Presentation on theme: "Parent Education Preschool Based Learning Package"— Presentation transcript:
1Parent Education Preschool Based Learning Package Meridian International CenterPenMediaSponsored by the U.S. Department of State
2IntroductionThe preschool is an exciting learning environment for children.The preschool can also be a welcoming learning environment for parents.By opening the doors of the preschool to parents you open up opportunities to:Build better partnerships with parents – open dialogueIncrease cooperation and coordination with parents on issues relevant to their children – continuity between the home and preschoolEnhance parent’s knowledge and skills on how to interact, support, and educate their own children – parent confidence buildingProvide parents information and resources on early childhood development that they may not have known existed – access to informationSupport the overall well being of their children and enhance family – child relationshipsImprove the child’s academic, physical, social, and emotional and cognitive development – child’s potential is supported
3What you can doThe preschool teacher can be an excellent source for providing parents with:InformationSkillsModeling positive practicesResourcesCoordination opportunities between the home and school and other community services
4Organizing Your WorkIf you are interested in setting up parent education classes at your preschool, consider the following:Do you have the time to work with parents 1-2 hours every week or every two weeks?Can you commit your time (for these sessions and in preparation for the sessions)?Will this be an individual based effort or will all teachers be involved in the program?Is there adequate and appropriate space within the preschool to hold the sessions or do you need another location?What additional resources can you provide for parents –educational materials, print outs, contact lists for specialists or fun places to take children, etc.?
5Getting StartedIt is best to announce the availability of parent education sessions when parents start to register children for preschool. You can also encourage parents of young children or who do not have children registered in the preschool to attend.Inform parents that the preschool will be offering parent education programs throughout the year.Have an agenda ready of the times and places where the sessions will be held.Limit the number of participants to parents to allow for sufficient time to discuss and carry out activities.If session is held after preschool hours, you should note where the children will be kept:Will children be sent home like they do on regular school daysWill after school care arrangements be made availableWill the parent education classes take place on non-school days (for instance on a Saturday or Sunday)Will the sessions take place during preschool hours
6Preparing for the Parent Education Program Based on available information identify key topics, issues, and themes you think are important for parents to know if they are to be effective in supporting their child’s development. Make a list of these topics. Share these ideas with your colleagues. Conduct home visits to verify the importance of these topics and issues. Begin to compile information and resources to support your selected ideas.Suggested topics and themes are listed below. For instance:Parent DevelopmentFamily DevelopmentImportance of the early yearsParent-Child RelationshipsEarly Childhood Development and MilestonesDevelopmental Screening – Early IdentificationHealthy lifestyles and practicesSupporting children’s holistic developmentLanguage and literacyEmotional developmentSocial DevelopmentPhysical DevelopmentAcademic Development
7Parent selection of priorities It is important that parents are given a chance to identify what their priorities are, too!Allow parents to select topics that they are interested in. In many cases, parents will identify topics or issues that you are not familiar with. Remember that you do not need to present all the topics and/or sessions. If there are topics you feel could be better addressed by someone else, then you should invite others to the group to present information and discuss with parents. Remember to inform parents in advance that in some cases, expert advice and specialists will be asked to join in and provide information. For instance,PediatricianDevelopmental SpecialistSpecialist working with children with special needsPsychologistCounselorParents with special skills and knowledgeAlways remember that YOU do not have to reply to all questions. If there is something you do not know or are uncertain about – seek out the information or ask a specialist to come in.
8Your educational program Develop a table of topics, objectives, content, and activitiesTopicObjectiveContentActivitiesParent develop- mentParents have better understanding of their different roles and responsibilitiesDifferent types of parent roles – caregiver, nurturer, educator, stimulatorValues and philosophy of parentsDiscussion on their daily activities with childDevelop list of 3 different activities they will do at home to fulfill their rolesList 5 key values and philosophy of life that they apply with their childDiscuss values in group and identify 3 key values and activities to support the values in practice
9Balance your Session Use Different Approaches During The Session Introduce the topic ( 2-3 minutes)Provide some general information on the topic (10-15 minutes) – powerpoint, handouts, flip chartParent question and discussions (10-15 minutes)Provide more detailed information (20 minutes) – powerpoint, handout, flipchart, picturesGroup activities (20 minutes) – hands on activities, group work, bringing in materials and experiences from home environment, using the preschool classroom and materials, etc.Wrap up, Summary, Reminder on Next Session (10 minutes) Flipchart, board, etc.
10Ideas to Use in Your Parent Education Program On the next pages you will find some suggestions, topics, information, resources and activities that you can use during your sessions.You should select the topics and materials that are most relevant to early childhood development and well being and will be of benefit for the parents.You do not have to use only these materials or all of them. This is just a sample and you can build your own program as you see fit.
11First Day - Environment Make sure you have arranged the environment in a suitable manner.Choose a site that is easy to access and is well recognized and accepted by parentsQuiet, clean and organized areaEnough tables and chairs for allA place to put coats, bags, etc.A sign indicating where the toilets areName tags for the participants - simple paper tags will suffice or name tags on ribbons, etc.Flip chart, board, computer, projector – if availablePaper and pencilsSign with instructions – shut off cellular phone, stay till the end of session, etc.Small area to make tea or coffee (if available)
12First Day - Introductions Introduce who you are, where you work, a little piece of personal information (I love reading, drawing, etc.) and why you think this program is so important. Write your name clearly on the board with contact information.Ask the others to introduce themselves ….my name is ________. I have __ child in the preschool.Small exercise to get them to know one another.Break the mothers up into pairs. (preferably they should not know one another)Give them 5 minutes to talk with one another. They have to learn three things/facts about the other person.Return to the group. Each person introduces his/her partner and tells the group three things he/she learned about this person.
13Parents – Roles, Practices, and Values Parents are usually the first and primary caregivers of their child. This is a role that is learned and is not instinctive. One gains experience and knowledge in how to interact, manage and care for their child through practice and learning.Parents play many roles. In addition to being mothers and fathers they are also husband and wife, sisters and brothers, they are employees, they interact and have roles with the extended family, neighborhood, and community. However, being a parent is a full time position where you become responsible for the care, safety, well being, development, socialization, and education of a dependent child. This is a very demanding responsibility. The joy, love, and reward of having a happy, healthy and loving child is something that cannot be replaced.What is your parenting style:Caring, warm, loving, acceptingDirective, authoritarian, demanding, strictAnxious, confused, inconsistentAggressive, dictatorial, punishingWhich of the above are most effective?Caring, warm, loving and accepting – children learn that they are loved, that they are accepted, discipline is through understanding what is expected of them, the child is praised, respected, and encouraged, and disciplined gently. Parents support their child’s social and emotional development and accepts and respects the child’s feelings. There is respect for the child and respect from the child to the parent.
14Roles of ParentsProvide child with a safe and healthy environment.This requires protecting children from environmental hazards – cold, hot, electricity, fire, smoke, dampness, hazardous chemical, stairs, high places, unprotected open spaces, etc.Take precautions to check each room in the house to make sure there are no places where a child could actually touch or move an object that could be hazardous to them – lights, heaters, chemicals, knives, glass objects, etc.Examine each room from the perspective of a young, curious child who wants to explore everything. Look at ground level if there are any hazards to the child – opening a door to a closet, to go out doors, to go towards stairs, etc.Ensure child’s safety while out of doors – safe play areas, walking on side walk or cross walk, wearing seat belt, not going with strangers.This requires protecting children from abuse, harm, exploitation or neglect from individuals within and outside of the home.Most children are hurt by those closest to them. This is because these are the people most likely to be around them.Parents take responsibility for ensuring that any and all persons interacting with the child do not hurt or abuse the child.Always check up on the child, ask the child if they feel happy and safe going with someone. If a child shows any hesitancy or suggests that she/he has been hurt (physically and/or psychologically and/or emotionally), then the parents should take immediate steps to prevent these persons from coming into contact with the child. (In cases of abuse, the parent should inform the police.)
15Roles of ParentsEnsure the basic needs of the child are met.Young children require nutritious and healthy foods – breast milk is best for babies, children should be fed diets that are suitable for their age and this should be determined in consultation with your primary health care provider. (we will address these needs in more detail later on.)A home/shelter where they have their own bed, space, and play area that is warm, clean, and maintained in good condition.Clean clothing and sanitary facilities and care.Parents should also demonstrate and practice safe and healthy practices around children – no smoking, keeping things clean, helping to pick up things, not playing or touching dangerous items, crossing the roads safely, practicing road safety measures – wearing seat belts, entering the car from the right side, children sitting in back seat, not using cellular phone when driving, etc.
16Roles of Parents Support the child’s self confidence and self esteem Each child grows and matures at their own rate.Each child has certain likes, dislikes, abilities, and capacities that are unique to him/herChildren learn best and feel better when they are rewarded for their good acts and supported in doing better in the future.As children grow, our expectations change and we should seek to encourage children to meet their potential, however our expectations should be realistic and age/maturation appropriate.Use language that is respectful (hurtful, negative words should not be used by parents or children)Encourage children to share their ideas, feelings, opinions, and events with you.Parents should also interact with children and share their feelings and thought with them (age appropriate and correct)Remember that every child is different. This is what makes every person special.Demonstrate and teach morals and values that enhance their relationship with othersHonesty CreativityRespect InquisitivenessResponsibility HardworkingCompassion SpiritualPatience LeadershipForgiveness PassionateGenerosity Fun loving
17Roles of Parents . Support the child’s social-emotional development. Being available to meet the child’s needs, to comfort, to provide a sense of safety and closeness.Being sensitive to the child’s emotional state and helping child to cope.Spending time with the child – playing, reading, talking, eating together, and enjoying the time together.Asking child questions about him/herself and the events happening around themHelping child to meet other children.Teaching child social skills – taking turns, cooperating, asking for things, etc.Encourage the child’s ability to learn.Exposing child to rich, varied and diverse environments and stimuli.Ensure child has books, games, and toys to play with.Reading to children.Talking with children.Playing with children.Helping children to solve problems.
18Importance of Parent – Child Relationships Parents have the responsibility of helping their children to develop and meet their potential. This process requires direct contact and interaction between the parents and child. Time spent together that is filled with rich learning experiences, communication, and exchange of ideas, thoughts and opinions are most rewarding for children. Hence parents should aim to:Spend quality time with children – one on one time spent talking, playing, storytelling, taking walks together, learning together, etc.Set up routines in the child’s life that are healthy and consistentSupport the child in becoming more responsible for his/her actionsSupport the child in initiating behaviors and rewarding them/encouraging them accordinglyIntroduce child to new situations, new people, and new activities that are safe and non-threatening to support expansion of their social circles
19Parent – Child Relationships Children’s natural curiosity and enthusiasm to explore should be supported by parents. This requires parents supporting the child by:Standing nearby them as they explore new things (this allows the child to feel safe)Being sensitive and supportive of children who may be more fearful and hesitant to explore and establish relationships with othersAllowing the child to take the lead in deciding what they want to doParent-child relationships provide the child an opportunity to learn more about the world because the parent offers them a safe, protected, stimulating environment where they are exposed to new things, new people, and new places and they can be the decision makers.
20Parent – Child Relationships Parents should be observant.Watch what your child is doing. Comment and encourage them as they learn new skills and acquire new informationGuide them if their behavior is harmful, disrespectful, or inappropriate to others or themselves.Share emotions. Help your child to understand his/her emotions – happy, angry, excited, frustrated, sad, eager, hurt, and fearful. All feelings are valid.Help the child to identify, understand and express their feelings in appropriate ways. This also requires the parents demonstrating or sharing their own emotions in acceptable ways. For instance, it is okay for a child to be afraid or fearful. Help the child to understand their fear. Help them to address their fear – slowly exposing them to the fearful event in a non-threatening way, for instance.
21Socio-Emotional Development Parents play an important role in helping children to learn how to interact with others.This is best done if parents demonstrate these behaviors in a consistent manner to their children. This includes:Showing respect – listening to others, respect for others ideas, belongings, needs, and understanding that everyone has a right to share the environment around them in an equal and fair manner.Showing empathy – understanding how the other person feels. This is something that children learn gradually. But parents can help children by asking them questions – how do you feel, how do you think I feel, how do you think it feels if you hit someone, etc.These behaviors are best acquired if the parent:Models these behaviors in front of the child – asks the child what he/she would like to do, asks about their feelings, asks them what they did today, how certain events or actions or interactions made them feelObserve their child’s behavior and guide them when they are facing difficulties and encourage them to keep on trying. Making mistakes is okay. Many times children learn best by making mistakes and learning from themUsing the home environment as a safe place to help children learn how to interact with othersUse routines in the house – how to share space, how to share games, how to interact politely with others, how to request things, how to take turns, using polite languagePracticing certain behaviors that the child is having difficulty with – controlling temper, for instance.If child wants everything his/her way, then set up situations to help them learn to manage their behavior.This can be done, by finding ways to calm the child down before the tantrum starts- explain to child why he/she cannot have something, providing a time line of when or if they can have this particular item or do something.Explain the consequences of their behavior – you will ignore it or child has to go to their room.Changing the environment to make it more suitable for the child – eliminating situations or conditions that may aggravate the child.
22ActivitiesHave parents come up with a list of ten quality time activities they can do with their children at home:Read stories together, go for walks, cook together, play with blocks, games, explore nature, visits to friends, etc.Have parents identify common fears that their children may have and discuss how they reduced or eliminated child’s fear:Not ridiculing or belittling child’s fearsDemonstrating safe ways to address the fear (petting a cat, exploring the room in the dark, visiting the preschool before school starts)Helping child to gradually approach his/her fears while parent is supporting them.Develop home routine chart (for example)Wake upEat breakfastWash face and teethGet dressedPick up roomHelp make lunchWatch TV – ½ hourParent –child quality time
23Family Development and Relationships Families are important because they represent the larger social circle that directly interacts with the child. The family usually spends regular time together (meals, sharing space, different roles for different family members). Children learn how to interact within the family sphere. How to respect elders, help younger siblings, help parents with chores around the house, and spend time playing and doing fun activities together. The family can provide a good setting to help children to learn social skills, how to understand, interact, and respect others while respecting one self and their own needs and rights. The family provides a social environment whereby the child learns the proper way to interact with others. Encouraging positive behaviors and practices in the home environment enables children to generalize these behaviors to other settings. Listening to others, speaking with others, sharing space, property, time, and communicating with others on what we need, want and desire in a socially appropriate manner. Children within the family learn that they must share things – television, toys, furniture. Children learn that others have needs and desires like them – want to play at the same time or watch tv or go on a trip So they child learns that they have to communicate their needs and manage resources (including Mom and Dad or other caregivers) who may also need to spend time with other siblings or adults.
25Early Childhood Development Research Findings Pregnant mothers and young children do best when they have consistent, quality health services available and routinely visit health clinicsNew parents do best when they receive guidance and education on how to care for, nurture, and educate their childChildren enrolled in early education programs show enhanced cognitive and social development compared with children who do not attend these programs.Stress (especially excessive, traumatic stress) can have long lasting negative impacts on the child’s cognitive, behavioral, social and emotional development. Early interventions and programs can reduce the impact of stress on the child’s overall developmentChildren who are provided with health services, had their basic needs met, and participated in proactive early education intervention programs are more likely to succeed at school, continue in their education, reduce the risk of being involved in social problems (drug use, in conflict with the law) and are more likely to become productive, working members of society.
26What Parents Can Do Care Protect Nurture Love Educate Parent development and parent-child relationships are the key tools that will enable children to develop into healthy, happy and productive children and adults.Ensuring a child receives regular health screening and consultations will allow for an assessment of the the child’s physical and mental well being and development.
27Milestones – the behaviors that children can do by a certain age Each child develops at his/her own rateHowever, child development is a systemic process that influences the child’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development.This process is:Universal (all children go through similar processes of development)Has predictable patterns (sequence is pre-determined)Influenced by genetic and environmental factors
28Parents roles in Monitoring Milestones Parents should observe, play and interact with their child on a consistent basis.Through such interactions, parents can observe their child’s development and note changes in their behaviors and actions.The following pages will provide information on what MILESTONES are expected at different ages.(These materials are from the Center for Disease Control:
29Your Baby At 2 Months What most babies do at this age: Social and EmotionalBegins to smile at peopleCan briefly calm himself (may bring hands to mouth and suck on hand)Tries to look at parentLanguage/CommunicationCoos, makes gurgling soundsTurns head toward soundsCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Pays attention to facesBegins to follow things with eyes and recognize people at a distanceBegins to act bored (cries, fussy) if activity doesn’t changeMovement/Physical DevelopmentCan hold head up and begins to push up when lying on tummyMakes smoother movements with arms and legsAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t respond to loud soundsDoesn’t watch things as they moveDoesn’t smile at peopleDoesn’t bring hands to mouthCan’t hold head up when pushing up when on tummy
30How you can help your baby’s development Cuddle, talk and play with your baby during feeding, dressing, and bathingHelp your child learn to calm herself. It’s okay for her to suck on her fingersBegin to help your baby get into a routine, such as sleeping at night more than in the day, have regular schedulesAct excited and smile when your baby makes soundsCopy your baby’s sounds sometimes, but also use clear languagePay attention to your baby’s different cries so that you learn to know what he wantsTalk, read and sing to your babyPlay peek a boo and help your baby play peek a booPlace a baby safe mirror in your baby’s crib so he/she can look at themselves.Look at pictures with your baby and talk about themLay your baby on his tummy and place toys in front to themEncourage baby to lift head by holding toys at eye level in front of themHold a toy or rattle above their head and encourage them to reach for itHold your baby upright with feet on ground and sing or talk to them while in this position
31Your baby at 4 monthsWhat most babies do at this age:Social and EmotionalSmiles spontaneously, especially at peopleLikes to play with people and might cry when playing stopsCopies some movements and facial expressions, like smiling or frowningLanguage/CommunicationBegins to babbleBabbles with expression and copies sounds he hearsCries in different ways to show hunger, pain, or being tired Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Lets you know if she is happy or sadResponds to affectionReaches for toy with one handUses hands and eyes together, such as seeing a toy and reaching for itFollows moving things with eyes from side to sideWatches faces closelyRecognizes familiar people and things at a distanceMovement/Physical DevelopmentHolds head steady, unsupportedPushes down on legs when feet are on a hard surfaceMay be able to roll over from tummy to backCan hold a toy and shake it and swing at dangling toysBrings hands to mouthWhen lying on stomach, pushes up to elbowsAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t watch things as they moveDoesn’t smile at peopleCan’t hold head steadyDoesn’t coo or make soundsDoesn’t bring things to mouthDoesn’t push down with legs when feet are placed on a hard surfaceHas trouble moving one or both eyes in all directions
32How you can help your baby’s development Hold and talk to your baby, smile and be cheerfulSet steady routines for sleeping and feedingPay close attention to what your baby likes and does like so you can meet their needs and make them happyCopy your baby’s sounds and act excited and smile when your baby makes soundsHave quiet play times when you read and sing to your babyGive age appropriate toys to play with - rattles, colorful pictures, big toysPlay games like peek a booProvide safe opportunities for your baby to reach for toys and explore the environmentPut toys near your baby so they can reach/kick themPut toys in your baby’s hand and help him to hold themHold your baby uprights with feet on floor and sing and talk to them in this position
33Your Baby at 6 Months Movement/Physical Development What most babies do at this age:Social and EmotionalKnows familiar faces and begins to know if someone is a strangerLikes to play with others, especially parentsResponds to other people’s emotions and often seems happyLikes to look at self in a mirrorLanguage/CommunicationResponds to sounds by making soundsStrings vowels together when babbling (“ah,” “eh,” “oh”) and likes taking turns with parent while making soundsResponds to own nameMakes sounds to show joy and displeasureBegins to say consonant sounds (jabbering with “m,” “b”)Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Looks around at things nearbyBrings things to mouthShows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of reachBegins to pass things from one hand to the otherMovement/Physical DevelopmentRolls over in both directions (front to back, back to front)Begins to sit without supportWhen standing, supports weight on legs and might bounceRocks back and forth, sometimes crawling backward before moving forwardAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t try to get things that are in reachShows no affection for caregiversDoesn’t respond to sounds around himHas difficulty getting things to mouthDoesn’t make vowel sounds (“ah”, “eh”, “oh”)Doesn’t roll over in either directionDoesn’t laugh or make squealing soundsSeems very stiff, with tight musclesSeems very floppy, like a rag doll
34How you can help your baby’s development Play on the floor with your baby every dayLearn to read your baby’s moods – if happy repeat activities, if upset take a break and comfort your babyShow your baby how to comfort herself when upset – she may suck on fingersUse reciprocal play – smile when she smiles, copy their behaviorsRepeat your child’s sounds and say simple words with those sounds - bo – bottle, ta- tableRead colorful picture books to your child every day. Praise them when she babbles and “reads” tooWhen she drops a toy on the floor, pick it up and give it back…repeat. This teaches them cause and effectPoint out things to your baby and name themHold your baby up while she sits or support her with pillows, let her look around and give her toys to look at while she balancesPut your baby on his tummy or back and place toys slightly out of his reach and encourage him to roll over to reach toys
35Your baby at 9 months What most babies do at this age: Social and EmotionalMay be afraid of strangersMay be clingy with familiar adultsHas favorite toysLanguage/CommunicationUnderstands “no” Makes a lot of different sounds like “mama” and “babaa”Copies sounds and gestures of othersUses fingers to point at thingsCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Watches the path of something as it fallsLooks for things he sees you hidePlays peek-a-booPuts things in her mouthMoves things smoothly from one hand to the otherPicks up things like cereal o’s between thumb and index fingerMovement/Physical DevelopmentStands, holding onCan get into sitting positionSits without supportPulls to standCrawlsAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t bear weight on legs with supportDoesn’t sit with helpDoesn’t babble (“mama”, “baba”, “dada”)Doesn’t play any games involving back-and-forth playDoesn’t respond to own nameDoesn’t seem to recognize familiar peopleDoesn’t look where you point
36How you can help your baby’s development Pay attention to the way he reacts to new situations and people, do things that make your baby happy and comfortableStay close to your baby when they move aroundContinue with routinesPlay games like my turn…your turnSay what you think your baby is feeling…”you are hungry, you are tired, you are sad…let’s make it better, etc.”Describe what your baby is looking at – “big, red apple,” “your brother Ahmed”Talk about what your baby wants – “you want your toy”Copy your baby’s sounds and wordsAsk for behaviors that you want – “let’s sit here,” “let’s eat our food”Teach cause and effect by rolling balls back and forth, pushing toys cars, putting blocks in carton and taking outPlay peek a boo and hide and seekRead and talk to your babyGive them room to move in safe areasPlace your baby near things she can pull her self safely up on
37Your baby at 1 year What most children do at this age: Social and EmotionalIs shy or nervous with strangersCries when mom or dad leavesHas favorite things and peopleShows fear in some situationsHands you a book when he wants to hear a storyRepeats sounds or actions to get attentionPuts out arm or leg to help with dressingPlays games such as “peek-a-boo” and “pat-a-cake”Language/CommunicationResponds to simple spoken requestsUses simple gestures, like shaking head “no” or waving “bye-bye”Makes sounds with changes in tone (sounds more like speech)Says “mama” and “dada” and exclamations like “uh-oh!”Tries to say words you sayCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Explores things in different ways, like shaking, banging, throwingFinds hidden things easilyLooks at the right picture or thing when it’s namedCopies gesturesStarts to use things correctly; for example, drinks from a cup, brushes hairBangs two things togetherPuts things in a container, takes things out of a containerLets things go without helpPokes with index (pointer) fingerFollows simple directions like “pick up the toy”Movement/Physical DevelopmentGets to a sitting position without helpPulls up to stand, walks holding on to furniture (“cruising”)May take a few steps without holding onMay stand aloneAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t crawlCan’t stand when supportedDoesn’t search for things that she sees you hideDoesn’t say single words like “mama” or “dada”Doesn’t learn gestures like waving or shaking headDoesn’t point to things
38How you can help your baby’s development Give your child time to get to know a new caregiver. Bring a favorite toy, stuffed animal to comfort your childIn response to unwanted behavior, firmly say “NO”. Do not yell, spank or give long explanations. A time out of 30 seconds to 1 minute might help redirect your baby.Give your child lots of hugs, kisses and praise for good behaviorEncourage good behaviors (focus on rewarding good behaviors) and redirecting unwanted behaviorsTalk to your child about what you are doing…”mommy is washing her hands, daddy is picking up the dishes”Read with your child every day, help them to turn pages and label things they see in the book, magazine, etc.Build on what your child says …if they make a “t” sound say “t” “Truck”Give your child crayons and paper and let them draw freely –Show them how to make lines and circlesPlay with blocks, shape sorters, and other toys to encourage use of handsHid small toys and see if they can find themAsk your child to identify and label body parts – eyes, nose, hair, mouth, hand, etc.Sing songs with actions…Itsy bitsy spider, wheels on the busGive your child pots and pans and things to make “music” with – banging, etc.Provide lots of safe spaces for your child to play – safe proof your rooms and remove any objects that could harm the childGive your child toys that they can push and move around.
39Your baby at 18 months What most babies do at this age: Social and EmotionalLikes to hand things to others as playMay have temper tantrumsMay be afraid of strangers Shows affection to familiar peoplePlays simple pretend, such as feeding a dollMay cling to caregivers in new situationsPoints to show others something interestingExplores alone but with parent close byLanguage/CommunicationSays several single wordsSays and shakes head “no”Points to show someone what he wantsCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Knows what ordinary things are for; for example, telephone, brush, spoonPoints to get the attention of othersShows interest in a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feedPoints to one body partScribbles on his ownCan follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures; for example, sits when you say “sit down”Movement/Physical DevelopmentWalks aloneMay walk up steps and runPulls toys while walkingCan help undress herselfDrinks from a cupEats with a spoonAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t point to show things to othersCan’t walkDoesn’t know what familiar things are forDoesn’t copy othersDoesn’t gain new wordsDoesn’t have at least 6 wordsDoesn’t notice or mind when a caregiver leaves or returnsLoses skills he once had
40How you can help your baby’s development Have routines, be consistent with your babyPraise good behaviors more than you punish (time out) bad behaviorsDescribe your child’s emotions to them…you are happy, you are sad, you are upset, etc.Encourage pretend play – imitating animals, other people, etc. and provide them with dolls, play phones, etc.Encourage child to feel/empathize with others…”give Susu a hug she is sad…”Copy your child’s wordsUse lots of different words to describe things, emotions, feelingsUse clear and simple phrasesAsk simple questionsHide things from child and ask them to look for themPlay with blocks, balls, puzzles, books, toys that teach cause and effect and problem solving and give them clean, free, safe areas to play inName pictures in books, parts of the house, body parts, etc.Encourage him to drink from his cup, his spoon, on their own –even if they make a messBlow bubbles and let them pop them
41Your baby at 2 years Might use one hand more than the other What most babies do at this age:Social and EmotionalCopies others, especially adults and older childrenGets excited when with other childrenShows more and more independenceShows defiant behavior (doing what he has been told not to)Plays mainly beside other children, but is beginning to include other children, such as in chase gamesLanguage/CommunicationPoints to things or pictures when they are namedKnows names of familiar people and body partsSays sentences with 2 to 4 wordsFollows simple instructionsRepeats words overheard in conversationPoints to things in a bookCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Finds things even when hidden under two or three coversBegins to sort shapes and colorsCompletes sentences and rhymes in familiar booksPlays simple make-believe gamesBuilds towers of 4 or more blocksMight use one hand more than the otherFollows two-step instructions such as “Pick up your shoes and put them in the closet.”Names items in a picture book such as a cat, bird, or dogMovement/Physical DevelopmentStands on tiptoeKicks a ballBegins to runClimbs onto and down from furniture without helpWalks up and down stairs holding onThrows ball overhandMakes or copies straight lines and circlesAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t use 2-word phrases (for example, “drink milk”)Doesn’t know what to do with common things, like a brush, phone, fork, spoonDoesn’t copy actions and wordsDoesn’t follow simple instructionsDoesn’t walk steadilyLoses skills she once had
42How you can help your baby’s development Hide your child’s toys around the room and let them find themHelp your child do puzzles, learn shapes, colors, farm animals, and names of thingsEncourage child to play with blocks and build and knock them down and rebuildDo art work with child using crayons and paper, clay. Display your child’s art workAsk your child to help you do things – open doors, pick up things around the house, turn pages of booksWhen your child walks well, let them carry small, light objectsKick a ball back and forthTake your child outdoors and let him/her run around in open areas
43Your child at 3 years Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces What most babies do at this age:Social and EmotionalCopies adults and friendsShows affection for friends without promptingTakes turns in gamesShows concern for crying friendUnderstands the idea of “mine” and “his” or “hers”Shows a wide range of emotionsSeparates easily from mom and dadMay get upset with major changes in routineDresses and undresses self Language/CommunicationFollows instructions with 2 or 3 stepsCan name most familiar thingsUnderstands words like “in,” “on,” and “under”Says first name, age, and sexNames a friendSays words like “I,” “me,” “we,” and “you” and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats)Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the timeCarries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentencesCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving partsPlays make-believe with dolls, animals, and peopleDoes puzzles with 3 or 4 piecesUnderstands what “two” meansCopies a circle with pencil or crayonTurns book pages one at a timeBuilds towers of more than 6 blocksScrews and unscrews jar lids or turns door handleMovement/Physical DevelopmentClimbs wellRuns easilyPedals a tricycle (3-wheel bike)Walks up and down stairs, one foot on each stepAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Falls down a lot or has trouble with stairsDrools or has very unclear speechCan’t work simple toys (such as peg boards, simple puzzles, turning handle)Doesn’t speak in sentencesDoesn’t understand simple instructionsDoesn’t play pretend or make-believeDoesn’t want to play with other children or with toysDoesn’t make eye contactLoses skills he once had
44How you can help your baby’s development Go to play groups with your child or other places where there are children to play withHelp your child solve a problem when they are upsetTalk about your child’s emotions. “How did you feel when he took your toy?” Help child to identify his/her emotionsSet rules and limits for your child. If he/she breaks the rules/limits then give them time out for 30 seconds to 1 minute (sit in chair). Praise and encourage good behavior.Give your child instructions with 2-3 steps. “Go to the kitchen and bring your plastic spoon or “Go to Selwa’s room and tell her to come to the living room”Read to your child everyday, have them point to pictures and words, and repeat wordsMake an activity box for your child with paper, crayons, coloring books, shapes, etc. that they can use when they wantCount things with your child – stairs, chairs, eyes, steps, etc.Help your child to walk up and down stairsPlay outside with your child
45Your child at 4 years What most babies do at this age: Social and EmotionalEnjoys doing new thingsPlays “Mom” and “Dad”Is more and more creative with make-believe playWould rather play with other children than by himselfCooperates with other childrenOften can’t tell what’s real and what’s make-believeTalks about what she likes and what she is interested inLanguage/CommunicationKnows some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using “he” and “she”Sings a song or says a poem from memory such as the “Itsy Bitsy Spider” or the “Wheels on the Bus”Tells storiesCan say first and last nameCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Names some colors and some numbersUnderstands the idea of countingStarts to understand timeRemembers parts of a storyUnderstands the idea of “same” and “different”Draws a person with 2 to 4 body partsUses scissorsStarts to copy some capital lettersPlays board or card gamesTells you what he thinks is going to happen next in a bookMovement/Physical DevelopmentHops and stands on one foot up to 2 secondsCatches a bounced ball most of the timePours, cuts with supervision, and mashes own foodAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Can’t jump in placeHas trouble scribblingShows no interest in interactive games or make-believeIgnores other children or doesn’t respond to people outside the familyResists dressing, sleeping, and using the toiletCan’t retell a favorite storyDoesn’t follow 3-part commandsDoesn’t understand “same” and “different”Doesn’t use “me” and “you” correctlySpeaks unclearlyLoses skills he once had
46How you can help your baby’s development Play make believe with your child “She is the storeowner and you are buying groceries from her.”Help your child to cope with new situations by pretend play – let’s imagine what is going to happen, how will you act, what will you do…act it out with your child.Give your child simple choices. Allow them 2-3 different options – food, clothing, places to go, etc.Allow your child to solve problems he/she has during play with other children, but be nearby to help if needed.Encourage your child to use words, share toys and take turns when playing with other childrenGiver your child imagination toys – dress up clothes, plastic dishes/phones, blocks, etc.Speak properly and clearly to your child –”I want you to come in now” “Please put your jacket in your room.”Use words like “first, second, at the end” so that your child can learn about the sequence of eventsTake time to answer your child’s questions. If you don’t know the answer, look it up in a book or computer togetherRead stories and have child tell you the story, guess what happens next, etc. Have them use the words in the story.Dance with your childPlay outdoors games like tag, follow the leader, duck, duck, goose
47Your child at 5 years Movement/Physical Development What most babies do at this age:Social and EmotionalWants to please friendsWants to be like friendsMore likely to agree with rulesLikes to sing, dance, and actShows concern and sympathy for othersIs aware of genderCan tell what’s real and what’s make-believeShows more independence (for example, may visit a next-door neighbor by himself [adult supervision is still needed])Is sometimes demanding and sometimes very cooperativeLanguage/CommunicationSpeaks very clearlyTells a simple story using full sentencesUses future tense; for example, “Grandma will be here.”Says name and addressCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)Counts 10 or more thingsCan draw a person with at least 6 body partsCan print some letters or numbersCopies a triangle and other geometric shapesKnows about things used every day, like money and foodMovement/Physical DevelopmentStands on one foot for 10 seconds or longerHops; may be able to skipCan do a somersaultUses a fork and spoon and sometimes a table knifeCan use the toilet on her ownSwings and climbsAct early by talking to your child’s doctor if your child:Doesn’t show a wide range of emotionsShows extreme behavior (unusually fearful, aggressive, shy or sad)Unusually withdrawn and not activeIs easily distracted, has trouble focusing on one activity for more than 5 minutesDoesn’t respond to people, or responds only superficiallyCan’t tell what’s real and what’s make-believeDoesn’t play a variety of games and activitiesCan’t give first and last nameDoesn’t use plurals or past tense properlyDoesn’t talk about daily activities or experiencesDoesn’t draw picturesCan’t brush teeth, wash and dry hands, or get undressed without helpLoses skills he once had
48How you can help your baby’s development Take your child to places where he/she can play and interact with other childrenDo not use negative or bad language in front of your child. If they do say bad words, do not pay a lot of attention to them, but give them time out and tell them that this is not acceptable. Praise your child for using good language and doing good things.Explain to child, that no one should touch their “private parts” except doctors/nurses and when parents want to keep the child clean – bathing.Teach your child their address, home phone and ways to contact parentsRead stories every day and have child predict what will happen next in the storyTeach child –morning, afternoon, night, today, tomorrow, days of the weekTake your child to different community settings – stores, libraries, fun places, parks, etc.Keep a handy box of fun things the child likes to doHelp children learn how to use outdoor play equipment- swings, slides, twirliesGo on nature walks with your child and explore the different seasons
49Visit your doctorRemind parents that they should take their children on routine visits to the doctor.During these exams the parent should inform the doctor of any of the child’s behaviors that she is concerned about. For example, “Doctor Suha, Ahmed used to like playing with his toys, now I see him spending more time alone and rocking. I am concerned. Is this a problem?”Take the child to the doctor if you feel that there is a need to get more information or clarification on your child’s behavior and well being.The sooner you go to the doctor….the better the outcome will be.The doctor will determine if the child is developing normally in terms of:Physical developmentLanguage and communication skillsSelf help skills (feed, dress, use toilet)Social skills (interacting with others, playing with others)
50Encourage parents to: Play with their children Provide them with safe, clean play areas in the homeRead to children every dayInclude music and dance in their activitiesGive them time to do “art” workTalk, Talk, and Talk with children.Spend time out doors with childrenGive them lots of simple, fun games and materials to play withAllow children to be active explorers in their environmentTeach children to express their emotionsSmile and enjoy their time with their child
51Supporting Pre-literacy and Oral Language Development Parents play an important role in ensuring children learn to speak clearly, comprehend what is being said to them and being able to communicate with others. This requires parents talking with their children in clear, simple and direct sentences.There are lots of fun ways to encourage language development and pre-literacy skills in young children (see for stories, rhymes, and early literacy materials for young children.At home parents can encourage children’s language development bySpeaking in clear, simple sentences directly to the childEncouraging child to repeat words and ask questionsUse language all day long in multiple situations during meal time, during play, when preparing for sleep,Sing songs with your childTeach your child rhymesListening and following one or two or three step orders and instructionsCarry on conversations with your child on interesting topics to the childUse new words with your child – names of animals, names of emotions, names of different body parts, places around the world, stars, etc.
52Home Activities Talk Discussions Story Telling Games – hide and seek, treasure hunt, 7 StonesMeaningful, knowledge building activities like:puzzles,blocks,counting games,games that sort, order and classify things by color, shape, size, weight, height, etc,MazesPretend playImaginary and pretend play that they are someone else
53Healthy Lifestyles(Please see available module on healthy lifestyles and behaviors)Reminders for parents:Breastfeeding is better for childrenServe fresh fruit and water instead of juice (no soft drinks)Serve your child adequate portions of foods (about the size of their fist)Give child healthy snacks – fruit, cut up vegetables, popcorn, turmus, and houmousGive children healthy options, but eliminate junk foods (sweets, candy, chips, cookies, etc. from the home)Encourage child to eat healthy portions of meat, legumes/peas/wheat/grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy productsEat your meals together at the table not in front of the tv or aloneAllow your child to help prepare the mealGive your child free and open space to run around, play and exerciseLimit the amount of time child is sitting inactive in front of tv or computer or video games (1/2 hour)
54Parent RequestsIncorporate other issues that parents are requesting information on here.Find specialists who can help you in developing the materials or presenting themDocument your work and see what kinds of feedback you receive.Review and revise the materials on a regular basis to update information
55EvaluateAsk parents to provide you with feedback on your work with them.You can do this by sending out a small questionnaire that asks them:What did you like best?What did you like least?Where you able to apply what you learned at home?What would you change in the course?Did you receive enough information or would you like more?Would you recommend this course to others?What could be done to make this course better?Any other comments