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Parent Education Preschool Based Learning Package Meridian International Center PenMedia Sponsored by the U.S. Department of State.

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Presentation on theme: "Parent Education Preschool Based Learning Package Meridian International Center PenMedia Sponsored by the U.S. Department of State."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parent Education Preschool Based Learning Package Meridian International Center PenMedia Sponsored by the U.S. Department of State

2 Introduction The preschool is an exciting learning environment for children. The preschool can also be a welcoming learning environment for parents. By opening the doors of the preschool to parents you open up opportunities to: – Build better partnerships with parents – open dialogue – Increase cooperation and coordination with parents on issues relevant to their children – continuity between the home and preschool – Enhance parents knowledge and skills on how to interact, support, and educate their own children – parent confidence building – Provide parents information and resources on early childhood development that they may not have known existed – access to information – Support the overall well being of their children and enhance family – child relationships – Improve the childs academic, physical, social, and emotional and cognitive development – childs potential is supported

3 What you can do The preschool teacher can be an excellent source for providing parents with: – Information – Skills – Modeling positive practices – Resources – Coordination opportunities between the home and school and other community services

4 Organizing Your Work If you are interested in setting up parent education classes at your preschool, consider the following: Do you have the time to work with parents 1-2 hours every week or every two weeks? Can you commit your time (for these sessions and in preparation for the sessions)? Will this be an individual based effort or will all teachers be involved in the program? Is there adequate and appropriate space within the preschool to hold the sessions or do you need another location? What additional resources can you provide for parents –educational materials, print outs, contact lists for specialists or fun places to take children, etc.?

5 Getting Started It is best to announce the availability of parent education sessions when parents start to register children for preschool. You can also encourage parents of young children or who do not have children registered in the preschool to attend. – Inform parents that the preschool will be offering parent education programs throughout the year. – Have an agenda ready of the times and places where the sessions will be held. – Limit the number of participants to 12-15 parents to allow for sufficient time to discuss and carry out activities. – If session is held after preschool hours, you should note where the children will be kept: Will children be sent home like they do on regular school days Will after school care arrangements be made available Will the parent education classes take place on non-school days (for instance on a Saturday or Sunday) Will the sessions take place during preschool hours

6 Preparing for the Parent Education Program Based on available information identify key topics, issues, and themes you think are important for parents to know if they are to be effective in supporting their childs development. Make a list of these topics. Share these ideas with your colleagues. Conduct home visits to verify the importance of these topics and issues. Begin to compile information and resources to support your selected ideas. Suggested topics and themes are listed below. For instance: – Parent Development – Family Development – Importance of the early years – Parent-Child Relationships – Early Childhood Development and Milestones – Developmental Screening – Early Identification – Healthy lifestyles and practices – Supporting childrens holistic development Language and literacy Emotional development Social Development Physical Development Academic Development

7 Parent selection of priorities It is important that parents are given a chance to identify what their priorities are, too! Allow parents to select topics that they are interested in. In many cases, parents will identify topics or issues that you are not familiar with. Remember that you do not need to present all the topics and/or sessions. If there are topics you feel could be better addressed by someone else, then you should invite others to the group to present information and discuss with parents. Remember to inform parents in advance that in some cases, expert advice and specialists will be asked to join in and provide information. For instance, – Pediatrician – Developmental Specialist – Specialist working with children with special needs – Psychologist – Counselor – Parents with special skills and knowledge Always remember that YOU do not have to reply to all questions. If there is something you do not know or are uncertain about – seek out the information or ask a specialist to come in.

8 Your educational program Develop a table of topics, objectives, content, and activities TopicObjectiveContentActivities Parent develop - ment Parents have better understanding of their different roles and responsibilities 1.Different types of parent roles – caregiver, nurturer, educator, stimulator 2.Values and philosophy of parents 1.Discussion on their daily activities with child 2.Develop list of 3 different activities they will do at home to fulfill their roles 3.List 5 key values and philosophy of life that they apply with their child 4.Discuss values in group and identify 3 key values and activities to support the values in practice

9 Balance your Session Use Different Approaches During The Session Introduce the topic ( 2-3 minutes) Provide some general information on the topic (10-15 minutes) – powerpoint, handouts, flip chart Parent question and discussions (10-15 minutes) Provide more detailed information (20 minutes) – powerpoint, handout, flipchart, pictures Group activities (20 minutes) – hands on activities, group work, bringing in materials and experiences from home environment, using the preschool classroom and materials, etc. Wrap up, Summary, Reminder on Next Session (10 minutes) Flipchart, board, etc.

10 Ideas to Use in Your Parent Education Program On the next pages you will find some suggestions, topics, information, resources and activities that you can use during your sessions. You should select the topics and materials that are most relevant to early childhood development and well being and will be of benefit for the parents. You do not have to use only these materials or all of them. This is just a sample and you can build your own program as you see fit.

11 First Day - Environment Make sure you have arranged the environment in a suitable manner. – Choose a site that is easy to access and is well recognized and accepted by parents – Quiet, clean and organized area – Enough tables and chairs for all – A place to put coats, bags, etc. – A sign indicating where the toilets are – Name tags for the participants - simple paper tags will suffice or name tags on ribbons, etc. – Flip chart, board, computer, projector – if available – Paper and pencils – Sign with instructions – shut off cellular phone, stay till the end of session, etc. – Small area to make tea or coffee (if available)

12 First Day - Introductions Introduce who you are, where you work, a little piece of personal information (I love reading, drawing, etc.) and why you think this program is so important. Write your name clearly on the board with contact information. Ask the others to introduce themselves ….my name is ________. I have __ child in the preschool. Small exercise to get them to know one another. – Break the mothers up into pairs. (preferably they should not know one another) – Give them 5 minutes to talk with one another. They have to learn three things/facts about the other person. – Return to the group. Each person introduces his/her partner and tells the group three things he/she learned about this person.

13 Parents – Roles, Practices, and Values Parents are usually the first and primary caregivers of their child. This is a role that is learned and is not instinctive. One gains experience and knowledge in how to interact, manage and care for their child through practice and learning. Parents play many roles. In addition to being mothers and fathers they are also husband and wife, sisters and brothers, they are employees, they interact and have roles with the extended family, neighborhood, and community. However, being a parent is a full time position where you become responsible for the care, safety, well being, development, socialization, and education of a dependent child. This is a very demanding responsibility. The joy, love, and reward of having a happy, healthy and loving child is something that cannot be replaced. What is your parenting style: 1.Caring, warm, loving, accepting 2.Directive, authoritarian, demanding, strict 3.Anxious, confused, inconsistent 4.Aggressive, dictatorial, punishing Which of the above are most effective? Caring, warm, loving and accepting – children learn that they are loved, that they are accepted, discipline is through understanding what is expected of them, the child is praised, respected, and encouraged, and disciplined gently. Parents support their childs social and emotional development and accepts and respects the childs feelings. There is respect for the child and respect from the child to the parent.

14 Roles of Parents Provide child with a safe and healthy environment. This requires protecting children from environmental hazards – cold, hot, electricity, fire, smoke, dampness, hazardous chemical, stairs, high places, unprotected open spaces, etc. – Take precautions to check each room in the house to make sure there are no places where a child could actually touch or move an object that could be hazardous to them – lights, heaters, chemicals, knives, glass objects, etc. – Examine each room from the perspective of a young, curious child who wants to explore everything. Look at ground level if there are any hazards to the child – opening a door to a closet, to go out doors, to go towards stairs, etc. – Ensure childs safety while out of doors – safe play areas, walking on side walk or cross walk, wearing seat belt, not going with strangers. This requires protecting children from abuse, harm, exploitation or neglect from individuals within and outside of the home. – Most children are hurt by those closest to them. This is because these are the people most likely to be around them. – Parents take responsibility for ensuring that any and all persons interacting with the child do not hurt or abuse the child. – Always check up on the child, ask the child if they feel happy and safe going with someone. If a child shows any hesitancy or suggests that she/he has been hurt (physically and/or psychologically and/or emotionally), then the parents should take immediate steps to prevent these persons from coming into contact with the child. (In cases of abuse, the parent should inform the police.)

15 Roles of Parents Ensure the basic needs of the child are met. Young children require nutritious and healthy foods – breast milk is best for babies, children should be fed diets that are suitable for their age and this should be determined in consultation with your primary health care provider. (we will address these needs in more detail later on.) A home/shelter where they have their own bed, space, and play area that is warm, clean, and maintained in good condition. Clean clothing and sanitary facilities and care. Parents should also demonstrate and practice safe and healthy practices around children – no smoking, keeping things clean, helping to pick up things, not playing or touching dangerous items, crossing the roads safely, practicing road safety measures – wearing seat belts, entering the car from the right side, children sitting in back seat, not using cellular phone when driving, etc.

16 Roles of Parents Support the childs self confidence and self esteem Each child grows and matures at their own rate. Each child has certain likes, dislikes, abilities, and capacities that are unique to him/her Children learn best and feel better when they are rewarded for their good acts and supported in doing better in the future. As children grow, our expectations change and we should seek to encourage children to meet their potential, however our expectations should be realistic and age/maturation appropriate. Use language that is respectful (hurtful, negative words should not be used by parents or children) Encourage children to share their ideas, feelings, opinions, and events with you. Parents should also interact with children and share their feelings and thought with them (age appropriate and correct) Remember that every child is different. This is what makes every person special. Demonstrate and teach morals and values that enhance their relationship with others Honesty -------------------------- Creativity Respect ---------------------------- Inquisitiveness Responsibility -------------------- Hardworking Compassion ------------------------ Spiritual Patience ----------------------------- Leadership Forgiveness ------------------------- Passionate Generosity -------------------------- Fun loving

17 Roles of Parents Support the childs social-emotional development. Being available to meet the childs needs, to comfort, to provide a sense of safety and closeness. Being sensitive to the childs emotional state and helping child to cope. Spending time with the child – playing, reading, talking, eating together, and enjoying the time together. Asking child questions about him/herself and the events happening around them Helping child to meet other children. Teaching child social skills – taking turns, cooperating, asking for things, etc. Encourage the childs ability to learn. Exposing child to rich, varied and diverse environments and stimuli. Ensure child has books, games, and toys to play with. Reading to children. Talking with children. Playing with children. Helping children to solve problems..

18 Importance of Parent – Child Relationships Parents have the responsibility of helping their children to develop and meet their potential. This process requires direct contact and interaction between the parents and child. Time spent together that is filled with rich learning experiences, communication, and exchange of ideas, thoughts and opinions are most rewarding for children. Hence parents should aim to: 1.Spend quality time with children – one on one time spent talking, playing, storytelling, taking walks together, learning together, etc. 2.Set up routines in the childs life that are healthy and consistent 3.Support the child in becoming more responsible for his/her actions 4.Support the child in initiating behaviors and rewarding them/encouraging them accordingly 5.Introduce child to new situations, new people, and new activities that are safe and non-threatening to support expansion of their social circles

19 Parent – Child Relationships Childrens natural curiosity and enthusiasm to explore should be supported by parents. This requires parents supporting the child by: Standing nearby them as they explore new things (this allows the child to feel safe) Being sensitive and supportive of children who may be more fearful and hesitant to explore and establish relationships with others Allowing the child to take the lead in deciding what they want to do Parent-child relationships provide the child an opportunity to learn more about the world because the parent offers them a safe, protected, stimulating environment where they are exposed to new things, new people, and new places and they can be the decision makers.

20 Parent – Child Relationships Parents should be observant. Watch what your child is doing. Comment and encourage them as they learn new skills and acquire new information Guide them if their behavior is harmful, disrespectful, or inappropriate to others or themselves. Share emotions. Help your child to understand his/her emotions – happy, angry, excited, frustrated, sad, eager, hurt, and fearful. All feelings are valid. Help the child to identify, understand and express their feelings in appropriate ways. This also requires the parents demonstrating or sharing their own emotions in acceptable ways. For instance, it is okay for a child to be afraid or fearful. Help the child to understand their fear. Help them to address their fear – slowly exposing them to the fearful event in a non-threatening way, for instance.

21 Socio-Emotional Development Parents play an important role in helping children to learn how to interact with others. This is best done if parents demonstrate these behaviors in a consistent manner to their children. This includes: Showing respect – listening to others, respect for others ideas, belongings, needs, and understanding that everyone has a right to share the environment around them in an equal and fair manner. Showing empathy – understanding how the other person feels. This is something that children learn gradually. But parents can help children by asking them questions – how do you feel, how do you think I feel, how do you think it feels if you hit someone, etc. These behaviors are best acquired if the parent: Models these behaviors in front of the child – asks the child what he/she would like to do, asks about their feelings, asks them what they did today, how certain events or actions or interactions made them feel Observe their childs behavior and guide them when they are facing difficulties and encourage them to keep on trying. Making mistakes is okay. Many times children learn best by making mistakes and learning from them Using the home environment as a safe place to help children learn how to interact with others Use routines in the house – how to share space, how to share games, how to interact politely with others, how to request things, how to take turns, using polite language Practicing certain behaviors that the child is having difficulty with – controlling temper, for instance. If child wants everything his/her way, then set up situations to help them learn to manage their behavior. This can be done, by finding ways to calm the child down before the tantrum starts- explain to child why he/she cannot have something, providing a time line of when or if they can have this particular item or do something. Explain the consequences of their behavior – you will ignore it or child has to go to their room. Changing the environment to make it more suitable for the child – eliminating situations or conditions that may aggravate the child.

22 Activities Have parents come up with a list of ten quality time activities they can do with their children at home: – Read stories together, go for walks, cook together, play with blocks, games, explore nature, visits to friends, etc. Have parents identify common fears that their children may have and discuss how they reduced or eliminated childs fear: – Not ridiculing or belittling childs fears – Demonstrating safe ways to address the fear (petting a cat, exploring the room in the dark, visiting the preschool before school starts) – Helping child to gradually approach his/her fears while parent is supporting them. Develop home routine chart (for example) – Wake up – Eat breakfast – Wash face and teeth – Get dressed – Pick up room – Help make lunch – Watch TV – ½ hour – Parent –child quality time

23 Family Development and Relationships Families are important because they represent the larger social circle that directly interacts with the child. The family usually spends regular time together (meals, sharing space, different roles for different family members). Children learn how to interact within the family sphere. How to respect elders, help younger siblings, help parents with chores around the house, and spend time playing and doing fun activities together. The family can provide a good setting to help children to learn social skills, how to understand, interact, and respect others while respecting one self and their own needs and rights. The family provides a social environment whereby the child learns the proper way to interact with others. Encouraging positive behaviors and practices in the home environment enables children to generalize these behaviors to other settings. Listening to others, speaking with others, sharing space, property, time, and communicating with others on what we need, want and desire in a socially appropriate manner. Children within the family learn that they must share things – television, toys, furniture. Children learn that others have needs and desires like them – want to play at the same time or watch tv or go on a trip So they child learns that they have to communicate their needs and manage resources (including Mom and Dad or other caregivers) who may also need to spend time with other siblings or adults.

24 Early Childhood Development Research has shown that the first five years of life are the richest periods of brain growth and development. During this period of time children will acquire the basic building blocks that form the basis for future learning potentials. Early experiences determine whether a childs developing brain architecture provides a strong or weak foundation for all future learning, behavior, and health. ( Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2007). A Science-Based Framework for Early Childhood Policy: Using Evidence to Improve Outcomes in Learning, Behavior, and Health for Vulnerable Children. http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu © August 2007 CENTER ON THE DEVELOPING CHILD AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY)

25 Early Childhood Development Research Findings Pregnant mothers and young children do best when they have consistent, quality health services available and routinely visit health clinics New parents do best when they receive guidance and education on how to care for, nurture, and educate their child Children enrolled in early education programs show enhanced cognitive and social development compared with children who do not attend these programs. Stress (especially excessive, traumatic stress) can have long lasting negative impacts on the childs cognitive, behavioral, social and emotional development. Early interventions and programs can reduce the impact of stress on the childs overall development Children who are provided with health services, had their basic needs met, and participated in proactive early education intervention programs are more likely to succeed at school, continue in their education, reduce the risk of being involved in social problems (drug use, in conflict with the law) and are more likely to become productive, working members of society.

26 What Parents Can Do Care Protect Nurture Love Educate Parent development and parent-child relationships are the key tools that will enable children to develop into healthy, happy and productive children and adults. Ensuring a child receives regular health screening and consultations will allow for an assessment of the the childs physical and mental well being and development.

27 Milestones – the behaviors that children can do by a certain age Each child develops at his/her own rate However, child development is a systemic process that influences the childs cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. This process is: – Universal (all children go through similar processes of development) – Has predictable patterns (sequence is pre-determined) – Influenced by genetic and environmental factors

28 Parents roles in Monitoring Milestones Parents should observe, play and interact with their child on a consistent basis. Through such interactions, parents can observe their childs development and note changes in their behaviors and actions. The following pages will provide information on what MILESTONES are expected at different ages. (These materials are from the Center for Disease Control: www.cdc.gov/milestones)

29 Your Baby At 2 Months What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional – Begins to smile at people – Can briefly calm himself (may bring hands to mouth and suck on hand) – Tries to look at parent Language/Communication – Coos, makes gurgling sounds – Turns head toward sounds Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) – Pays attention to faces – Begins to follow things with eyes and recognize people at a distance – Begins to act bored (cries, fussy) if activity doesnt change Movement/Physical Development – Can hold head up and begins to push up when lying on tummy – Makes smoother movements with arms and legs Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt respond to loud sounds Doesnt watch things as they move Doesnt smile at people Doesnt bring hands to mouth Cant hold head up when pushing up when on tummy

30 How you can help your babys development Cuddle, talk and play with your baby during feeding, dressing, and bathing Help your child learn to calm herself. Its okay for her to suck on her fingers Begin to help your baby get into a routine, such as sleeping at night more than in the day, have regular schedules Act excited and smile when your baby makes sounds Copy your babys sounds sometimes, but also use clear language Pay attention to your babys different cries so that you learn to know what he wants Talk, read and sing to your baby Play peek a boo and help your baby play peek a boo Place a baby safe mirror in your babys crib so he/she can look at themselves. Look at pictures with your baby and talk about them Lay your baby on his tummy and place toys in front to them Encourage baby to lift head by holding toys at eye level in front of them Hold a toy or rattle above their head and encourage them to reach for it Hold your baby upright with feet on ground and sing or talk to them while in this position

31 What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Smiles spontaneously, especially at people Likes to play with people and might cry when playing stops Copies some movements and facial expressions, like smiling or frowning Language/Communication Begins to babble Babbles with expression and copies sounds he hears Cries in different ways to show hunger, pain, or being tired Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Lets you know if she is happy or sad Responds to affection Reaches for toy with one hand Uses hands and eyes together, such as seeing a toy and reaching for it Follows moving things with eyes from side to side Watches faces closely Recognizes familiar people and things at a distance Movement/Physical Development Holds head steady, unsupported Pushes down on legs when feet are on a hard surface May be able to roll over from tummy to back Can hold a toy and shake it and swing at dangling toys Brings hands to mouth When lying on stomach, pushes up to elbows Your baby at 4 months Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt watch things as they move Doesnt smile at people Cant hold head steady Doesnt coo or make sounds Doesnt bring things to mouth Doesnt push down with legs when feet are placed on a hard surface Has trouble moving one or both eyes in all directions

32 How you can help your babys development Hold and talk to your baby, smile and be cheerful Set steady routines for sleeping and feeding Pay close attention to what your baby likes and does like so you can meet their needs and make them happy Copy your babys sounds and act excited and smile when your baby makes sounds Have quiet play times when you read and sing to your baby Give age appropriate toys to play with - rattles, colorful pictures, big toys Play games like peek a boo Provide safe opportunities for your baby to reach for toys and explore the environment Put toys near your baby so they can reach/kick them Put toys in your babys hand and help him to hold them Hold your baby uprights with feet on floor and sing and talk to them in this position

33 Your Baby at 6 Months Movement/Physical Development Rolls over in both directions (front to back, back to front) Begins to sit without support When standing, supports weight on legs and might bounce Rocks back and forth, sometimes crawling backward before moving forward Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt try to get things that are in reach Shows no affection for caregivers Doesnt respond to sounds around him Has difficulty getting things to mouth Doesnt make vowel sounds (ah, eh, oh) Doesnt roll over in either direction Doesnt laugh or make squealing sounds Seems very stiff, with tight muscles Seems very floppy, like a rag doll What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Knows familiar faces and begins to know if someone is a stranger Likes to play with others, especially parents Responds to other peoples emotions and often seems happy Likes to look at self in a mirror Language/Communication Responds to sounds by making sounds Strings vowels together when babbling (ah, eh, oh) and likes taking turns with parent while making sounds Responds to own name Makes sounds to show joy and displeasure Begins to say consonant sounds (jabbering with m, b) Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Looks around at things nearby Brings things to mouth Shows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of reach Begins to pass things from one hand to the other

34 How you can help your babys development Play on the floor with your baby every day Learn to read your babys moods – if happy repeat activities, if upset take a break and comfort your baby Show your baby how to comfort herself when upset – she may suck on fingers Use reciprocal play – smile when she smiles, copy their behaviors Repeat your childs sounds and say simple words with those sounds - bo – bottle, ta- table Read colorful picture books to your child every day. Praise them when she babbles and reads too When she drops a toy on the floor, pick it up and give it back…repeat. This teaches them cause and effect Point out things to your baby and name them Hold your baby up while she sits or support her with pillows, let her look around and give her toys to look at while she balances Put your baby on his tummy or back and place toys slightly out of his reach and encourage him to roll over to reach toys

35 Your baby at 9 months What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional May be afraid of strangers May be clingy with familiar adults Has favorite toys Language/Communication Understands no Makes a lot of different sounds like mama and babaa Copies sounds and gestures of others Uses fingers to point at things Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Watches the path of something as it falls Looks for things he sees you hide Plays peek-a-boo Puts things in her mouth Moves things smoothly from one hand to the other Picks up things like cereal os between thumb and index finger Movement/Physical Development Stands, holding on Can get into sitting position Sits without support Pulls to stand Crawls Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt bear weight on legs with support Doesnt sit with help Doesnt babble (mama, baba, dada) Doesnt play any games involving back-and-forth play Doesnt respond to own name Doesnt seem to recognize familiar people Doesnt look where you point

36 How you can help your babys development Pay attention to the way he reacts to new situations and people, do things that make your baby happy and comfortable Stay close to your baby when they move around Continue with routines Play games like my turn…your turn Say what you think your baby is feeling…you are hungry, you are tired, you are sad…lets make it better, etc. Describe what your baby is looking at – big, red apple, your brother Ahmed Talk about what your baby wants – you want your toy Copy your babys sounds and words Ask for behaviors that you want – lets sit here, lets eat our food Teach cause and effect by rolling balls back and forth, pushing toys cars, putting blocks in carton and taking out Play peek a boo and hide and seek Read and talk to your baby Give them room to move in safe areas Place your baby near things she can pull her self safely up on

37 Your baby at 1 year What most children do at this age: Social and Emotional Is shy or nervous with strangers Cries when mom or dad leaves Has favorite things and people Shows fear in some situations Hands you a book when he wants to hear a story Repeats sounds or actions to get attention Puts out arm or leg to help with dressing Plays games such as peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake Language/Communication Responds to simple spoken requests Uses simple gestures, like shaking head no or waving bye-bye Makes sounds with changes in tone (sounds more like speech) Says mama and dada and exclamations like uh-oh! Tries to say words you say Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Explores things in different ways, like shaking, banging, throwing Finds hidden things easily Looks at the right picture or thing when its named Copies gestures Starts to use things correctly; for example, drinks from a cup, brushes hair Bangs two things together Puts things in a container, takes things out of a container Lets things go without help Pokes with index (pointer) finger Follows simple directions like pick up the toy Movement/Physical Development Gets to a sitting position without help Pulls up to stand, walks holding on to furniture (cruising) May take a few steps without holding on May stand alone Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt crawl Cant stand when supported Doesnt search for things that she sees you hide Doesnt say single words like mama or dada Doesnt learn gestures like waving or shaking head Doesnt point to things

38 How you can help your babys development Give your child time to get to know a new caregiver. Bring a favorite toy, stuffed animal to comfort your child In response to unwanted behavior, firmly say NO. Do not yell, spank or give long explanations. A time out of 30 seconds to 1 minute might help redirect your baby. Give your child lots of hugs, kisses and praise for good behavior Encourage good behaviors (focus on rewarding good behaviors) and redirecting unwanted behaviors Talk to your child about what you are doing…mommy is washing her hands, daddy is picking up the dishes Read with your child every day, help them to turn pages and label things they see in the book, magazine, etc. Build on what your child says …if they make a t sound say t Truck Give your child crayons and paper and let them draw freely –Show them how to make lines and circles Play with blocks, shape sorters, and other toys to encourage use of hands Hid small toys and see if they can find them Ask your child to identify and label body parts – eyes, nose, hair, mouth, hand, etc. Sing songs with actions…Itsy bitsy spider, wheels on the bus Give your child pots and pans and things to make music with – banging, etc. Provide lots of safe spaces for your child to play – safe proof your rooms and remove any objects that could harm the child Give your child toys that they can push and move around.

39 Your baby at 18 months What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Likes to hand things to others as play May have temper tantrums May be afraid of strangers Shows affection to familiar people Plays simple pretend, such as feeding a doll May cling to caregivers in new situations Points to show others something interesting Explores alone but with parent close by Language/Communication Says several single words Says and shakes head no Points to show someone what he wants Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Knows what ordinary things are for; for example, telephone, brush, spoon Points to get the attention of others Shows interest in a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feed Points to one body part Scribbles on his own Can follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures; for example, sits when you say sit down Movement/Physical Development Walks alone May walk up steps and run Pulls toys while walking Can help undress herself Drinks from a cup Eats with a spoon Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt point to show things to others Cant walk Doesnt know what familiar things are for Doesnt copy others Doesnt gain new words Doesnt have at least 6 words Doesnt notice or mind when a caregiver leaves or returns Loses skills he once had

40 How you can help your babys development Have routines, be consistent with your baby Praise good behaviors more than you punish (time out) bad behaviors Describe your childs emotions to them…you are happy, you are sad, you are upset, etc. Encourage pretend play – imitating animals, other people, etc. and provide them with dolls, play phones, etc. Encourage child to feel/empathize with others…give Susu a hug she is sad… Copy your childs words Use lots of different words to describe things, emotions, feelings Use clear and simple phrases Ask simple questions Hide things from child and ask them to look for them Play with blocks, balls, puzzles, books, toys that teach cause and effect and problem solving and give them clean, free, safe areas to play in Name pictures in books, parts of the house, body parts, etc. Encourage him to drink from his cup, his spoon, on their own –even if they make a mess Blow bubbles and let them pop them

41 Your baby at 2 years What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Copies others, especially adults and older children Gets excited when with other children Shows more and more independence Shows defiant behavior (doing what he has been told not to) Plays mainly beside other children, but is beginning to include other children, such as in chase games Language/Communication Points to things or pictures when they are named Knows names of familiar people and body parts Says sentences with 2 to 4 words Follows simple instructions Repeats words overheard in conversation Points to things in a book Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Finds things even when hidden under two or three covers Begins to sort shapes and colors Completes sentences and rhymes in familiar books Plays simple make-believe games Builds towers of 4 or more blocks Might use one hand more than the other Follows two-step instructions such as Pick up your shoes and put them in the closet. Names items in a picture book such as a cat, bird, or dog Movement/Physical Development Stands on tiptoe Kicks a ball Begins to run Climbs onto and down from furniture without help Walks up and down stairs holding on Throws ball overhand Makes or copies straight lines and circles Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt use 2-word phrases (for example, drink milk) Doesnt know what to do with common things, like a brush, phone, fork, spoon Doesnt copy actions and words Doesnt follow simple instructions Doesnt walk steadily Loses skills she once had

42 Hide your childs toys around the room and let them find them Help your child do puzzles, learn shapes, colors, farm animals, and names of things Encourage child to play with blocks and build and knock them down and rebuild Do art work with child using crayons and paper, clay. Display your childs art work Ask your child to help you do things – open doors, pick up things around the house, turn pages of books When your child walks well, let them carry small, light objects Kick a ball back and forth Take your child outdoors and let him/her run around in open areas How you can help your babys development

43 Your child at 3 years What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Copies adults and friends Shows affection for friends without prompting Takes turns in games Shows concern for crying friend Understands the idea of mine and his or hers Shows a wide range of emotions Separates easily from mom and dad May get upset with major changes in routine Dresses and undresses self Language/Communication Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps Can name most familiar things Understands words like in, on, and under Says first name, age, and sex Names a friend Says words like I, me, we, and you and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats) Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces Understands what two means Copies a circle with pencil or crayon Turns book pages one at a time Builds towers of more than 6 blocks Screws and unscrews jar lids or turns door handle Movement/Physical Development Climbs well Runs easily Pedals a tricycle (3-wheel bike) Walks up and down stairs, one foot on each step Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Falls down a lot or has trouble with stairs Drools or has very unclear speech Cant work simple toys (such as peg boards, simple puzzles, turning handle) Doesnt speak in sentences Doesnt understand simple instructions Doesnt play pretend or make-believe Doesnt want to play with other children or with toys Doesnt make eye contact Loses skills he once had

44 How you can help your babys development Go to play groups with your child or other places where there are children to play with Help your child solve a problem when they are upset Talk about your childs emotions. How did you feel when he took your toy? Help child to identify his/her emotions Set rules and limits for your child. If he/she breaks the rules/limits then give them time out for 30 seconds to 1 minute (sit in chair). Praise and encourage good behavior. Give your child instructions with 2-3 steps. Go to the kitchen and bring your plastic spoon or Go to Selwas room and tell her to come to the living room Read to your child everyday, have them point to pictures and words, and repeat words Make an activity box for your child with paper, crayons, coloring books, shapes, etc. that they can use when they want Count things with your child – stairs, chairs, eyes, steps, etc. Help your child to walk up and down stairs Play outside with your child

45 Your child at 4 years What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Enjoys doing new things Plays Mom and Dad Is more and more creative with make-believe play Would rather play with other children than by himself Cooperates with other children Often cant tell whats real and whats make-believe Talks about what she likes and what she is interested in Language/Communication Knows some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using he and she Sings a song or says a poem from memory such as the Itsy Bitsy Spider or the Wheels on the Bus Tells stories Can say first and last name Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Names some colors and some numbers Understands the idea of counting Starts to understand time Remembers parts of a story Understands the idea of same and different Draws a person with 2 to 4 body parts Uses scissors Starts to copy some capital letters Plays board or card games Tells you what he thinks is going to happen next in a book Movement/Physical Development Hops and stands on one foot up to 2 seconds Catches a bounced ball most of the time Pours, cuts with supervision, and mashes own food Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Cant jump in place Has trouble scribbling Shows no interest in interactive games or make-believe Ignores other children or doesnt respond to people outside the family Resists dressing, sleeping, and using the toilet Cant retell a favorite story Doesnt follow 3-part commands Doesnt understand same and different Doesnt use me and you correctly Speaks unclearly Loses skills he once had

46 Play make believe with your child She is the storeowner and you are buying groceries from her. Help your child to cope with new situations by pretend play – lets imagine what is going to happen, how will you act, what will you do…act it out with your child. Give your child simple choices. Allow them 2-3 different options – food, clothing, places to go, etc. Allow your child to solve problems he/she has during play with other children, but be nearby to help if needed. Encourage your child to use words, share toys and take turns when playing with other children Giver your child imagination toys – dress up clothes, plastic dishes/phones, blocks, etc. Speak properly and clearly to your child –I want you to come in now Please put your jacket in your room. Use words like first, second, at the end so that your child can learn about the sequence of events Take time to answer your childs questions. If you dont know the answer, look it up in a book or computer together Read stories and have child tell you the story, guess what happens next, etc. Have them use the words in the story. Dance with your child Play outdoors games like tag, follow the leader, duck, duck, goose How you can help your babys development

47 Your child at 5 years What most babies do at this age: Social and Emotional Wants to please friends Wants to be like friends More likely to agree with rules Likes to sing, dance, and act Shows concern and sympathy for others Is aware of gender Can tell whats real and whats make-believe Shows more independence (for example, may visit a next-door neighbor by himself [adult supervision is still needed]) Is sometimes demanding and sometimes very cooperative Language/Communication Speaks very clearly Tells a simple story using full sentences Uses future tense; for example, Grandma will be here. Says name and address Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving) Counts 10 or more things Can draw a person with at least 6 body parts Can print some letters or numbers Copies a triangle and other geometric shapes Knows about things used every day, like money and food Movement/Physical Development Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer Hops; may be able to skip Can do a somersault Uses a fork and spoon and sometimes a table knife Can use the toilet on her own Swings and climbs Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child: Doesnt show a wide range of emotions Shows extreme behavior (unusually fearful, aggressive, shy or sad) Unusually withdrawn and not active Is easily distracted, has trouble focusing on one activity for more than 5 minutes Doesnt respond to people, or responds only superficially Cant tell whats real and whats make-believe Doesnt play a variety of games and activities Cant give first and last name Doesnt use plurals or past tense properly Doesnt talk about daily activities or experiences Doesnt draw pictures Cant brush teeth, wash and dry hands, or get undressed without help Loses skills he once had

48 Take your child to places where he/she can play and interact with other children Do not use negative or bad language in front of your child. If they do say bad words, do not pay a lot of attention to them, but give them time out and tell them that this is not acceptable. Praise your child for using good language and doing good things. Explain to child, that no one should touch their private parts except doctors/nurses and when parents want to keep the child clean – bathing. Teach your child their address, home phone and ways to contact parents Read stories every day and have child predict what will happen next in the story Teach child –morning, afternoon, night, today, tomorrow, days of the week Take your child to different community settings – stores, libraries, fun places, parks, etc. Keep a handy box of fun things the child likes to do Help children learn how to use outdoor play equipment- swings, slides, twirlies Go on nature walks with your child and explore the different seasons How you can help your babys development

49 Visit your doctor Remind parents that they should take their children on routine visits to the doctor. During these exams the parent should inform the doctor of any of the childs behaviors that she is concerned about. For example, Doctor Suha, Ahmed used to like playing with his toys, now I see him spending more time alone and rocking. I am concerned. Is this a problem? Take the child to the doctor if you feel that there is a need to get more information or clarification on your childs behavior and well being. The sooner you go to the doctor….the better the outcome will be. The doctor will determine if the child is developing normally in terms of: – Physical development – Language and communication skills – Self help skills (feed, dress, use toilet) – Social skills (interacting with others, playing with others)

50 Encourage parents to: Play with their children Provide them with safe, clean play areas in the home Read to children every day Include music and dance in their activities Give them time to do art work Talk, Talk, and Talk with children. Spend time out doors with children Give them lots of simple, fun games and materials to play with Allow children to be active explorers in their environment Teach children to express their emotions Smile and enjoy their time with their child

51 Supporting Pre-literacy and Oral Language Development Parents play an important role in ensuring children learn to speak clearly, comprehend what is being said to them and being able to communicate with others. This requires parents talking with their children in clear, simple and direct sentences. There are lots of fun ways to encourage language development and pre-literacy skills in young children (see www.sharaasimsim.ps) for stories, rhymes, and early literacy materials for young children.www.sharaasimsim.ps At home parents can encourage childrens language development by 1.Speaking in clear, simple sentences directly to the child 2.Encouraging child to repeat words and ask questions 3.Use language all day long in multiple situations during meal time, during play, when preparing for sleep, 4.Sing songs with your child 5.Teach your child rhymes 6. Listening and following one or two or three step orders and instructions 7.Carry on conversations with your child on interesting topics to the child 8.Use new words with your child – names of animals, names of emotions, names of different body parts, places around the world, stars, etc.

52 Home Activities Talk Discussions Story Telling Games – hide and seek, treasure hunt, 7 Stones Meaningful, knowledge building activities like: – puzzles, – blocks, – counting games, – games that sort, order and classify things by color, shape, size, weight, height, etc, – Mazes Pretend play – Imaginary and pretend play that they are someone else

53 Healthy Lifestyles (Please see available module on healthy lifestyles and behaviors) Reminders for parents: – Breastfeeding is better for children – Serve fresh fruit and water instead of juice (no soft drinks) – Serve your child adequate portions of foods (about the size of their fist) – Give child healthy snacks – fruit, cut up vegetables, popcorn, turmus, and houmous Give children healthy options, but eliminate junk foods (sweets, candy, chips, cookies, etc. from the home) Encourage child to eat healthy portions of meat, legumes/peas/wheat/grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products Eat your meals together at the table not in front of the tv or alone Allow your child to help prepare the meal Give your child free and open space to run around, play and exercise Limit the amount of time child is sitting inactive in front of tv or computer or video games (1/2 hour)

54 Parent Requests Incorporate other issues that parents are requesting information on here. Find specialists who can help you in developing the materials or presenting them Document your work and see what kinds of feedback you receive. Review and revise the materials on a regular basis to update information

55 Evaluate Ask parents to provide you with feedback on your work with them. You can do this by sending out a small questionnaire that asks them: What did you like best? What did you like least? Where you able to apply what you learned at home? What would you change in the course? Did you receive enough information or would you like more? Would you recommend this course to others? What could be done to make this course better? Any other comments


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