditioning The male-dominated culture of images: nude women seem to be in their natural state. The male-dominated culture of images: nude women seem to be in their natural state. Woman arent used to seeing naked men portrayed as objects of a sexual gaze… Women have been deprived… of having the male body offered to us, handed to us on a silver platter, the way female bodiesin the ads and the moviesare handed to men (Bordo ). Woman arent used to seeing naked men portrayed as objects of a sexual gaze… Women have been deprived… of having the male body offered to us, handed to us on a silver platter, the way female bodiesin the ads and the moviesare handed to men (Bordo ). Biological explanations are flawed. Biological explanations are flawed.

21 So is it wrong/bad for a body to invite a sexual gaze? So is it wrong/bad for a body to invite a sexual gaze? Bordo implies no. Now its even! for meand for thousands of gay men across the countrythis was a moment of political magnitude, and a delicious one. The body parts that we love to squeeze had come out of the closet and into mainstream culture (177). Yet, Bordo recognizes that her fantasy is one where the man knows he is being watched, as the women seem to know. Gucci Man, however…

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23 What is a plastic body? What is a plastic body? According to John Jordan, it is an altered body associated with plastic surgery. It is always in a state of potential transition ( ).

24 Public accounts of plastic surgery imply that there is an augmentation for every body and for every part… such as having ones toes shortened to fit designer shoes, umbilicoplasty or designer bellybutton surgery to create the perfect bellybutton shape… designer vagina… penis enlargements… (Jordan ). These are visual issues, but who decides what the body should look like? Public accounts of plastic surgery imply that there is an augmentation for every body and for every part… such as having ones toes shortened to fit designer shoes, umbilicoplasty or designer bellybutton surgery to create the perfect bellybutton shape… designer vagina… penis enlargements… (Jordan ). These are visual issues, but who decides what the body should look like? applicants must confront the medical communitys ideological perspective on the healthy body and how this influences surgeons choices about which bodies and desires will receive surgical attention and which will be rejected as inappropriate…. the plastic body is limited symbolically and materially (328). applicants must confront the medical communitys ideological perspective on the healthy body and how this influences surgeons choices about which bodies and desires will receive surgical attention and which will be rejected as inappropriate…. the plastic body is limited symbolically and materially (328).

25 The surgically modified body embodies cultural notions of physical health and beauty, ownership of the self, and physical appropriateness (349). The surgically modified body embodies cultural notions of physical health and beauty, ownership of the self, and physical appropriateness (349). If psychological distress is the primary requirement for being granted surgical relief, then wannabes seemingly would have no trouble demonstrating their need for surgery… (349). If psychological distress is the primary requirement for being granted surgical relief, then wannabes seemingly would have no trouble demonstrating their need for surgery… (349). Ultimately, I conclude that, even in a time of astonishing biotechnology, the constitution of the human body depends on rhetorical invention as much as technological intervention (329). Ultimately, I conclude that, even in a time of astonishing biotechnology, the constitution of the human body depends on rhetorical invention as much as technological intervention (329).

26 Negotiating Bodily Beauty What is natural and unnatural? Images results from google.image search for body alteration and cosmetic surgery

27 The body is elusive on several counts, the first being that it cannot be fully and satisfactorily represented, but neither can it be experienced in a void, without representation. The body is elusive on several counts, the first being that it cannot be fully and satisfactorily represented, but neither can it be experienced in a void, without representation. "It is not quite true that I have a body, and not quite true that I am one either. We construct and interpret bodies through representations of one kind and another (Lock 268). "It is not quite true that I have a body, and not quite true that I am one either. We construct and interpret bodies through representations of one kind and another (Lock 268).

28 Lock questions our ability to understand or comprehend the visual look of a natural body. Lock questions our ability to understand or comprehend the visual look of a natural body. Discourses about body surfaces, about body sculpting…piercing, tattooing… inform of us, often brilliantly and provocatively, about normalization (267). We construct and interpret bodies through representations of one kind or another (267). The new body of surfaces grapples with the embodied character of social processes (268). Healthype.com

29 bodiestheexhibition.com

30 The materiality of the body is monumentalized here. But thats not the end of the story. The materiality of the body is monumentalized here. But thats not the end of the story. There is an tension that is trying to be resolved between the medical view (medical gaze) of the body that objectifies it and views it as parts (Foucault The Birth of the Clinic) and the humanness of the body that plays and thinks. There is an tension that is trying to be resolved between the medical view (medical gaze) of the body that objectifies it and views it as parts (Foucault The Birth of the Clinic) and the humanness of the body that plays and thinks. In one sense, these images reject the new body of surfaces (Lock) that ignores the philosophical mind that embraces the material only over the Cartesian duality. They embrace the mind but place it in reference to the body, the thing which feels and creates all human experiences (Hayles How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics). In one sense, these images reject the new body of surfaces (Lock) that ignores the philosophical mind that embraces the material only over the Cartesian duality. They embrace the mind but place it in reference to the body, the thing which feels and creates all human experiences (Hayles How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics).

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32 While anatomically precise, it is disembodied, abstracted, and decontextualized… While anatomically precise, it is disembodied, abstracted, and decontextualized… The artist, Robert Graham, wanted the image to be more open. The disembodied forearm and limb function as a metonym… Louis muscle and brawn used to defeat opponents in the boxing ring serve as shorthand for the larger struggles of African Americans (Gallagher & LaWare 9). The artist, Robert Graham, wanted the image to be more open. The disembodied forearm and limb function as a metonym… Louis muscle and brawn used to defeat opponents in the boxing ring serve as shorthand for the larger struggles of African Americans (Gallagher & LaWare 9). The sculpture is both a grotesque caricature of the man and a glorification of his limb (10). The sculpture is both a grotesque caricature of the man and a glorification of his limb (10).

33 The Fist seems to be breaking through invisible barriers… yet it is shackled by cables… an emblem of the black body writ large and the families torn apart and dis-membered by slavery, violence and poverty. The Fist is violence without a context. It evokes fear of racialized violence, fear of otherness within urban spaces (10-12). The Fist represents the blow to urban communities not rebuilt/invested in after the riots of the 1960s. The Fist represents the fight to move beyond imposed limits (18). Observations about the disembodied arm/fist…

34 Since body parts each have different physiological functions, when separated from the rest of the body, the physiological function becomes a rhetorical function. Since body parts each have different physiological functions, when separated from the rest of the body, the physiological function becomes a rhetorical function. The separation also asks the viewer to question what is missing. The separation also asks the viewer to question what is missing. The arm as the vehicle for the fist that punches, now separated from any actor, allows for the viewer to question, who is punching and why? The arm as the vehicle for the fist that punches, now separated from any actor, allows for the viewer to question, who is punching and why? The separation allows us to relate the body part to the environment and not to the actor. The separation allows us to relate the body part to the environment and not to the actor.

35 Faced with another year of violence, journalists and citizens alike have to make choices about how to depict and understand what is happening, and how to do so without becoming cynical or otherwise numbed to the obligations and possibilities for change. One place to begin is by looking at this photograph (1). Picking up the pieces. The Human Remnant. Putting your best foot forward. Adding insult to injury. Source at / 2009 new yearwww.Nocaptionneeded.com

36 One question we face in the new year is how to represent, understand, and react to a world riven by violence. This is not an academic question (1). One question we face in the new year is how to represent, understand, and react to a world riven by violence. This is not an academic question (1). Hariman writes a cynical article in order to call attention to our cynical attitude toward the Middle East. He asserts that we need pictures that will break through our cynical attitude. This picture of a segmented body part can do that for us. Hariman writes a cynical article in order to call attention to our cynical attitude toward the Middle East. He asserts that we need pictures that will break through our cynical attitude. This picture of a segmented body part can do that for us. Hariman

37 What are some differences between these two images?

38 When public life appears emotional, it is assumed to be imperiled (137). When public life appears emotional, it is assumed to be imperiled (137). By crying across a dead body, as if to say How could you? the girl fuses an overwhelming feeling with a fundamental belief [the US government should not kill citizens for public protest] (141). By crying across a dead body, as if to say How could you? the girl fuses an overwhelming feeling with a fundamental belief [the US government should not kill citizens for public protest] (141). The decorousness of an AP photo of a dead body is counterbalanced by her emotional display (145). The decorousness of an AP photo of a dead body is counterbalanced by her emotional display (145). * This is an image of outrage, of a woman trapped between the results of conflict and the attitude fueling it.

39 The body with its face averted carries no record of pain (149). The transgression being depicted and the transgressive act of dissent have to balanced by some more basic sense of order (151). * This is an image of care, of upholding values, not of outrage.

40 The body can be discussed in many ways. The body is not simply meat. It is not something that just is as is. It is culturally inscribed. It is a changing idea. Lock quotes Maurice Merleau-Ponty who points out that the body is above all communicative: it is our medium for having a world.

41 Bono, James. Introduction: Does the Body Matter? Configurations 5.2 (1997): Bono, James. Introduction: Does the Body Matter? Configurations 5.2 (1997): Deleuze, Gilles. The Body, the Meat and the Spirit: Becoming Animal Deleuze, Gilles. The Body, the Meat and the Spirit: Becoming Animal Dickson, Barbara. Reading Maternity Materially Rhetorical Bodies. (edited by Selzer & Crowley) University of Wisconsin P, Dickson, Barbara. Reading Maternity Materially Rhetorical Bodies. (edited by Selzer & Crowley) University of Wisconsin P, Foucault, Michel. The Birth of a Clinic Vintage Book, reprint Foucault, Michel. The Birth of a Clinic Vintage Book, reprint Gent, Lucy & Llewellyn, Nigel. Renaissance Bodies: The Human Figure in English Culture, C Reaktion Books, 1990 Gent, Lucy & Llewellyn, Nigel. Renaissance Bodies: The Human Figure in English Culture, C Reaktion Books, 1990 Hariman, Robert & Lucaites John Louis. Dissent and Emotional Management: Kent State No Caption Needed Chicago: University of Chicago P, Hariman, Robert & Lucaites John Louis. Dissent and Emotional Management: Kent State No Caption Needed Chicago: University of Chicago P, Hubert, Christian. Body without Organs. BwO, Hubert, Christian. Body without Organs. BwO, Jordan, John. The Rhetorical Limits of the Plastic Body Quarterly Journal of Speech 90 (2004): Jordan, John. The Rhetorical Limits of the Plastic Body Quarterly Journal of Speech 90 (2004): Patton, Paul. Deleuze: a critical reader. Blackwell Publishing, Patton, Paul. Deleuze: a critical reader. Blackwell Publishing, Stafford, Barbara Maria. Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine. MIT Press, Stafford, Barbara Maria. Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine. MIT Press, 1993.


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