2The Study of Life Section 1: Introduction to Biology Section 2: The Nature of ScienceSection 3: Methods of Science
3Biology—the science of life bio – life -ology – the study of Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyBiology—the science of lifebio – life-ology – the study ofStudy the origins and history of life and once-living thingsStudy the structures of living thingsStudy how living things interact with one anotherStudy how living things function
4Study the diversity of life Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyWhat do biologists do?Study the diversity of lifeResearch diseasesDevelop technologiesImprove agriculturePreserve the environment
5The Characteristics of Life Made of one or more cells Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyThe Characteristics of LifeMade of one or more cellsDisplays organizationGrows and developsReproduces
6The Characteristics of Life Responds to stimuli Requires energy Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyThe Characteristics of LifeResponds to stimuliRequires energyMaintains homeostasisAdaptations evolve over time
7Made of one or more cells Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyMade of one or more cellsLiving things are made of one or more cells.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
8Displays Organization Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyDisplays OrganizationLiving things also display organization, which means they are arranged in an orderly way.Specialized cells perform particular functions.Ex. Heart pumps bloodAll structures and functions of an organism come together to form an orderly system.cells tissues organs organ systems organism
9Development includes all the changes Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyGrows and DevelopsGrowth results in the addition of mass to an organism and, in many organisms, the formation of new cells and new structures.Development includes all the changesthat an organism undergoes in its lifetime.
10Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyReproducesReproduction is not essential for the survival of an individual, but it is essential for the continuation of the species.A species is a group of organisms that can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
11The reaction to a stimulus is a response. Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyResponds to StimuliAnything that is part of the internal or external environments and causes a reaction by the organism is called a stimulus.The reaction to a stimulus is a response.
12Living things get their energy from food. Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyRequires EnergyLiving things get their energy from food.Most plants and some unicellular organisms use light energy from the Sun to make their own food and fuel their activities.Organisms that cannot make their own food get energy by consuming other organisms.
13Maintains Homeostasis Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyMaintains HomeostasisRegulation of an organism’s internal conditions to maintain life is called homeostasis.If anything happens within or to an organism that affects its normal state, processes to restore the normal state begin. Ex. Heart rate when you exercise.
14Adaptations Occur Over Time Section 1The Study of LifeIntroduction to BiologyAdaptations Occur Over TimeAn adaptation is any inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time.Adaptations enable organisms to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation.
15Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature. Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceWhat is science?Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature.The nature, or essential characteristics, of science is scientific inquiry.Scientific inquiry is both a creative process and a process rooted in unbiased observations and experimentation.
16Scientific Theory v. Scientific Law Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceScientific Theory v. Scientific LawA theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time.A scientific law describes relationships under certain conditions in nature, but does not explain why the relationship is the way it is.
17Observing and drawing conclusions Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceObserving and drawing conclusionsScientists choose subjects to study and decide what types of data to collect.They analyze the data collected to draw conclusions.
18Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceExpands KnowledgeMost scientific fields are guided by research that results in a constant reevaluation of what is known.Pseudosciences imitate science, but do not provide science-based explanations. Ex. If a black cat crosses my path, will I have bad luck?
19Challenges Accepted Theories Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceChallenges Accepted TheoriesScientists welcome debate about one another’s ideas.Sciences advance by accommodating new information as it is discovered.
20These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations. Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceQuestions ResultsObservations or data that are not consistent with current scientific understanding are of interest to scientists.These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations.
21Conclusions are reached from the evidence. Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceTests ClaimsScience-based information makes claims based on a large amount of data and observations obtained from unbiased investigations and carefully controlled experimentation.Conclusions are reached from the evidence.
22Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceUndergoes Peer ReviewBefore it is made public, science-based information is reviewed by scientists’ peers.Peer review is a process by which the procedures used during an experiment and the results are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
23Science in Everyday Life Section 2The Study of LifeThe Nature of ScienceScience in Everyday LifeA person who is scientifically literate combines a basic understanding of science and its processes with reasoning and thinking skills.Ethical issues must be addressed by society based on the values it holds important. Ethics are moral issues of what is right & wrong. A current ethical issue is that of stem cell research on embryos.
24Scientific inquiry begins with observation. Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceAsk a QuestionScientific inquiry begins with observation.Scientific inquiry involves asking questions and processing information from a variety of reliable sources.
25A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation. Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceForm a HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, usually it is considered valid and is accepted by the scientific community.
26Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceCollect the DataWhen a biologist conducts an experiment, he or she investigates a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis and collect data or information.
27Controlled Experiments Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceControlled ExperimentsA control group in an experiment is a group used for comparison.The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested.
28Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceExperimental DesignIndependent variable—only one factor in a controlled experiment can change at a time. The experimenter changes this variable.Dependent variable—results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.Dependent and Independent Variables
29Data—information gained from observations. Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceData GatheringData—information gained from observations.Quantitative data can be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors (numerical data).Qualitative data are descriptions of what our senses detect (non-numerical data).
30The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten. Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceMetric SystemThe metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten.SI units (International System of Units) are commonly used in science for consistency and ease of communication.
31A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp. Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceAnalyze the DataA graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp.Even when a hypothesis has not been supported, it is valuable.
32Section 3The Study of LifeMethods of ScienceReport ConclusionsIf the reviewers agree on the merit of the paper, then the paper is published for review by the public and use by other scientists.
33Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions The Study of LifeChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practiceconnected.mcgraw-hill.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
34Why is the metric system preferred by scientists? ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhy is the metric system preferred byscientists?Answer: Using the same system ofmeasurements allows a scientistto repeat another’s work knowingthat he or she is performing theexperiments exactly the same.
35What is a testable explanation? ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat is a testable explanation?observationhypothesisexperimentconstantDCBACDQ 2
36Which is not a characteristic of all organisms? ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of all organisms?A. made of one or more cellsB. grows and develops capable of rationalC. maintains homeostasisthoughtCDQ 3
37ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 1 Formative QuestionsWhat area of science takes scientific knowledge and applies it to meet human needs?explorationdynamicsphysicstechnologyDCBAFQ 1
38ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the process of change that takes place during the life of an organism?adaptationdevelopmentgrowthmaturationDCBAFQ 2
39adapting to the environment displaying organization ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 1 Formative QuestionsSome species of plants begin opening their flowers in the morning when they are exposed to sunlight. What characteristic of living things does this represent?acquiring energyadapting to the environmentdisplaying organizationresponding to stimuliDCBAFQ 3
40ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 1 Formative QuestionsWhat process regulates an organism’s internal conditions and keeps them stable?adaptationequilibriumhomeostasismetabolismDCBAFQ 4
41What is a theory? a body of knowledge about a natural phenomenon ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsWhat is a theory?a body of knowledge about a natural phenomenona creative tool for designing investigationsa scientific inquiry that seeks to providean explanationD. an explanation supported by observationsand experimentsDCBAFQ 5
42ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsScientists discard observations and data that are not consistent with current scientific understanding.truefalseBAFQ 6
43ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsA scientist wants to report the findings from her investigations. Before her information can be published, what must it go through?forensicspeer reviewscientific methodsthe metric systemDCBAFQ 7
44ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsWhat do issues such as AIDS, global warming, genetic engineering, and cloning have in common?They involve ethics.They involve forensics.They are examples of pseudoscience.D. They require the metric system.DCBAFQ 8
45ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsWhen you form a logical conclusion based on your observations and what you already know, what are you making?a conjecturean inferencea speculationa theoryDCBAFQ 9
46a testable explanation ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsWhat is a hypothesis?a defined questiona curious assumptiona tested inferencea testable explanationDCBAFQ 10
47What type of discovery is a serendipitous discovery? ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsWhat type of discovery is a serendipitous discovery?accidentalanticipatedingeniouswhimsicalDCBAFQ 11
48ChapterThe Study of LifeSection 2 Formative QuestionsIn order for scientific experiments to be valid, they must be based on scientific methods that use controlled experiments.BAtruefalseFQ 12
49ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIdentify the term used to describe an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by observation and experimentation.forensicsnatural lawtheoryphysicsDCBACAQ 1
50In a controlled experiment, which factor can change? ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIn a controlled experiment, which factor can change?control groupexperimental groupdependent variableindependent variableDCBACAQ 2
51Look at the figure below. Why is scientific ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the figure below. Why is scientificdata often displayed in graphs?CAQ 3
52Answer: Graphs help show patterns in the data and make it easier to ChapterThe Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: Graphs help show patterns in thedata and make it easier tounderstand.CAQ 4
53ChapterThe Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich biological science was Jane Goodall studying when she observed chimpanzees?ecologygeneticsanimal behaviorbiotechnologyDCBASTP 1
54ChapterThe Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeIn which activity would an environmental biologist most likely be involved?genetically engineering plantsfinding ways to protect speciespreventing the spread of diseasedeveloping new medicines and vaccinesDCBASTP 2
55Which is an indication that an idea is based on pseudoscience? ChapterThe Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is an indication that an idea is based on pseudoscience?It brings up more questions.It causes disagreement and debate.It does not welcome scientific investigation.It does not receive acceptance by scientists.DCBASTP 3
56ChapterThe Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeScientists use laboratory rats to test the effects of a new drug, Razatrin. What do rats in the control group receive?food containing Razatrinfood without Razatrin food containing another drugfood containing a variety of drugsDCBASTP 4
57Which is the dependent variable in this experiment? ChapterThe Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is the dependent variable in this experiment?numberof daysmassBASTP 5
58Glencoe Biology Transparencies ChapterThe Study of LifeGlencoe Biology Transparencies
60Section 1 Vocabulary biology organism organization growth development The Study of LifeVocabularySection 1biologyorganismorganizationgrowthdevelopmentreproductionspeciesstimulusresponsehomeostasisadaptation
61Section 2 Vocabulary science theory peer review law ethics The Study of LifeVocabularySection 2sciencetheorypeer reviewlawethics
62Section 3 Vocabulary observation inference scientific method The Study of LifeVocabularySection 3observationinferencescientific methodhypothesisexperimentcontrol groupSIexperimental groupindependent variabledependent variableconstantdatasafety symbolMetric system
63Visualizing Scientific Methods ChapterThe Study of LifeAnimationVisualizing Scientific Methods