3Footprint – the trace everyone left Source: SKH Lam Woo Memorial Sec. School“CSI Case study” (2010)
4Footprint – the trace everyone left YouTube - Leave No Trace - Footprint Evidence(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlmZZoLGMpM)
5Important features in footprints significancee.g.Size of footprintReal size of suspect’s foot approximate height of suspect1Shape of footprintSex of the suspect2Type and brand(e.g. hiking shoes)Suspect’s hobbies3Depth of footprint on soft materialWeight of suspect4wear patterns and specific damagesWalking habit of suspect5trace materials, such as soil,tar, rocks, and paintPlaces where suspect had visited
7Taking photo of a footwear impression Case 1Case 2
8Taking photo of a footwear impression Correct IncorrectThe ratio in case 2 is very close to that of the real shoe while a significant discrepancy appears in case 1. Case 1 is a wrong method since any angle other than 90o in taking the photo will cause distortion of the image. The size and shape of the shoe may be misinterpreted.
10Methods used in collecting footwear impressions (1) Electrostatic lifting
11Methods used in collecting footwear impressions (1) Electrostatic lifting
12Methods used in collecting footwear impressions (2) Casting
13Individual characteristics on a footprint Figure Figure 2
14Number of Characteristics Probability of Occurrence p 1 1 / 80 2 1 / 3 20031 /Probability =Number of CharacteristicsProbability of Occurrence11 /21 /31 /
15Individual characteristics on a footprint It is highly unlikely that two different shoes would share all the same identifying characteristics. If 2 -3 characteristics share between the footprint in a crime scene and the suspect’s shoe, it would be a strong evidence that the suspect had been to the crime scene. Otherwise, this may eliminate the suspect as having been there.
16Want to knows more ?In probability theory, to say that two events are independent means that the occurrence of one event makes it neither more nor less probable that the other occurs.For example:The event of getting a 6 the first time a die is rolled and the event of getting a 6 the second time are independent.If two cards are drawn with replacement from a deck of cards, the event of drawing a red card on the first trial and that of drawing a red card on the second trial are independent.
17Measurement of human gait at crime scene: Sex ,height of the thief ,direction of movement,walking or running,special walking habit,carrying load or not,drunken or under medication (if the gait shows instability)
19Measurement of human gait at crime scene : (1) If footprints are deep and the pace is long, rapid movement is apparent. Long strides and deep prints with toe prints deeper than heel prints indicate running (A)(2) Prints that are deep, short, and widely spaced, with signs of scuffing or shuffling indicate the person is carrying a heavy load (B).(3) Persons walking backward (C) have a short, irregular stride. The prints have an unnaturally deep toe, and soil is displaced in the direction of movement.(4) To determine the sex (D,E), we should study the size and position of the footprints. Women tend to be pigeon-toed, while men walk with their feet straight ahead or pointed slightly to the outside. Prints left by women are usually smaller and the stride is usually shorter than prints left by men.