Presentation on theme: "Promoting SMEs though Access to Finance Presented by: M. A. Baqui Khalily Department of Finance University of Dhaka, Bangladesh."— Presentation transcript:
Promoting SMEs though Access to Finance Presented by: M. A. Baqui Khalily Department of Finance University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Overwhelming Interest in Access to Finance Seminal work of McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) led to re-emergence of the issue of finance matters in development The classical work of Patrick (1966) – demand following and supply-leading finance strategy is re-visited. Debate on the direction of causality between finance and growth. This is well documented (King and Levin (1993), Levin and Zervos (1998), Arestis et. al. (2001), Gupta (1984). Several conclusions are derived from the literature: Finance follows growth in developing countries, and growth induces finance in developed countries.
Micro Level Research on Access to Finance Rajan and Zingles (1998): Industries with access to external finance grow at faster rate. Wurgler (2000) and Aghian et. al. (2007) with similar conclusion: Increase in investment in more growing industries. BUT small and medium industries find it difficult to raise funds for inherent behavioral characteristics of financial institutions (Hutchinson and Xavier 2007; Berger and Udell 2004). Research on impact of microfinance reinforces the fact access to finance matters (e.g., Hossain 1988; Khandker; Zohir et. al.; Rahman et. al.)
SMEs in Development Agenda Most of the growth theories suggest that industrialization is the engine of economic growth A balanced growth of both agriculture and industrialization is very important and necessary for the economic development of Bangladesh For pursuing the industrial development efforts, the main objectives and strategies focused are optimal utilization of resources, creating employment opportunities and catalyzing the growth of production and exports
SMEs in Development Agenda The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) showed that in the developing countries, more than 90% of all firms, outside the agricultural sector, are SMEs and microenterprises and generating a significant portion of GDP In Bangladesh, enterprises of less than 100 employees account for 99% of firms and 58% of employment
SMEs in Development Agenda (cont.) Well managed and healthy SMEs are a source of employment and wealth as well as poverty alleviation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between a countrys overall level of income and the number of SMEs per 1,000 people (IFC, 2006) The World Banks Doing Business reports indicate that a healthy SME sector corresponds with a reduced level of informal or black market activities Local SMEs can work as an important source of supply and service provision to the large enterprises of both national and internationals SME is also good for communities itself, because through employment creation and growth, it will improve the standard of living of the communities.
Sources of Finance and Stages of SME Development The entrepreneurs require mainly three types of finances: (i) equity capital - to finance assets at the start of a business; (ii) debts – to refinance assets; and (iii) working capital – to maintain the day-to-day activities (Jesmin, 2009) Access to credit/financing is deemed to be one of the greatest hurdles faced by SMEs
Bangladesh inherited a weak backbone of industrialization since independence. According to Bangladesh economic review, the contribution of the broad industry sector to real GDP: 17.31 percent in 1980-81, 29.95 percent in 2009-10 SMEs witnessed very limited growth during 90s, and this was mainly due to negative growth of the small industries (employment size less than 20). INDUSTRIALIZATION AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH
State of SMEs in Bangladesh The importance of SME especially small and cottage industries is always recognized in every development plans of government before and since liberation Recently the development partners also giving importance to SMEs The government of Bangladesh is also taking a lot measures for the improvement of the SMEs: Targeted program for SME Targeted for women entrepreneurs SME Foundation Refinancing of SME loans The main constraints of financing, even with continuous of effort of government, could not resolved
State of SMEs in Bangladesh There were approximately 6 million micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), which included enterprises with up to 100 workers employing a total of 31 million people, equivalent to 40 per cent of the population of the country of age 15 years and above (MIDAS,2003) By the end of 2010, it has grown enormously, at least by 50 percent. Approximately around 9 milion MSMEs. Contribution of MFIs.
State of SMEs in Bangladesh There are more than 600,000 small and cottage enterprises in Bangladesh (Ahmed, 2004). Some 3 million micro enterprises are also in operation 90 percent of all industrial units are SMEs (SEDF, 2003) If we accept the estimates of Ahmed (2004) and the fact reported by SEDF, it can be estimated that there are some 900,000 industrial units in the country. Manufacturing sector contributes only around 10 percent of total employment.
State of SMEs in Bangladesh Return to capital investment is higher for micro and small enterprises (above 30 percent) compared to 13 percent for the medium enterprises SMEs in Bangladesh have higher profitability than some European countries. Operating profit of SMEs as reported in SEDF (2006): Bangladesh: 12 percent Greece: 7 percent Franc 5.1 percent, and Canada: 9.2 percent SMEs in Bangladesh have higher potentials and can play very significant role in growth and development, as it is Japan.
State of SMEs in Bangladesh There is no precise estimate of the contribution of SMEs to GDP. Serder (2000) reported around 20 percent contribution of small-scale enterprises to GDP. Daniels (2003): Contribution of MSMEs - around 25 percent to GDP. The contribution is expected to increase with the inclusion of public sector enterprises. Rabbani and Sulaiman (2005) show that SMEs with relaxed liquidity constraint because of bank finance tend to create more employment than the SMEs with lesser or no access to credit Despite lack of adequate data, empirical evidences suggest that SMEs perhaps contribute around 25 percent to GDP
SME Financing in Bangladesh Dismal pictures of SME financing: Khan, Imam and Khatun (1998) Khan, Imam, Khatun and Ahmed (2003) Daniels (2003) SEDF (2006) All these studies report same findings: Around forty percent of the SMEs do not approach banks for loans. Around fifteen percent of the loan applications are rejected on the ground of guarantee or collateral, asymmetric information and high transaction cost In Bangladesh, SMEs are largely financed by own funds. Equity fund through capital market is not a widely used source for small and medium entrepreneurs.
SME Financing in Bangladesh The recent study of SEDF (2006) reinforces the earlier findings that SMEs have limited access to bank financing It shows that about two-third of the SMEs did not approach banks for loans Most of them approached banks for working capital loans. Not all of them were granted loans It takes about two months on an average to get loan sanctioned. The findings are similar to the earlier studies.
Finance is a constraint Access of the small enterprises to credit has not improved over the past 30 year – access to finance is still a dominating constraint. All previous studies reported the same: SEDF (2006) Task Force report 2004 Ahmed 2004 Khan et.al. (2003) Daniels (2003) Serder (2000) Khan et. al. (1998) Rahman et. al. (1979)
What is the Present Trend? Small have little access Trend in Industrial Finance by Size Year Industrial Term CreditWorking CapitalAs % of Total credit LMESELMESE Industrial Credit Working capital 200989.084.0495.472.3321.3017.59 200593.063.0493.755.4617.8720.43 200493.353.5292.886.3418.5919.49 200394.262.9593.565.7219.5116.97 Source: Bangladesh Bank Publications
What restricts banks to finance SMEs? Literature on industrial finance and entrepreneurship development amply document two factors that restrict banks to extend sufficient credit facilities to the SME sector.: Collateral, High transaction cost Empirical evidences suggest that banks do not sanction credit to the SMEs for lack of collateral and high transaction cost (SEDF 2006; Khan et. al., 2003; Khalily et. al. 1994, Rahman et. al. 1979). SEDF (2006) reports that even 16 percent of loans sanctioned did not take loan for lack of sufficient collateral.
What Do We learn? Small enterprises are largely excluded. They are the Missing Middle. This group has nether access to formal credit market nor do they have access to micro credit market. Collateral is a constraint for promoting SMEs, in particular small enterprises.
BRAC Bank and Missing Middle BRAC bank initiated SMEs lending in 2001 BRAC Bank emerged through a process of learning. BRAC They probably perceived that while the big push was required for taking micro enterprises to the next phase of development, it was important that small enterprises are promoted as they are the missing middle in the path of development In the private banks, the SMEs did not get sufficient access to get loan as the large corporation did. BRAC bank came to break that tradition, and started providing different types of SME loans, particularly small business, since inception
Total number of borrowers by year (in thousands)
BRAC Bank, as a Development Bank, follows Triple Bottom Line Although BRAC Bank finances SMEs, its focus has been on the small enterprises with average loan size around TK 5 lacs. WHY? They are largely left out in the credit market Small entrepreneurs are essentially the people within lower 50 th percentile of income distribution These entrepreneurs learn through doing, and/or learning from the experience of others in the same profitable business They have potentials to grow with backward and forward linkages These enterprises are generally family enterprises with participation of qualified family members and hired laborers They will be effective agents of change at the community level promoting small enterprises will in fact help others with homogeneous characteristics to learn from the experiences of these arguably successful entrepreneurs. BRA Bank not only provides credit to small business, they promote social and environmental dimensions of credit as well.
How Effective is BRAC Bank? A recent study shows that BRAC Bank has made impact at the enterprise and household level of the borrowers. The study was conducted over randomly selected 525 enterprises of 21 SME unit offices of BRAC bank Of the enterprise borrowers, 35 percent were repeat borrowers. The other samples included enterprises who did not apply for repeat loan or rejected for the repeat loan. The basic characteristics prior to accessing Brac Bank credit were homogenous in terms of number of employees, assets size, initial capital size.
Results Types of Borrowers Age of the entrepreneur Educational qualification of the entrepreneurs Experience in Current business Experience in Family business New 38.11 (8.48)  9.49 (2.97)  12.13 (7.12)  11.00 (13.22)  Repeat 40.01 (8.60)  9.54 (3.31)  15.01 (8.30)  8.05 (10.48)  Total 39.41 (8.60)  9.53 (3.20)  14.09 (8.04)  8.85 (11.08)  Table: General characteristics of the borrowers
IndicatorsVariablet-test Difference as % of Control Accumulation of Assets Total Assets at cost (USD)4.3462.08 Total Assets at Market Price (USD)4.7750.12 Growth rate of Total Assets (USD)3.69111.85 Utilization of resources Growth rate of Fixed Assets at cost3.0498.95 Growth rate of Fixed Assets at market price 6.37157.75 Ratio of Fixed assets to Total Assets-2.49-12.75 Sales-fixed Assets2.1666.3 Long Run profitability Growth Sales Sales (US Dollar) 3.19 4.43 98.24 76.3 Profitability Profit (USD)1.812.82 Growth rate of Profit2.6875.02 ROA-4.69-22.97 Rate of Return-6.38-27.43 Financial Structure Total Capital (USD)4.133.44 Total Debt (USD)3.6831.89 Equity Capital (USD)3.4533.82 Table: PSM estimates of financial indicators
Table: Matrix of Economic Indicators Economic indicators Specific measurement indicators Repeat Borrowers New Borrowers Differencet-stat % of change over control (N=134)(N=286) Employment creation Number of full time male employees 2.261.620.643.2739.64 Number of full time female employees 0.310.290.020.23
Table : Matrix of Economic Indicators: reflection of Perceptions (percent) Economic indicators Repeat Borrowe rs New Borrower s Differenc e t-stat Percentag e change Generation of savings 75.9572.243.700.37- Income enhancement 52.2130.8821.346.6069.12 Business expansion 71.7135.0336.688.84104.70 Creation of competitive environment or business 74.6871.51 3.170.49-
Table : Matrix of Social indicators Social indicators Repeat Borrowers Repeat borrowers Difference t-value Percentage of change (N=134)(N=286) Use of child labor (Number) 0.090.04 0.05 1.5714.20 Education of children (Percentage increase in expenditure) 51.8828.52 23.35 4.3081.89 Health (Percentage increase in expenditure) 45.9926.33 19.66 6.8174.69 Television (percentage increase in expenditure) 15.646.53 9.11 4.04139.46
Table : Matrix of Market Development Indicators Market development indicatorsGrowth rate Backward linkage167 percent Forward linkage127.8 percent Expansion of similar business98.67
Effectiveness indicators Specific measurement indicators First time borrower Repeated borrower Di P>|z| DiD P>|z| Creating awareness Communication by bank staff 47.27 (121) 47.95 (281) 0.68 0.9004 Bank advertisement 3.91 (10) 2.73 (16) -1.18 0.530 Proximity to the unit office of BRAC Bank 9.77 (25) 14.68 (86) 4.91 0.528 Cost of fundLow interest rate 2.76 (7) 4.45 (25) 1.69 0.421 Accessibility to BRAC loan Borrower-friendly flexible lending system 50.00 (127) 45.20 (254) -0.048 0.376 Table: Matrix of effectiveness indicators
BRAC BANK is effective BRAC Bank is effective in reaching the long ignored missing middle with average loan size of around Taka350,000. They do provide collateral free loans. Their loan programs have positive impacts at the enterprise and household level. Most interestingly, it has contributed to backward and forward linkages. The bank operates largely in rural areas, and therefore playing a critical role in rural financial market
Can MFIs play a role in reaching out missing middle? MFIs are largely financing micro enterprises in Bangladesh. Missing middle can be financed by MFIs if lateral entry is permitted. Microcredit Regulatory Agency should think about it. This will also create competition in rural credit market.