8The Dream: A Countywide System of AAC that: is usable by any nonverbal student countywide regardless of ability or ageis quick and easy for teachers to understand and implementcan be used no tech, low tech, or high techcan be simple or complexdoes not require extensive time to make materialsis customizable to meet individual needsis capable of growing as the student gains masterywill follow the student throughout his school careerwill supply language learning as well as communication.will supply data to prove student learning
9The Reality No guiding principal for AAC No unified system for supplying AAC devices and trainingNo plan for growth in AAC competence
10PECS BooksBig MacsCheap Talks…and1 $8,000 deviceNo idea of how to expand on success…Lots of nounsNo money to buy devices1 bathroom symbolNo time to trainNo carry over when kids change schools or grade levels1 verb (want)Lots of pictures of foodLots of pictures of art suppliesLots of pictures of colorsNo pronouns, articles, demonstratives or adverbs
11Beyond the Holy Trinity of AAC Eat………..Drink……..Bathroom…….
12Let’s give ‘em something to talk about….. Brown’s Stages:Vocabulary most often provided:Brown’s Stage 1 = MLU of 1.75Brown’s Stage 3 = MLU of 2.25Brown’s Stage 5 = MLU of 4.0
13Typical Language Developmental Milestones Age wordsBetween ages to 20 words including name (combine 2 words)Between ages 2 – words (combine noun and verb)Between 3-4 – 1000 words (sentence length 4-5 words)Between words ( ask who and why questions)
14and the Big Question is…. If a student has a language age of 4 and a vocabulary of 1,000 words,Will a book of nouns be enough?How about a cheap talk?A schedule board?
15What is Core Vocabulary? The term core vocabulary is used to describe words whichare used frequently and across contexts.Core words are those that are basic to the languageand are without the shadings of culture and context..Core vocabulary tends to be made up of verbs, demonstratives,and pronouns because these words are a small set ofwords that are unchanging in our language.We all use core vocabulary, all the time, every day, in every environment.80% of all that we say is made up of basic core words.Lists of core words are used when compiling textbooks, for teaching Englishas a second language and for facilitating international communication.* If you want to be understood by everyone in a room, use a core word!Baker, Bruce (2000)
16Core is made up of simple words that are easily understood I enjoy his extreme jocularity!I love his humor!Your words will mean war!That opinion will cause fisticuffs!He thinks with vision !He cerebrates with great perspicacity!
17Core is made up of neutral words unshaded by culture or context (Have General Meaning)Not - So - Core(Have Specific Meaning)GiveBigLittleEatHouseDonateHugeTinyDineHome
18.CoreHave General MeaningNot - So - CoreSpecific MeaningGiveDonateI give a car.I donate a car.I give a backrub.I donate a backrub?I give a party.I donate a party?I donate you my word?I give you my word!I will give it a good try….I will donate a good try?
19.Examples of Core WordsBenajee ListTop Words Used By ToddlersAAll done/finishedGoHelpHereIInIsItMineMoreMynoOffOnoutSomeThatThewantWhat yes/yeayou(Benajee, et al., 2003)
20Quote: Despite evidence that nouns are not among .Quote:Despite evidence that nouns are not amongcore vocabulary used by preschoolers…clinicians typically select nouns representingfoods and objects as first symbols when designingAAC systems.(Banajee, et. al., 2003)
22“Cat in the Hat” has roughly 53 Fringe words vs 237 Core. (Chip Clarke, MS CCC/SLP, Assistive Technology Works, Inc)
23What is Fringe Vocabulary? Fringe vocabulary is made up of context specific nouns and verbs that areneeded depending on context.Fringe vocabulary needs vary from person to person and from place to place.Permanent fringe is vocabulary that is an important part of a person’s life andwill be used often.Temporary fringe is vocabulary that is very situationally specific and infrequentlyused.Temporary Fringe(Hardly Ever Used)Permanent Fringe(Big Part of Life)Saturnplanetorbitsolar systematmospherefoodcaranimalpersonhouse(Chip Clarke, MS CCC/SLP, Assistive Technology Works, Inc)
24Let’s look at the word: zoo It could be a permanent fringe word if you are a veterinarian.It could be a temporary fringe word if you are a kid on a field trip.If you want to tell your mom where you went today, zoo is theword that carries the most meaning:I went to theZoo.
25Fringe Vocabulary Carries Meaning …. But you can’t have every word or the system gets too complex and difficult to navigate.How do you say “I went to the zoo”without using the word “zoo”?Hint: Core possibilities = I go see want big many more stopPermanent Fringe= animal, bus, schoolI go bus see many big animalI go bus see animal animal animal go bus.
26Its about efficiency…..School BusMaster Page (Environments, Topics & Categories)AirplaneCircle TimeGetting DressedActivitiesGrocery StoreDays of Week/ Months of YearWeatherWinter ClothesDressy / ChurchZooDr. OfficeMoviesHolidaysHospitalZoo AnimalsZoo FoodReptilesBirthdays(Baker, Bruce 2005)
27How much work do you want to do to get to the word zoo? Can you remember how to get to the word zoo next time?Each word counts for an AAC user and must have communicative clout.
28Single Page DesignA single page design is one in which all the words you are going to use areon the same page. In a single page design system, growth comes fromadding vocabulary to the same page instead of adding new pages.Why would you want a single page design?cognitively simpler.deemphasizes need for memory.faster.maximizes the use of motor patterns.
29Use of Motor PatternsA single page core vocabulary board allows students to use motor planninginstead of visual scanning to find the word they are looking for.
30Single Page Design More cells not more pages It’s a big Mac! It’s a Tech Talk!It’s a Dynavox!It’s a Cheap Talk!There’s room to grow!I gave a 4 year old student with autism and xxyy syndrome a 32 TechspeakWhat the Speech Therapist did::almost fainted
31.Dustin’s Boards single page design with room to growFringeCore
32Dustin’s Boards: adding vocabulary . Show choosing activities using colors… but they are really toys*** add vocabulary as soon as the student proves he can discriminateBetween the current concepts on the board
34Core Vocabulary on a Single Page using Motor Patterns? What is the Natural Consequence of:Core Vocabulary on a Single Page using Motor Patterns?You don’t have to think because….The words are ALWAYS where you left them
35Or you can do this….. Master Page (Environments, Topics & Categories) School BusMaster Page (Environments, Topics & Categories)AirplaneCircle TimeGetting DressedActivitiesGrocery StoreDays of Week/ Months of YearWeatherWinter ClothesDressy / ChurchZooDr. OfficeMoviesHolidaysHospitalZoo AnimalsZoo FoodReptilesBirthdays(Baker, Bruce 2005)
37Iconicity…life beyond Boardmaker…...Iconicity =How apparent is the relationship between a symbol and its meaning.In using core vocabulary boards, you rely less on the meaning of pictures andmore on the placement of the vocabulary. Instead of scanning for the correctpicture, you know from experience that the word you want is where it alwayswas…..
38Game Show:Are you smarter than a nonverbal student?
39Game Show:Are you smarter than a nonverbal student?
40IT For 1 million dollars!!!!! (or a cheap prize) Draw a universally understandable picture for the word:IT
41Just ask at 4 year old… My Turn Hand Hands Grapes Shape Shapes One That oneChip Clarke, MS CCC/SLP, Assistive Technology Works, Inc
42Core promotes understanding of multiple meanings. Is blue ALWAYS a color?Core promotes understandingof multiple meanings.I want a blue crayonI am feeling blueHe plays the blues.It came out of the blue!Or….It’s my turn.Turn the page.Turn on the light.Turn around.
43In pursuit of generative language Core vocabulary supplies a chance for generative language production andgets away from the idea of scripting. With a good vocabulary, studentscan say what they want to say on a variety of topics in a variety of settings.
44What can you say with the words you have? Context board with specific nounsI want pretzelIwant popcornI want drinkMore pretzelMore cookiesMore drinkfinished
45What can you say with the words you have? Core Vocabulary BoardMineWhat?Stop!FinishedHelpMorethatWant moreWhat that?Want what?Want help.Want finishMore helpMore thatWhat that?What mine?What want”Stop that!
46All language uses Requests only What can you say with the words you have?Core Vocabulary BoardContext board with specific nounsAll language usesRequests only
47Review of Concepts: Result: Generative language production. Core Crosses Contexts, is fast and cognitively simple.Core supports the development of motor patterns throughthe use of a single page design.Choosing by position de-empasizes the need to “scan and read” picture meaningsthat may be obtuse.4. Core supports language learning by supplying all parts of speech in a simple structureResult: Generative language production.
48The Things We Use: Word Lists: Gail Van Tatenhove hybrid list: Lists of Beajee, et al.were compared to user language samples and other lists to create a hybrid list.
58Kelley – Student with Significant Disabilities and Cortical Blindness Will be learning auditory scanning.Core Vocabulary: Go: Stop
59What I learned from Kristen’s teacher: I wanted Core: she wanted Academics.
60Kristen: The NEW MORE CORE Board Making Compromises.
61.Kristen: Nonverbal TMR who has used sign until nowMidtech solution with core vocabularyAcademicsNotice:Poor attentionPoor understanding of picture meaningsPoor inclusion
62.Kristen: Nonverbal TMR who has used sign until nowNotice:Increasing AttentionEasy understanding of concept placementGood inclusionGreater amount of conversationMuch vocab on 1 page.(I-names- happy-tired-play-eat-more)Making it fun with Core and Friends
81What the students wrote: Yesterday I ate Funyons.You go shopping.We paid money.Yesterday we ate SkittlesThey counted with money.I tasted crunchy Cheese-ItsYesterday we bought food.I eat chips.They go shopping.We counted money.
86.Even more basic than the freedom of speech is the freedom to speak……Stephen Hawking
87Many thanks toChip Clark, Gail Vantatenhove, John Holloran, Adrianne Thomas, Birgit Shipman………………………………….and all the students of Spotsylvania County.
88. Resources: The Ace Center Communication Book – Vocabulary Lists – Van TatenhoveBarb Cannon’s TTAC Webshop with materials and a research paper on core vocabulary?selWebshop=bcannon pm&selAuthor=bcannonJen Mitchell’s TTAC materials for supporting ASOL goals using Core vocabulary:contact Jenn Assistive TechnologistUnderstanding and using Core Vocabulary with devices Chip Clarkcontact Chip - or by phone: (703)
89Handouts for this session are available at: .Handouts for this session are available at:
90Research.Baker, B., Hill, K. & Devylder, R. (2000). Core Vocabulary is the same across environments.Balandin, Susan, & Iacono, T. The topics of meal break conversations. Augmentative and Alternative Communication.Benajee, M., Dicarlo, C. & Stricklin, B. (2003). Core Vocabulary Determination for Toddlers. Augmentative andAlternative Communication, 19,Beukelman, D.(1991). Magic and Cost of Communicative Competence. Augmentative and AlternativeCommunication, 7, ppBeukelman, D., Jones, R. & Rowan, M. (1989). Frequency of Word Usage by Nondisabled Peers in IntegratedPreschool Classrooms. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5,Boose, M. & Stinnett, T. (1999). Indirect Language Stimulation (ILS): AAC Techniques To PromoteCommunication Competence. Paper presented at the Annual Southeast Augmentative Communication Conference.Cannon, Barbara, A Few Good Words (2005) A Few Good Words: Why Core Vocabulary is Needed to Enhance Communication in Non-verbal Students,Clarke, Chip, MS CCC/SLP, (2006) Getting to the Core of It AAC conference, Blacksburg VACross, R., Baker, B., Klotz, L., & Badman, A. Static and dynamic keyboards: Semantic Compaction inworlds. Retrieved June, 2006 from.Goossens', C. (1989). Aided Communication Intervention Before Assessment: A Case Study of a Child withCerebral Palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5 (1), 14-26
91.ResearchStubbs, M. (1986). Language Development, Lexical Competence and Nuclear Vocabulary. Kevin Durkin, ed (1986Language Development in the School Years. Croom HelmVan Tatenhove, Gail (2006). Stop the Madness and Start Communicating. Workshop, Spotsylvania VA.Yorkston, K., Honsinger, M., Dowden, P. & Marriner, N. (1989). Vocabulary selection: A Case Report.Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5, ppYorkston, K., Dowden, P., Honsinger, M., Marriner, N. & Smith, K. (1988). A comparison of standard and uservocabulary lists. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 4,