World Tourism Organization (WTO) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Air Transport Association (IATA)
The WTO is the chief organization in tourism. A governmental body which deals with all aspects of tourism. Began on January 2, 1975.
Before, it is called International Union of Official Travel Organization, (IUTO), a nongovernmental technical body set up at Hague, Netherlands in 1925 to promote tourism for the economic, social, and cultural advancement of all nations. Interrupted by World War II in 1946, reestablished in London. Its headquarters was later transferred to Madrid. Recognized by United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism and considered as the main instrument for the promotion of tourism.
The rapid expansion of travel had created the need for a world body able to deal with tourism problems at the government level and this led to the transformation of IUTO into WTO. And the intergovernmental organizations of universal vocation providing an adequate framework for government-level consultations, effective cooperation between member states and formulation of decisions on all questions relating to their policies in the field of tourism.
The WTO works in cooperation with all international organizations, particularly United Nations, as well as with commercial and noncommercial bodies involved in tourism. There are three classes of members: Full member Associate member Affiliate member
Full Members Are sovereign states Sovereignty is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory A sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity of the international legal system that is represented by a centralized government that has supreme independent authority over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither dependent on nor subject to any other power or state. [ [ Associate Members Are territories or groups of territories not responsible for their external relations but whose membership is approved by the state which assumes responsibility for their external relations. Affiliate Members Are international bodies both government and nongovernment concerned with specialized interest in tourism, as well as commercial and noncommercial bodies and associations whose activities are related to the aims of WTO.
The WTO has created a number of regional commissions such as the Regional Commission for Tourism in Europe, the Regional Travel Commission for the Americans, African Travel Commission, and others. Technical commissions deals with specific problems such as travel barriers and travel development. The WTO has the same legal character as the United Nations and its specialized agencies. It has three important legally functioning bodies: General Assembly, Executive Council, and the Secretariat directed by a secretary-general.
The General Assembly, which meets once every two years, is the supreme organ of the WTO. It is composed of representatives from all member states. Each member has the right to vote in the decision- making process. However, the Assembly resolutions are not binding on the member states. They imply recommendations.
The Executive Council, which meets at least twice a year, is composed of members elected by the Assembly for a four- year term based on a fair and equitable geographical distribution. The function of this council is to implement the decisions of the Assembly and prepare for future sessions. The Secretariat, headed by a secretary-general, carries out the decisions of the General Assembly and the Executive Council. The secretary-general is elected every four years by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Council.
The primary aim of the WTO is to promote and develop tourism, to contribute to the economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity, and universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. WTOs official publications: International Travel Statistics Travel Abroad – Frontier Formalities Economic Review of World Tourism Technical Bulletins Manuals
The WTO: Monitors and identifies trends in world tourism Studies travel demands, marketing trends, tourist motivation, and alternative approaches to marketing Surveys the environmental effects of travel growth and makes recommendations for the protection of natural and cultural resources Provides services for developing and organizing tourism for countries Serves as a clearing house for tourist information Informs members about tourism development Conducts vocational training programs Works for the elimination or reduction of governmental measures for international travel and the standardization of requirements. This includes passports, visas, police registration, and frontier formalities. Assists and develops technical cooperation projects Works to standardize equipment, terms, phraseology, and signs as an aid to easier travel and understanding for foreign visitors.
An organization of around 134 governments Established for the purpose of promoting civil aviation on a world wide scale. Established at the Chicago conference of 1944.
Objectives: Adopt international standards and to recommend practices for regulating air navigation Recommend installation of navigation facilities by member countries Set forth proposals for the reduction of customs and immigration formalities Plan for the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world Encourage the improvement of the art of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes
Seek the development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation Provide for safe, regular, efficient, economical air transportation Discourage unreasonable competition Insure that the rights of contracting countries are fully respected, and that every member has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines Discourage discrimination between contracting countries Promote the development of all aspects of air transportation
Established in 1945 in Havana. Composed of airline operators attached to the national delegations of the ICAO conference in Chicago. Members includes more than 11 scheduled airlines.
Their objectives are: To promote safe, regular, and economical air transport, faster air commerce, and study problems connected with the industry. IATA serves as an agency through which airlines seek jointly to solve problems that cannot be solved individually. It is involved in standardizing tickets, prices, weight bills, baggage checks, and other documents. This helps make travel uniforms throughout the world.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) Caribbean Tourism Association (CTA) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Organization of American States (OAS) Others: South American Tourism Organization (SATO) European Travel Commission (ETC) Common Market Travel Association (CMTA)
Set up in a convention signed in Paris on December 14, 1960. OECD established a tourism committee responsible for coordinating studies, organizing meetings of member countries to improve statistical methods of monetary exchange and accounting, and assessing the policies of member countries and their impact on tourism
OECD shall : promote policies designed to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability and contributing to the development of the world economy; Contribute to sound economic expansion in economically developing nonmember countries To contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations
Members: Australia- Ireland- Turkey Austria- Italy- the United Kingdom Belgium- Japan- United States Canada- Luxembourg Denmark- the Netherlands Finland- New Zealand France- Norway Germany- Portugal Greece- Spain Iceland- Switzerland
Organized in Hawaii in 1951. Composed of more than one thousand organizations, including governments, air and steamship lines, wholesale and retail travel agencies, ground carriers, hotels, publishers, advertisers, public relations firms, and travel associations with major interests in Pacific area.
Its purpose is to develop, promote, and facilitate travel in the Pacific area (including Pakistan, the United States, and Canada). PATA was an early leader in recognizing the need for an environmental ethic among those involved in the tourism industry. PATA has initiated the PATA Code for Environmental Tourism. In this code, environmentally responsible tourism means tourism which recognizes the necessity of ensuring a sustainable future.
It meets the needs of the tourism industry today and does not compromise the ability of this and future generations to conserve the environment. PATAs model for an environmental ethic for the travel and tourism industry foreshadows the power of industry coalitions in directing future tourism trends and their relationships with international economic affairs. PATA organizes a wide range of conferences, reports, advertising, training programs, and seminars.
List of PATAs publications: Pacific Travel News Annual Statistical Reports Travel Market Study Meetings Pacific (a country-by-country facilities guide) PATA Trade Manual Tourism International Research Pacific (quarterly)
Founded in 1951. To encourage and assist in the development of tourism throughout the Caribbean area. Objectives: Provide an instrument for close collaboration among the various territories and countries concerned Augment and assist local promotional and development efforts of the members of the association and act as liaison between the members
Provide liaison among member governments, government agencies active in tourism development and promotion, travel and transportation industries, and organizations active in tourism and regional development Carry out advertising and publicity measures calculated to focus the attention of the travelling public upon the Caribbean as one of the worlds outstanding vacation areas. Encourage the promotion of adequate passenger transportation services to and within the Caribbean area and assist in the establishment of such services. The promotion and development of inter-Caribbean travel is also a particular concern of the association
Carry out statistical and research work relating to travel trends and tourism development for the benefit of the members Negotiate with governments either directly or through the appropriate bodies for an easing of regulations and formalities which tend to be barriers to tourist travel To carry out this objectives, the CTA publishes brochures, films, reports, newsletter, and other information about the countries size, language, currency, and so on.
Represents fifteen(15) countries Australia- the Philippines Brunei- Singapore Canada- Taiwan Hong Kong- Thailand Indonesia- the United States Japan Malaysia New Zealand Peoples Republic of China
The purpose of APEC is to establish coordination of national economics for the benefit of countries in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. The specific goals are to sustain the growth and development of capital and technology in keeping with the principles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and to open and strengthen the open multi-lateral trading system in the interest of Asia-Pacific and all other economies.
APEC has ten (10) working groups including: Tourism, Telecommunications, and Transportation. Other groups include Human Resource Development, Marine Resources, Energy, Trade Promotion, Trade and Investment Data, Investment and Technology Transfer, and Fisheries. APEC has a permanent Secretariat located in Singapore. The Secretariat is to serve as a coordinating body and the central repository for all APEC documents.
The US Travel and Tourism Administration is the first country chair of the Tourism Working Group for APEC. It is working to coordinate activities with the Telecommunications and Transportation Groups. As the multicultural process of negotiations for tourism, telecommunications, and transportation services falter with the stalemate of the GATT Uruguay Board, the importance of interregional tourism and trade agreements and organizations such as APEC becomes apparent.
The main objective of the Organization of American States is to strengthen relations between American states by providing advisory services and training program in many fields including tourism. Like OECD, tourism is an important component although its principal motive was to promote economic growth. Thus OAS conducts its number of travel studies and tourism development programs.
Others: South American Tourism Organization (SATO) European Travel Commission (ETC) Common Market Travel Association (CMTA) All of which have been established to coordinate tourism activities among and within member countries.
Role of National Organizations in Tourism Planning – attracting foreign investment and funding infrastructure development. Employment and Training – determining manpower needs, developing tourism training programs. Coordinating Public and Private Sectors – determining roles in mixed economics.
Responsible for the promotion of tourism in a particular country and for the overall development of the tourist industry. Examples: United States Travel and Tourism Administration and the Department of Tourism in the Philippines. Its importance varies from one country to another. In some countries, tourism organizations are the full ministry or cabinet level while in others, it may be a subcabinet level or a council or information post.
Is the primary government agency charged with the responsibility to encourage, promote, and develop tourism as a major socioeconomic activity, to generate foreign currency and employment, and to spread the benefits of tourism to a wider segment of the population, to assure the safe, convenient, enjoyable stay and travel of the foreign and local tourist in the country.
Headed by the Secretary of Tourism who is assisted by three (3) undersecretaries and one assistant secretary. The Assistant Secretary for Internal Services and Legislative Liaison is responsible for the Legal Service, Administrative Service as well as the Financial and Management Service. The Undersecretary for Planning, Product Development, and Coordination is responsible for the Office of Tourism Development Planning, Office of Product Research and Development as well as the Office of Tourism Coordination. The Undersecretary for Tourism Service is responsible for the Office of Tourism Standards, National Capital Region, and all Regional Offices.
Daniel G. Corpuz Undersecretary, Tourism Planning and Promotions RAMON R. JIMENEZ, JR. DOT Secretary Atty. Maria Victoria V. Jasmin Undersecretary, Tourism Regulation, Coordination & Resource Generation Ma. Theresa I. Martinez Undersecretary, Office of Special Concerns and Legislative Liaison Office Atty. Eugene T. Kaw Assistant Secretary and Chief of Staff Benito C. Bengzon, Jr. Assistant Secretary, International Tourism Promotions Rolando Canizal Assistant Secretary, Tourism Development Planning Ms. Jemimah-Fay L, Alentajan Head Executive Assistant Maria Rica C. Bueno Director, Office of Tourism Standards and Regulations Ma. Cynthia C. Lazo Director, Domestic Tourism Promotions Shalimar Hofer Tamano Director, Office of Special Concerns Ma. Corazon G. Jorda-Apo Director, Office of Asia & the Pacific Verna Esmeralda C. Buensuceso Director, Office of Americas, Europe & the Middle East Atty. Evelyn R. Cajigal Director, Office of Legal Affairs Grace R. Yoro Director, Office of Financial and Management Affairs Adriana M. Flor OIC, Office of Administrative Affairs Evelyn A. Macayayong OIC, Office of Marketing Communications
The Undersecretary for Tourism Promotions is responsible for the Bureau of Domestic Promotions, Bureau of International Tourism Promotions as well as the Office of Tourism Information. Directly under the Secretary of Tourism are the National Parks and Development Committee, the Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation, the Philippine Tourism Authority, the Intramuros Administration, and the Nayong Pilipino Foundation, Inc.
The fifteen (15) regional offices of the DOT are responsible for the domestic tourism promotion, tourism marketing accreditation, tourism assistance, public relations, and coordination with local government units and tourism stockholders in the region. The regional offices are in support of the governments policy of decentralization under the Local Government Code. The DOT regional offices are also actively involved in the formulation of Regional Tourism Master Plans (RTMP) that will serve as the framework in the development of travel and tourism in the Philippines.
The regional offices are located in the following ares: Baguio City San Fernando, La Union with sub-offices in Laoag City Tuguegarao, Cagayan San Fernando, Pampanga with sub-office in Clark Legazpi City, Iloilo with sub-offices in Bacolod City and Boracay Island Cebu City, Tacloban City Zamboanga City Cagayan de Oro City Davao City Cotabato City Butuan City The oiffices of Region IV and the NCR are housed in the DOT Building on T.M. Kalaw St. Manila
There are five (5) attached agencies that help the DOT in the performance of its functions. Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation (PCVC) Intramuros Administration (IA) National Parks and Development Committee (NPDC) Nayong Pilipino Foundation (NPF)
Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) Composed of a General Manager and Deputy General Managers for Administration, Finance, Infrastructure, and Operations. Vested with the powers and functions provided under Presidential Decree No. 189 as amended by Presidential Decree No. 564. These are: To implement policies and programs of the Department pertaining to the development, promotion, and supervision of tourism projects in the Philippines. To promote the development into integrated resort complexes of selected and well-defined geographic areas with potential value, known as tourist zones. Such tourist zones shall consist of underdeveloped areas the ownership of which may be partially or wholly acquired by the Authority.
To extend all forms of assistance to private enterprise in understanding tourism projects. To undertake on its own account or in joint venture with the private sector the operation and maintenance of essential tourist facilities which private enterprise alone is not prepared or willing to undertake. To assure availability of land at reasonable prices or rental rates for private investors in hotels and other tourist facilities. To coordinate and help implement tourism-related plans or operations of local governments, government agencies, public corporations and where necessary, those of private entities.
Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation (PCVC) Was created under Executive Decree 867, was transformed into a nonstock, nonprofit corporation by virtue of Executive Decree 1448. Its operation was strengthened through the issuance of Executive Order 120-A to cover not only the marketing of conventions and incentive travel but also general tourism. The PCVC is managed by an Executive Director and Deputy Executive Directors for Convention and Incentive Travel, Travel Trade, and Corporate Affairs.
The PCVC has the following objectives: Create and maintain organizational machinery to plane, develop, and execute a campaign and conventions in the Philippines. Conducts a continuing program to promote and project Metro Manila as a Convention City. Supervise, assist and coordinate all activities related to the smooth operation of various congress and conventions to be held in the country. Oversee the requirements and general welfare of the conventioneers. Encourage and promote the development of skills and services connected with or forming an integral part in the holding of International congresses and conventions.