Presentation on theme: "Feminism in the media Tania Modleski (American feminist): Two predominant types of female representation within the media The ‘ideal’ – woman, wife,"— Presentation transcript:
Feminism in the media Tania Modleski (American feminist): Two predominant types of female representation within the media The ‘ideal’ – woman, wife, mother etc The ‘other’ – villainess, seductress etc Reinforcing dominant ideologies of patriarchy, upholding values of a male dominated society. Laura Mulvey – The Male Gaze Objectification of female characters and celebrities in relation to the ‘controlling’ male gaze. Narcissistic identification with an ideal image seen within the media. Mulvey argues that the represented figure is turned into a fetish (object), becoming increasingly beautiful but more objectified.
Post-feminism Emerged alongside the introduction of equal pay for equal work, equal rights legislation and a rise in numbers of women in higher education and the workforce. These changes – along with arguments for women having new opportunities, options and choices – suggested that feminism was no longer necessary.
Judith Butler (1999) Gender is not the result of nature, but is socially constructed. Male and female behaviour are not the result of biology, but are constructed and reinforced by society through media and culture. This theory understands that media and culture offer men and women a range of ‘scripts’ for gender roles, which audiences then interpret and perform in their everyday lives.
Judith Butler (1999) (2) Key Term: Gender Trouble Refers to any behaviour and representation that disrupts culturally accepted notions of gender. Exaggerated, disruptive, representations of masculinity and femininity. These draw attention to the idea that gender is socially constructed, causing ‘gender trouble.’
Queer theory Butler’s theories of gender trouble have also been linked to queer theory, which explores and challenges the way in which heterosexuality is considered ‘normal’ and how the media has limited representations of gay men and women. It has been suggested that Hollywood films construct and portray images of ‘normal’ happy heterosexual couples, while homosexual couples are often represented in terms of sin and sickness.
Homosexuality In the media Normal... or not?
Queer theory (2) Queer theory opposes these views, challenges traditional assumptions that there is a binary divide between being straight and gay, suggesting that sexual identity is more fluid.
Queer theory (3) Queer theory also suggests that there are different ways of interpreting media texts, by looking at the fluidity of gender representation. This theoretical perspective has offered alternative ways of interpreting texts that were before homosexuality was decriminalised in 1967.
Changes in society It could be argued that certain changes of attitudes in both society and the media have given credibility to queer theories suggestion that there is a more open, fluid approach to sexuality. De-criminalisation of homosexuality (1967) Introduction of civil partnerships in the new millennium The popularity of Russell T Davies’ drama Queer as Folk (Channel 4, 1999) The rise in prominence and popularity of ‘Camp’ television personalities
Brokeback Mountain (2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xuugq7fito http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xuugq7fito YESNO Many people saw the success of Brokeback Mountain (2006) as an indication of changing and more progressive attitudes towards homosexuality. Do you agree with this? Why/why not?