Presentation on theme: "BRILLIANT BRUNETTE Lead reacts with the –SH group in hair to form the darkest lead compound, lead sulfide, galena. Using lead to produce a dark hair dye."— Presentation transcript:
BRILLIANT BRUNETTE Lead reacts with the –SH group in hair to form the darkest lead compound, lead sulfide, galena. Using lead to produce a dark hair dye was popular in ancient Italy and the Middle East because people of these regions were dark haired. In the Middle Ages, a dark dye was achieved by mixing equal parts of litharge, burnt lime, and chalk into a thick paste. This paste was left in the hair overnight. This practice allowed for prolonged exposure to the lead in these hair dyes. 11 FIERY REDHEAD Lead compounds were also used to create a red dye. Pliny wrote of a soap made from litharge of silver. This product was popular among German men for the reddening of hair. Sindur, red lead mixed with a red synthetic dye, is popular among Hindu women even in contemporary times. In combination with this dye, they use hair oils that enhance the effectiveness of the dye, but also enhance the absorption of lead through the skin of the scalp. 11 SHEER BLONDE White lead compounds were used in dyes to make hair bond. Dyeing hair blonde was most dangerous because it required the longest exposure to the dye. 11 HAZARDS OF LEADED HAIR DYE The addition of lead compounds into hair dye has been a common practice in ancient times and continues into today. However, this practice is dangerous especially with lengthy exposure. Lead compounds can be absorbed into through the skin of the scalp. The use of oily bases in dyes, irritation reducers, or hair relaxers increase the ability of the skin to absorb lead compounds. Furthermore, lead can be inhaled and absorbed into the body through the lungs during use of such dye products. 11 Some cultures continue to use traditional recipes that are often hazardous to their health. Furthermore, it is possible to find hair dyes containing lead acetate on the market. The only restriction for these types of products is the addition of a caution statement and the listing of lead acetate as one of the ingredients. Consumers must be aware of this and make an educated decision concerning the use of such products. 7 HAIR COLOR BEAUTY DEMANDS SACRIFICES Yevgeniya Primazova, Lead and Humanity: December 11, 2008 Lead is a natural metal that is not readily available on the surface of the earth. When living creatures come in contact with lead, lead builds up in the body and acts as a poison. Mild symptoms of lead intoxication include hypertension, learning and behavioral problems, and hearing acuity, later developing into a more severe poisoning and leading to colic, decreased hemoglobin production, infertility, and death. Lead has also been historically known to induce miscarriages. 4 Chronic lead poisoning stemming from cosmetic use was much more widespread than is recognized. It has been proven that continuous use of leaded cosmetics can induce lead poisoning over an extended period of time. 4 Some of the most common lead compounds used in makeup products were galena, black lead; cerusse, white lead; and minium, red lead. Out of these compounds, cerusse is the most easily absorbed, although exposure to any lead compound may be hazardous. Historically, cosmetic use can be compared to an addiction. Women began their use of poisonous cosmetics in attempts to look more attractive. In turn, these cosmetics caused them illness and depletion of beauty. This would cause women to be drawn to cosmetic use even more in attempts to regain their lost beauty. Historical cases of colic and other severe symptoms of lead poisoning that are hypothesized to have come from the continuous and extensive use of cosmetics were attributed to the consumption of stale foods or enemy attempts at poisoning. In the seventeenth century, doctors became aware of the symptoms of lead poisoning and realized that cosmetic use may often be the cause of these symptoms. In their search for cures, such remedies were created as the popular asparagus mask, consisting of white bread soaked wit the milk and pulp of asparagus. Unfortunately, this method rarely worked and those suffering from poisoning almost never survived. 6 The most common pathways through which lead compounds can be absorbed into the body include: the lungs, the mouth, and the skin. Lead compounds can be inhaled when in powder form or through released vapors. Small lead particles can travel directly to the alveoli, where they are quickly absorbed into the blood stream. Lead is ingested into the body through the mouth. This pathway has become uncommon, although recent studies have shown that it is the main pathway for lead absorption from leaded lipsticks. Finally, organic lead compounds can be absorbed through the skin. The use of oils in combination with leaded products increases absorption, while broken skin allows for the intake of all lead compounds. 4 LIPSTICK Lipstick use can be traced to ancient times more than 5000 years ago, however, leads role in lipstick history is slim. Interestingly, it is today that lead has risen to the status of an active and dangerous ingredient in lipsticks. In 2007, multiple brands and types of lipsticks were tested for the presence of lead. Shockingly, it was found that more than half of the tested lipsticks contained lead compounds and that companies had not listed lead as one of the ingredients. Among the brands indentified to contain lead were several lipsticks by LOreal and Cover Girl. One- third of the lipsticks contained lead amounts exceeding the permissible limit for candy. Lipstick is relatable to products such as candy, which imply direct ingestion of lead. Lipstick is applied several times a day and is easily ingested and spread. Furthermore, it is common for children to come in contact with lipsticks. 1,8 The presence of lead in popular lipsticks is a valid concern. The companies releasing leaded lipsticks argue that the addition of lead is not hazardous. However, lead in lipstick can be ingested while talking, eating, or simply licking your lips. A common statistic is that women eat about four pounds of lipstick in a lifetime, and it is known that no level of lead is safe! Studies have shown that adding lead to lipstick is an unnecessary and avoidable problem. Furthermore, inclusion of lead is not related to cheaper price of lipstick and that there are safe alternatives to the use of lead, such as titanium dioxide. 1 WHAT IS BEING DONE? Even though the hazard of including lead in lipstick has been presented, cosmetic products are still not being revised by the FDA and it has not set a limit for the permissible amount of lead in lipsticks. Furthermore, the FDA does not have a law under which it can remove dangerous cosmetic products from the market. 1,3 Since the FDA does not have the authority to regulate cosmetic products, the government needs to take this problem into its hands. But before it does, consumers need to be aware of this problem and try to bring it to the attention of the authorities. CONCEALER AND BLUSHMASCARA AND EYELINER CONCEALER The popularity of a chalk-white face, obtained with the use of cerusse-based cosmetics, began in ancient Greece. This fashion statement later spread to ancient Rome. It became extremely common in China, Japan, and medieval Europe and remained popular for centuries around the world. 4,9,11 Commonly, white lead makeup was used to enhance the skin tone, cover pockmarks, freckles and other skin defects. Ancient Egyptians used while lead for these purposes as well as to clear complexions of blemishes with the help of leads poisonous, and thus antibacterial, properties. 6,9,11 It is hypothesized that Englands Queen Elizabeth Is extensive use of cerusse-based makeup led to her receding hairline. The lead in these cosmetics may have caused the death of the hair that it came in contact with. However, instead of serving as a sign of a possible health hazard, Queen Elizabeths hairline started a new fashion trend and soon all English women desired to recede their hairline at all costs. 4 HAZARD FOR NURSING INFANTS White lead was occasionally used on the breasts in ancient times to enhance sex appeal. This was quite dangerous when used by breastfeeding women as it greatly exposed their young children to lead in the makeup. For more than 200 years, nursing infants had suffered from what was considered to be a form of tuberculous meningitis. 11 In 1923, lead compounds in toiletries used by Japanese nursing women were found to be the cause of the severe lead poisoning in infants. The symptoms suffered by these children included basophilic stippling of red blood cells, discoloration of teeth, Burtons lead line on gums. 10 Kohl is an eye makeup usually made from galena powder and a fatty matter to make a paste. It was found in Egypt in ancient graves, lower Indus Valley, and pre-Columbian North America. 5 In Egypt, it was used to provide protection against eye disease, due to leads antibacterial properties, and to make the eyes seem larger and brighter. It was this makeup that was used to create the renown Egyptian look, which can be seen in the image of Queen Nefertiti. 4 Ancient Egyptians wore this makeup from early childhood and were definitely exposed to the lead in kohl. Furthermore, the artist preparing the makeup ran a high risk of exposure due to the necessity to create galena powder. 5,12 Egypt is considered to be the origin of cosmetics. The trademark of Egyptian makeup is unarguably their heavy, dark eyeliner. Egyptians used kohl, a paste containing galena, as eyeliner. Leaded makeup was also used by the Romans, in the Middle East, in South Asia, and North America. Some culture continue to use leaded eye makeup today. 5,12 HAZARDS OF LEADED EYE MAKEUP Makeup Preparation: Preparation often includes powdered galena. Powder is easily inhaled and can travel directly into the bloodstream. Makeup Use: Absorption of lead is increased when put near the eyes. The eyes are very close to mucous membranes through which lead can be absorbed. Furthermore, ocular skin is very thin and absorbs lead more readily. Prolonged use of leaded eye makeup can lead to a serious problem. 11,13 Similarly to the Egyptians, kohl makeup was used by African and Middle Eastern cultures and is still used today. Different cultures have a variety of variations on the name of the black makeup, but the most common names for this makeup are kohl and surma. It is used to darken the eyelids, as mascara, and to darken the eyebrows. It is often used to accentuate other customs, such as traditional tattooing. Traditional use of kohl makeup can be observed in the image beneath. 2 It can be argued that the popularity of this dark makeup stems from the need to protect the eyes from the harsh sun. Before sunglasses were invented, dark makeup helped shield the eyes. Also, the use of black makeup was believed to have the ability to prevent the spreading of the Evil Eye. In order to protect their newborn and young children, women often painted them with black makeup. 2,13 BLUSH Ancient Greeks were the ones to start the use of red lead to create a blush. However, in the Middle Ages, bright blush became a sign of vulgarity and was only used widely by prostitutes. This lowered its popularity. However, the use of white cosmetics remained extremely popular. 6 HAZARDS OF LEADED CONCEALER AND BLUSH Lead can be absorbed into the body from leaded concealer and blush through the skin. Also, when applied to the face, lead is in proximity to mucous membranes and can easily be absorbed through them. Furthermore, leaded makeup can be inhaled and got absorbed into the body through the lungs. 11
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