4 Industry Standards AEIC Association of Edison Illuminating Companies CIGRE Internat. Conf. for Large Scale Electric SystemsICEA Insulated Cable Engineers AssociationIEC International Electrotechnical CommissionIEEE Institute of Electric and Electronics EngineersUPSC TAC: Utility Power Cable Standards Technical Advisory CommitteeICEA Group seeking input from ICC (IEEE), AEIC and NEMA with ANSI Standard as final product.
5 Industry Standards - AEIC Cable Engineering Committee founded in 1938Members are UtilitiesParticipates in the UPS TAC ProcessFirst Solid Dielectric HV Standard issued 1987Present standard: AEIC Cable Standard (CS) 7 – 1993What is covered?Cable onlyAEIC CS7-93
6 Industry Standards - AEIC ProsCovers constructive detailVoid, contaminant and eccentricity specsComprehensive Routine Test protocolConsCable onlyObsolete insulation thicknessesMax Stress design inadequateLimited to 138kVDoes not cover available designs
7 Industry Standards - CIGRE / IEC CIGRE Study Committee 21 established in 1927Members from utilities, manufacturers and universities / institutes from 31 countriesInterfaces with IEC TC 20, which actually publishes international standardsHV solid dielectric cable specific: IEC 60840, IEC 62067Other relevant standards: IEC 229, 815, 949, 859, etc etc.
8 Industry Standards - IEC 60840-1999 ProsCovers voltages up to 150/161/170kV and has a big brotherIncludes accessories (Splices and terminations)Covers after installation tests and, by reference, jacket tests for specially bonded systemsSets performance criteria rather than design detailConsRoutine tests are marginal – eccentricity looseNo check for voids and contaminants other than AC withstand and PD testConfusing cross references to other standards
9 Industry Standards - IEC 62067-1999 Also see notes for IEC 60840ProsOnly standard for 230kV and higher – up to 500kV (Other than national standards such as EdF)Includes a system prequalification testEliminates after laying DC testEccentricity 10% maxConsIncludes a system prequalification test (see above)
10 Industry Standards - IEC IEC 229 – Tests on jacketsIEC 815 – pollution / creepage for outdoor insulatorsIEC 859 – GIS (and transformer) interfaceIEC 949 – Short circuitIEC 287 – Current ratings
11 Industry Standards - ICEA / UPCS TAC I(P)CEA established in 20’s.UPCSTAC 1994ICEA: Historically composed of manufacturersDraft Standard SDocument developed through UPCSTACWill replace AEIC CS7Status: Submitted to ICC for commentsWill be approved by NEMA, IEEE, AEIC and adopted as an ANSI standard
12 Industry Standards - ICEA S108-720-xxxx ProsFinally a North American Standard to up to 230kVInput from all groups concernedBest of both worlds approachConsWhat is covered?Cable only !!
13 Conductors Copper or Aluminum ASTM B8/231 or IEC 228? Compact – for small sizesReverse Concentric Compressed Class B – most commonSegmental – Milliken for large sizesHollow conductors / Keystone conductorsSpecial constructions – enamelled or oxide coated wiresWaterblocking or not?
14 Longitudinal Stress at the Cable & Stress Cone interface InsulationrRImportant criteria:Maximum StressSurface StressCapacitanceDielectric LossesLongitudinal Stress at the Cable & Stress Cone interface
16 Bedding Tapes Bedding and protection Centering of cable core Waterblocking through swelling agent (polyacrylate powder)Maintain electrical contact80 mils20 mils
17 Metallic Sheaths Carry capacitive and short circuit currents Radial moisture barrierLongitudinal moisture barrier in combination with swellable tapesMechanical protection of the cable coreWithstand stresses during pullingThermo-mechanical aspectsMiscellaneous
18 Metallic Sheaths Aluminum, extruded and corrugated Aluminum, welded and corrugatedCopper, welded and corrugatedLaminates, copper or aluminumLead, extrudedNew: Welded Aluminum Laminate (France)
21 Cable Jackets Standard: LLDPE or MDPE PVC – fire retardant but has halogensHalogen Free Fire Retardant (HFFR)Semi-conductive outer layer for jacket integrity test – extruded or graphite paintSpecially bonded system – jacket test
23 Extrusion ProcessesVertical Extrusion Line (VCV) High building or deep holeHorizontal Extrusion Line (MDCV) Long land die, lubricant, speed, large conductorsCatenary Extrusion Line (CCV) Catenary shape, small conductors