2Chapter 1 The Study of Life Section 1: Introduction to BiologySection 2: The Nature of ScienceSection 3: Methods of Science
3Biology—the science of life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyBiology—the science of lifeStudy the origins and history of life and once-living thingsStudy the structures of living thingsStudy how living things interact with one anotherStudy how living things function
4Study the diversity of life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyWhat do biologists do?Study the diversity of lifeResearch diseasesDevelop technologiesImprove agriculturePreserve the environment
5The Eight Characteristics of Life Made of one or more cells Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyThe Eight Characteristics of LifeMade of one or more cellsDisplays growthGrows and developsReproduces
6The Eight Characteristics of Life Responds to stimuli Requires energy Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyThe Eight Characteristics of LifeResponds to stimuliRequires energyMaintains homeostasisAdaptations evolve over timeCharacteristics of Living Organisms
7Living things are made of one or more cells. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyLiving things are made of one or more cells.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
8Displays Organization Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyDisplays OrganizationLiving things also display organization, which means they are arranged in an orderly way.Specialized cells are organized into groups that work together called tissues.Tissues are organized into organs.Organ systems work together to support an organism.
9Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyGrows and DevelopsGrowth results in the addition of mass to an organism and, in many organisms, the formation of new cells and new structures.
10Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyReproducesA species is a group of organisms that can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
11The reaction to a stimulus is a response. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyResponds to StimuliAnything that is part of the internal or external environments and causes some sort of reaction by the organism is called a stimulus.Venus flytrapThe reaction to a stimulus is a response.
12Living things get their energy from food. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyRequires EnergyLiving things get their energy from food.Most plants and some unicellular organisms use light energy from the Sun to make their own food and fuel their activities.Organisms that cannot make their own food get energy by consuming other organisms.
13Maintains Homeostasis Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyMaintains HomeostasisRegulation of an organism’s internal conditions to maintain life is called homeostasis.If anything happens within or to an organism that affects its normal state, processes to restore the normal state begin.
14Adaptations Evolve Over Time Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyAdaptations Evolve Over TimeAn adaptation is any inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time.
15Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceWhat is science?Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature.The nature, or essential characteristics, of science is scientific inquiry.Scientific inquiry is both a creative process and a process rooted in unbiased observations and experimentation.
16Uses Scientific Theory Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUses Scientific TheoryA theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time.The results are always the same.
17Expands Scientific Knowledge Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceExpands Scientific KnowledgeMost scientific fields are guided by research that results in a constant reevaluation of what is known.This reevaluation often leads to new knowledge that scientists then evaluate.
18Challenges Accepted Theories Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceChallenges Accepted TheoriesScientists welcome debate about one another’s ideas.Sciences advance by accommodating new information as it is discovered.
19These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceQuestions ResultsObservations or data that are not consistent with current scientific understanding are of interest to scientists.These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations.
20Conclusions are reached from the evidence. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceTests ClaimsScience-based information makes claims based on a large amount of data and observations obtained from unbiased investigations and carefully controlled experimentation.Conclusions are reached from the evidence.
21Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUndergoes Peer ReviewBefore it is made public, science-based information is reviewed by scientists’ peers.Peer review is a process by which the procedures used during an experiment and the results are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
22Scientists can repeat the work of others as part of a new experiment. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUses Metric SystemScientists can repeat the work of others as part of a new experiment.The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten.
23Science in Everyday Life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceScience in Everyday LifeA person who is scientifically literate combines a basic understanding of science and its processes with reasoning and thinking skills.Ethical issues must be addressed by society based on the values it holds important.
24Scientific inquiry begins with observation. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceAsk a QuestionScientific inquiry begins with observation.Science inquiry involves asking questions and processing information from a variety of reliable sources.
25A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceForm a HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, usually it is considered valid and is accepted by the scientific community.
26Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceCollect the DataWhen a biologist conducts an experiment, he or she investigates a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis.
27Controlled Experiments Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceControlled ExperimentsA control group in an experiment is a group used for comparison.The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested.
28Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceExperimental DesignIndependent variable—only one factor in a controlled experiment can change at a time.Dependent variable—results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.Dependentand Independent Variables
29Data—information gained from observations. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceData GatheringData—information gained from observations.Quantitative data can be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors.Qualitative data are descriptions of what our senses detect.
30A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceAnalyze the DataA graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp.Even when a hypothesis has not been supported, it is valuable.
31Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceReport ConclusionsIf the reviewers agree on the merit of the paper, then the paper is published for review by the public and use by other scientists.Visualizing Scientific Method
32Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions The Study of LifeChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
33Why is the metric system preferred by scientists? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhy is the metric system preferred byscientists?Answer: Using the same system ofmeasurements allows a scientistto repeat another’s work knowingthat he or she is performing theexperiments exactly the same.
34What is a testable explanation? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat is a testable explanation?observationhypothesisexperimentconstant
35Which is not a characteristic of all organisms? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of allorganisms?made of one or more cellsgrows and developscapable of rational thoughtmaintains homeostasis
36What area of science takes scientific Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat area of science takes scientificknowledge and applies it to meet humanneeds?explorationdynamicsphysicstechnology
37What is the process of change that takes Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the process of change that takesplace during the life of an organism?adaptationdevelopmentgrowthmaturation
38Some species of plants begin opening their Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsSome species of plants begin opening theirflowers in the morning when they are exposedto sunlight. What characteristic of living thingsdoes this represent?acquiring energyadapting to the environmentdisplaying organizationresponding to stimuli
39What process regulates an organism’s internal Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat process regulates an organism’s internalconditions and keeps them stable?adaptationequilibriumhomeostasismetabolism
40a body of knowledge about a natural phenomenon Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is a theory?a body of knowledge about a naturalphenomenona creative tool for designing investigationsexplanationa scientific inquiry that seeks to provide anan explanation supported by observationsand experiments
41Scientists discard observations and Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseScientists discard observations anddata that are not consistent with currentscientific understanding.
42A scientist wants to report the findings from Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsA scientist wants to report the findings fromher investigations. Before her information canbe published, what must it go through?forensicspeer reviewscientific methodsthe metric system
43What do issues such as AIDS, global Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsWhat do issues such as AIDS, globalwarming, genetic engineering, and cloninghave in common?They involve ethics.They involve forensics.They must be addressed by scientists.They require the metric system.
44When you form a logical conclusion based Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhen you form a logical conclusion basedon your observations and what you alreadyknow, what are you making?a conjecturean inferencea speculationa theory
45a testable explanation Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is a hypothesis?a defined questiona curious assumptiona tested inferencea testable explanation
46What type of discovery is a serendipitous discovery? Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhat type of discovery is a serendipitousdiscovery?accidentalanticipatedingeniouswhimsical
47In order for scientific experiments to be Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseIn order for scientific experiments to bevalid, they must be based on scientificmethods that use controlledexperiments.
48Identify the term used to describe an Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIdentify the term used to describe anexplanation of a natural phenomenonsupported by observation andexperimentation.forensicsnatural lawtheoryphysics
49In a controlled experiment, which factor can change? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIn a controlled experiment, which factor canchange?control groupexperimental groupdependent variableindependent variable
50Look at the figure below. Why is scientific Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the figure below. Why is scientificdata often displayed in graphs?
51Answer: Graphs help show patterns in the data and make it easier to Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: Graphs help show patterns in thedata and make it easier tounderstand.
52Which biological science was Jane Goodall Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich biological science was Jane Goodallstudying when she observed chimpanzees?ecologygeneticsanimal behaviorbiotechnology
53In which activity would an environmental Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeIn which activity would an environmentalbiologist most likely be involved?genetically engineering plantsfinding ways to protect speciespreventing the spread of diseasedeveloping new medicines and vaccines
54Which is an indication that an idea is based on pseudoscience? Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is an indication that an idea is based onpseudoscience?It brings up more questions.It causes disagreement and debate.It does not welcome scientific investigation.It does not receive acceptance by scientists.
55Scientists use laboratory rats to test the effects Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeScientists use laboratory rats to test the effectsof a new drug, Razatrin. What do rats in thecontrol group receive?food containing Razatrinfood without Razatrinfood containing another drugfood containing a variety of drugs
56Which is the dependent variable in this experiment? Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is the dependent variable in thisexperiment?massnumberof days
57Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 1The Study of LifeGlencoe Biology Transparencies
59Section 1 Vocabulary biology organism organization growth development Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 1biologyorganismorganizationgrowthdevelopmentreproductionspeciesstimulusresponsehomeostasisadaptation
60Section 2 Vocabulary science theory peer review metric system SI Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 2sciencetheorypeer reviewmetric systemSIforensicsethics
61Section 3 Vocabulary observation inference scientific method Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 3observationinferencescientific methodhypothesisserendipityexperimentcontrol groupexperimental groupindependent variabledependent variableconstantdatasafety symbol
62Visualizing Scientific Method Chapter 1The Study of LifeAnimationVisualizing Scientific Method