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Practical Radio design

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Presentation on theme: "Practical Radio design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Practical Radio design
Practical Antennas PCB-layout for optimum performance UART-extentions: Pairing Radiocrafts modules with other equipment Radiocrafts

2 Practical Antennas Radiocrafts Quarterwave copper on FR-4 laminate
Quarterwave whip coated with plastic Helical Yagi: Increased directivity Radiocrafts

3 Practical Antennas The most easy way to reduce range is by thinking about antenna as “any piece of wire” EM-waves are travelling along the antenna conductor and we want to radiate as much as possible of the power (when we transmit) or receive as much as possible (when we receive) To achieve this, the wire should be as long as possible while maintaining resonance to the centre frequency. Radiation is prevented by; Nearby grounding, metal obstacles (like metal enclosures…). Shorted antennas always reduces range but sometimes is required due to available space Radiocrafts

4 Practical Antennas λ = c / f x 0.95
Feeding point It is important that the antenna has correct length which is a multiple of a quarter wave. When so, the impedance will be purely resistive in the feeding point, and we will get max power transfer from a resistive source (usually 50 ohm) Radiocrafts

5 Antenna “classes” Monopole: Usually λ/4 or 5/8λ. Electric field dominates Dipole: Usually λ/2 (can also be 5/8λ). El. field dominates Loop (magnetic field dominates). Not covered. Helical (combination of electric and magnetic) Antennas containing “elements” of the above 5/8 λ: Can be either monopole or dipole (Note: serial inductor is needed for impedance match). Yagi: Extra Directive antennas (lobe in one direction). Has one Dipole antenna element and directors + reflectors Radiocrafts

6 Monopole vs. dipole Monopole quarterwave Dipole halfwave Radiocrafts

7 Radiation patterns Gain: 0 dBi 5.15 dBi 5/8λ: 8.2 dBi
5-10 dBi (or more) Radiocrafts

8 Practical Antenna guidelines
Use quarter-wave stubs with sufficient ground plane extension Sufficient ground: Preferably the “longest length” the same as the antenna length Can be considered as a wire, either in the shape of a “whip” antenna or a PCB-trace. Length should be L=(c/f) / 4 x 0.95, i.e: 2.9 cm (2.4 GHz), 8.2cm (910MHz), 7.8cm (868MHz) or 16.4cm (434MHz). Coated whip antennas: Radiocrafts

9 Radiocrafts Range measurement setup
Antenna quarterwave, from RC1240DK, approximately 17cm Cu-side FR4 board size 24x24 cm or at least 15x15cm, antenna placed in center SMA-SMA adaptor in drilled hole in PCB Coax-cable with conducting SMA-connector fastened tightly to adaptor and connecting to Cu-plane Radiocrafts

10 Shortened antennas If not available space, shorter antennas can be used but an inductor (or more complex matching) must be added at the base to achieve better impedance match. Radiates less! Measure impedance! Dielectric antennas: Ceramic material where λ gets shorter. Maintains resonance (see datasheet for req. match) but radiates less. Available for all frequencies MHz (www.fractus.com, ) PCB-antennas: Can be made more area-efficient by folding the antenna, which also is good for receiving different polarizations. Width: 3mm is OK (the broader the width, the lower the resistive loss) Radiocrafts

11 PCB antenna example, 2 layer PCB, λ/4-monopole
Note; There is NO gnd in layer 2 under antenna-trace!! ”Free space” inside, both layers. Total length of antenna 16.4 cm Do NOT route antenna close to ground or metallic parts ”Large” groundplane Radiocrafts

12 Helical antenna at 433/868 MHz
Radiates in the direction normal to the axis Can be seen as monopole antenna shorted by coiling up the whip Resonance can be achieved for a much shorter construction Higher gain than with a non-helical structure of the same size Radiocrafts

13 Helical antenna at 433/868 MHz
Radiocrafts

14 PIFA-Planar Inverted F-antenna (2.4 GHz)
Feeding point, 50ohm line Ground, GND Radiocrafts

15 Practical Antennas cont.
Usually, FR-4 laminate is used; Thickness and material does not affect length (as the antenna is a wire, not a transmission line) If orientation varies (equipment is used both vertical and horizontal), make a 90 degrees bend at the middle If there is any length from RF pin of module, use 50ohm trace in PCB until antenna launches (connector or solder joint). Radiocrafts

16 Routing guidelines PCB Radiocrafts RC1xx0/RC2x00/RC220x
GND CTS RTS CONFIG TXD RXD GND RC1xx0/RC2x00/RC220x RF SMA ”50ohm trace”; Width is 1.8 x h for typical FR-4 material. See litterature for general calculations of characteristic impedance ALL vias to ground in entire design; As close to the pad as possible. One via per ground-pad (do not share with others as this tends to increase length of trace, increasing inductance/impedance to ground) Gnd-plane in inner- or bottom layer, as large as possible, as un-penetrated as possible. Remember NO ground under PCB-antennas!! RC-MODULE h=board thickness Via to ground Layer 1 RF routing PCB Antenna feeding point or coax launch to external antenna Radiocrafts

17 RF Basics The higher the frequency, the higher the loss in the air, the lower the range The higher the data rate, the lower the range (bandwidth is high=wider internal filter=receiver receives more natural electromagnetic noise, masking a weak signal) The higher the frequency, the more straight line the EM signal is following Reflections: All EM-signals are reflected, giving local field minimums or maximums. As frequency increases, these min/max occur more frequently Radiocrafts

18 UART extentions Radiocrafts

19 UART extentions II Radiocrafts

20 UART extentions III Radiocrafts


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