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CSE300 Agent-1.1 Software Agents and Aglets Kimble Cheron, Professor Steven A. Demurjian, and Mitch Saba Computer Science & Engineering Department The.

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Presentation on theme: "CSE300 Agent-1.1 Software Agents and Aglets Kimble Cheron, Professor Steven A. Demurjian, and Mitch Saba Computer Science & Engineering Department The."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSE300 Agent-1.1 Software Agents and Aglets Kimble Cheron, Professor Steven A. Demurjian, and Mitch Saba Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 191 Auditorium Road, Box U-155 Storrs, CT (860)

2 CSE300 Agent-1.2 Overview of Presentation Introduction Introduction Reasons for Agent Creation Defining Agents Researchers Involved in Agent Development Technical Overview Technical Overview Basic Agent Anatomy Agent Implementation (Aglets) Aglet Environment Aglet Methods Distributed Computing Distributed Computing Role of Agents in Distributed Computing Future Evolution of Intelligent Agent Entities Conclusions and Future Research Conclusions and Future Research

3 CSE300 Agent-1.3Introduction Age of Technology Age of Technology Personal PC as Common as Television Personal Tasks Performed Using Computers Postal Operations (Electronic Mail) Banking and Financial Operations (Electronic Banking) Shopping News Retrieval Stock Information Updates Communication Others

4 CSE300 Agent-1.4 Reasons for Agent Creation Majority of Above Tasks Executed Based on Direct Manipulation Majority of Above Tasks Executed Based on Direct Manipulation Nothing Occurs Unless Mouse, Keypad, Touchpad is Used Event-Oriented Interactions with End-Users End-Users End-Users Majority are Computer Illiterate Depend on Software to Perform Tasks Not Limited to Personal Computers, Embedded Systems Require Operators The Software Agent is the Key to Providing a Delegated Approach to Direct Manipulation The Software Agent is the Key to Providing a Delegated Approach to Direct Manipulation

5 CSE300 Agent-1.5 Reasons for Agent Creation Potential Reduction of Network Load Potential Reduction of Network Load Movement of Code to Remote Location Voluminous Data Remains Locally Resident Addressing Network Latency Issues Addressing Network Latency Issues Communication of Decision Instantaneous and Simultaneously Real-Time Notification Issue: Eliminate Delays Encapsulate Protocols Encapsulate Protocols Change Protocol, Change Agent Reactive to Evolution Asynchronous, Autonomous, and Heterogeneous Asynchronous, Autonomous, and Heterogeneous Nature of Todays Computing Platforms Dynamically Reactive to Change Potential for Fault-Tolerance and Robustness

6 CSE300 Agent-1.6 Defining Agents Agent Implementation Agent Implementation Personal Assistance Networks Databases Operating Systems Other Equipment (Medical Equipment) Agent Functions Agent Functions Find and Filter Information Customize Views of Information Automate Work Delegate Work Back to Computer

7 CSE300 Agent-1.7 Perspectives for Definition Two Perspectives for Defining Agent Two Perspectives for Defining Agent User System User Perspective of an Agent User Perspective of an Agent A Software Agent is the Broker for the User Program that Allow Users to Delegate Work to Them Perform Work for User as Directed System Perspective of an Agent System Perspective of an Agent An Agent is a Software Object that is Situated Within a Working Environment and Possesses the Mandatory Agent Properties

8 CSE300 Agent-1.8 Agent Properties Mandatory Properties (Can Be Classifications) Mandatory Properties (Can Be Classifications) Reactive: Senses Changes in the Environment and Acts According to Those Changes Autonomous: Autonomously Control Own State/Behavior Has Control Over its Own Actions Goal-driven: Proactive to Specific User Goals Temporarily Continuous: Constantly Executing in Runtime Environment

9 CSE300 Agent-1.9 Agent Classification Communicative: Communicative: Communicate with Other Agents, Systems, and People Learning: Learning: An Agent Learns Based on Prior Experience or Behavior Mobile: Mobile: Able to Transport Itself from One System to Another Flexible: Flexible: Actions Occur on the Fly, Not Scripted Character: Character: An Agent Has Personality and an Emotional State

10 CSE300 Agent-1.10 Stationary vs. Mobile Agents Stationary Agent: Limited to Single Node Stationary Agent: Limited to Single Node Definition of Mobile Agent Definition of Mobile Agent An Application Capable of Migrating Across Network to Accomplish Required Tasks Mobile Agents are Being Used for Diverse Technologies Mentioned in Introduction Slide Mobile Agents are Being Used for Diverse Technologies Mentioned in Introduction Slide Agents are Able to Interact with Objects in a Different System Retrieving Stock Quotes From the Internet on a Real Time Basis Implementing Push and Pull Paradigms Electronic Marketplace and Commerce Etc...

11 CSE300 Agent-1.11 A Mobile Agent Travels Computer to Computer Computer Agent Computer Network

12 CSE300 Agent-1.12 Researchers Involved in Agent Development Known Groups and People Responsible Known Groups and People Responsible Government Agencies Rock Island Army Arsenal Academic Institutions Carnegie Melon University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stanford University University of Maryland Baltimore County Computer Industry Companies IBM Microsoft

13 CSE300 Agent-1.13 Technical Overview Basic Agent Anatomy Basic Agent Anatomy An Agent is an Object Which Has Properties Similar to Object Oriented Classes The Agents Attributes are Similar to Instance Variables Assist the Agent in Traveling, Communication, and Recognition Each Agent (Stationary/Mobile) has Five Properties State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

14 CSE300 Agent-1.14 Agent Properties Interface Implementation State Identifier Principals

15 CSE300 Agent-1.15 Properties: State Definition (Analogous to Activation Record) Definition (Analogous to Activation Record) Contains All Contents and Values of the Agents Runtime State and Object State Agent Traveling Agent Traveling State Contains All the Information Required to Resume Execution After Traveling Language Dependencies Language Dependencies Implementation Language Determines If an Agent Only Uses its Instance Variables to Resume Execution Saving the Execution State at Runtime is Not Java Compliant Java Agents Require the Object State to Resume Execution State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

16 CSE300 Agent-1.16 Properties: Implementation Definition Definition The Code Used to Execute an Agent on Any Location (Location Independent) Agent Traveling Agent Traveling An Agent Can Travel With its Code Code on Demand An Agent Can Retrieve its Code After Reaching its Destination Language Dependencies Language Dependencies A Common Language Must Be Used To Allow Agent to Travel and Execute on a Different Host Usually a Platform Independent Scripting Language is Used for Implementation State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

17 CSE300 Agent-1.17 Properties: Interface Definition Definition Entity Used for Agent-to-Agent Communication or Agent-to-System Communication Two Styles of Communication Interfaces Two Styles of Communication Interfaces Allows Others Access to an Agents Methods Messaging Interface Allows Agents to Use a Language for Communication Messaging Interface Language Messaging Interface Language Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML) Provides Point to Point Messaging Between Agents State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

18 CSE300 Agent-1.18 Properties: Identifier Definition Definition Required Entity Used for Recognition and Locating Traveling Agents Each Agent Has its Own Unique Identifier An Identifier is Globally Unique and Immutable Combination of Principals Identities and a Serial Number Identifier Functions Identifier Functions Used for Directory Services To Refer to a Specific Agent Instance State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

19 CSE300 Agent-1.19 Properties: Principals Definition Definition Entity Used by the System to Authenticate Access to an Agent Two Main Principals Manufacturer (Developer of Agent) The Manufacturer is the Principal Responsible for Creating the Agent Owner (User or Agent) Responsible for the Legal and Moral Way in Which the Agent Will Behave (Behavior) State Implementation Interface Identifier Principals

20 CSE300 Agent-1.20 Agent Environment Place Place Basic Environment in Which an Agent Executes Provides the Operating System for the Agent Cannot Execute Agents Conceptually Similar to Runtime Environment, Virtual Memory Management, Activation Rcds. Four Concepts Construction of a Place: Four Concepts Engine Resources Location Principals

21 CSE300 Agent-1.21Engine Description Description Supplies the Energy to the Place and the Agent to Function Provides a Link for Places and Agents to Networks and Other Resources Provided by a Host Hierarchical Structure of the Engine Host, Engines, Places, and Agents A Host May Hold Many Engines Engines Can Hold Many Places Places May House Many Agents Places are Given Names Because an Engine May House Several Places Places are Given Names Because an Engine May House Several Places Engine Resources Location Principals

22 CSE300 Agent-1.22 The Agent Model Pyramid Host Engines Places Aglets EEE PPP AAA

23 CSE300 Agent-1.23Resources Description Description Services Provided by the Host Networks Processors and Memory Disk Databases Other Hardware and Software Services Controlled Access to Resources Controlled Access to Resources Provided to the Agent by the Engine and Place Engine Resources Location Principals

24 CSE300 Agent-1.24Location Description Description Address of the Executing Agent Combination of Construction of Location: Combination of The Name of a Place in Which It Executes The Network Address of the Engine in Which the Place Resides Typical Written Location Typical Written Location The Port of the Engine With a Place Name Attribute and an Internet Protocol (IP) Address Engine Resources Location Principals

25 CSE300 Agent-1.25Principals Two Main Principals Two Main Principals Manufacturer Place Master M Manufacturer Author (Provider) of the Place Responsible for the Operation of the Place Place Master Place Master Responsible for the Creation of the Place Implementation Engine Resources Location Principals

26 CSE300 Agent-1.26 Place and Engine Agents Place Engine Resources Host

27 CSE300 Agent-1.27 Agent Behavior Three Agent Events Three Agent Events Creation and Disposal Transfer Communication Creation Creation Occurs in a Place Performed by an Agent Residing in the Same Place Performed by an Agent or Non-agent Outside of the Place

28 CSE300 Agent-1.28 Agent Creation Three Steps Instantiation and Identifier Assignment Initialization Autonomous Execution Instantiation and Identifier Assignment Step Creates the Object and Executable Similar to the Constructor of an Object, the Class Specifies the Interface and Implementation of the Agent A Place Will Assign the Agent its Identifier. Initialization Initialization Initializes using Arguments Provided by Creator

29 CSE300 Agent-1.29 Agent Creation Completion Guarantees the Agent Has Been Correctly Installed in the Place Autonomous Execution Autonomous Execution The Agent Starts Execution After Installation Executes Independently of Other Agents in the Place Disposal Performed in a Place Accomplished by an Agent Itself, a System, Another Agent in the Place, or an Agent or Non-agent Outside of the Place

30 CSE300 Agent-1.30 Agent Disposal Reasons for Disposal Lifetime Has Expired Security Rules Have Been Violated Not in Use System is Going Offline (Shutdown) Disposal Steps Disposal Steps An Agent is Allowed to Complete All Current Tasks Execution of the Agent is Suspended by the Place

31 CSE300 Agent-1.31 Agent Travel Definition Agent is Dispatched From its Origin and Received by the Specified Destination Performed by an Agent Itself, Another Agent in the Same Place, or an Agent or Non-agent System Outside of the Place Origin Place and Destination Manage Travel Travel Management Travel Management Origin Place Contacts Destination Place Return Failure Indication to Agent If No Contact Destination Place Response Fulfill Travel Request Return Failure Indication to Origin

32 CSE300 Agent-1.32 Agent Transfer Resume Execution Deserialize Agent Decode Data Receive DataTransfer Data Encode Data Serialize Agent Suspend Execution SenderReceiver Network

33 CSE300 Agent-1.33 Dispatching an Agent Process Process Destination Must Be Known Prior to Departure Agent Notifies the Destination Agent System It Would Like to Depart An API is Used for Communication for Departure Destination Agent System (Engine) Process Request for Departure D Destination Agent System (Engine) Response Suspend the Agent Serialize the Agents Data Determine the Transport Protocol for the Agent Transport the Agent

34 CSE300 Agent-1.34 Receiving an Agent Process Process Receiving Engine Determines to Accept or Reject and Agent From the Sending Host Sender Must Authenticate Itself to the Receiving Engine Receiving Engine Tasks Receiving Engine Tasks Receive the Agent Decode its Data Information Deserialize the Agent Sets New Instantiation for the Agent Resume Agent Execution

35 CSE300 Agent-1.35 Agent Class Transfer Three Methods: Dependent upon the Location of the Class Three Methods: Dependent upon the Location of the Class Class at Destination Class at Origin Code-on-Demand Class at Destination Class at Destination Contained in the Engines Class Cache or the Local File System No Need to Transfer Class Transferred Agent Must Contain the Full Class Name and Discriminator May Have Information that Describes the Location of the Class Definition

36 CSE300 Agent-1.36 Agent Class Transfer Methods Class at Origin Class at Origin Transported With the Agents State to the Destination Engine State May Transferred More Than Once Can Lead to Increased Network Traffic and Wasted Network Bandwidth Code-on-Demand Code-on-Demand Class is Made Available by a Server Destination Engine Receives Class on a Code- on-Demand Basis Destination Address Must Perform an Additional Network Connection Agent Can Carry Classes on Transfer or by a Per- Request Basis Agent Can Carry Classes on Transfer or by a Per- Request Basis

37 CSE300 Agent-1.37 Agent Class Transfer Agent Class Code DestinationOrigin Class Code Server (c) Class at Server (b) Class at Origin(a) Class at destination What Other Information Must be Available at Destination?

38 CSE300 Agent-1.38Communication Properties of Messaging Communication Properties of Messaging Communication Point-to-Point Messaging One-to-One Type Messaging Broadcast Messaging One-to-Many Type Messaging, Useful in Multi- agent Systems Intra-Place Communication Communication With an Agent in the Same Place Inter-Place and Inter-Engine Communication With an Agent in a Different Place Agents Can Send Messages to Other Agents Agents Can Invoke the Methods of Other Agents If Authorized

39 CSE300 Agent-1.39 Interagent Communication Three Inter-Agent Communication Schemes Now-Type Messaging Future-Type Messaging One-way-Type Messaging Intra-Place, Inter-Place, and Inter-Engine Communication Intra-Place, Inter-Place, and Inter-Engine Communication Agent Messaging Paradigms Agent Messaging Paradigms Peer-to-Peer: Dedicated Communication Broadcast: Multi-Agent Environment

40 CSE300 Agent-1.40 Now-Type Messaging Most Popular Most Popular Most Commonly Used Most Commonly Used Synchronous Synchronous Blocks Further Execution Until Receiver Has Handled and Acknowledged the Message Send and Wait Paradigm for Message Passing Classic and Easy to Model Approach SenderReceiver

41 CSE300 Agent-1.41 Future-Type Messaging Asynchronous Asynchronous No Blocking of Current Execution Sender Has a Future (Handle) Sender Has a Future (Handle) Used for Obtaining Result Flexible Flexible Sender does not have to Wait for Receivers Response Useful for Multi-Agent Communication Useful for Multi-Agent Communication Sender Receiver

42 CSE300 Agent-1.42 One-Way-Type Messaging Asynchronous Asynchronous No Blocking of Current Execution Useful for Message Sending Agent that does not Expect Replies from Message Receiving Agent Useful for Message Sending Agent that does not Expect Replies from Message Receiving Agent Sender Does Not Retain a Handle Receiver Does Not Acknowledge Message Termed Fire-and-Forget: May be Non-Reliable Termed Fire-and-Forget: May be Non-Reliable SenderReceiver

43 CSE300 Agent-1.43 Agent Implementation (Aglets) Origins Origins Named for the Combination of the Two Terms of Agent and Applet Definitions Definitions Applet: A Lightweight Application Aglet: A Lightweight Agent Differences Differences Aglet Carries Its State Movement From One Host to the Next Applet Only Carries Its Class Files Along Movement Based on a Server Client Network

44 CSE300 Agent-1.44 Implementation Language Implementation Language Implementation Language Java Was Chosen Due to the Benefits its Provides Towards Agent Construction Movement to Java Worldwide Benefits of Java Benefits of Java Platform Independence Secure Execution Dynamic Class Loading Multithread Programming Object Serialization Reflection

45 CSE300 Agent-1.45 Agent Characteristics of Java: Benefits P Platform Independent Allows an Agent to Travel and Execute on Any Type of Computer Secure Execution Secure Execution Eliminates the Option of Programs Accessing Private Objects that They Do Not Have Authorization to Use The Environment Makes its Safe to Host an Unknown Agent Dynamic Class Loading Dynamic Class Loading Allows Agents to Execute Independently Agents Do Not Have to Be Created During the Main Program Execution

46 CSE300 Agent-1.46 Agent Characteristics of Java: Benefits Multithread Programming Multithread Programming Agents Execute Independently of other Agents Agents can Communicate with Other Agents Object Serialization Object Serialization During Transportation the Agents Data (and Code) is Serialized and Then Deserialize Reflection Reflection Assists Agents in Finding Out Information About Other Agents and Themselves Types of Object Information Methods, Constructors of Loaded Classes, and Fields Meta-Data on Active Classes that can be Queried

47 CSE300 Agent-1.47 Agent Characteristics of Java: Drawbacks Inadequate Support for Resource Control Inadequate Support for Resource Control Denial of Service Agent Will Loop and Waste Processor Cycles or Memory Resources No Protection of References No Protection of References Objects are Allowed Access to the Public Methods of a Java Object A Proxy Provides Protection of References and Location Transparency Object Inserted Between Caller and Callee

48 CSE300 Agent-1.48Drawbacks No Object Ownership of References No Object Ownership of References An Agents Execution Thread May Be Deleted An Agent Object Can Not Be Voided No Support for Preservation and Resumption of Execution State No Support for Preservation and Resumption of Execution State Java Does Not Allow Retrieval of the Full Execution State of an Object Agent Relies on Internal Attribute Values and External Events to Direct its Behavior

49 CSE300 Agent-1.49 Aglet Environment IBM Aglets Workbench IBM Aglets Workbench Assists in Bringing Mobile Agents to Life Implemented in Java IBM Aglets Workbench Operation IBM Aglets Workbench Operation Based on the Java Programming Language System Aglets Framework Provides the Mobile-agent-specific Components of the Workbench Introduces the Notion of an Aglet A Mobile (Agile) Agent Written in Java and Named After its Framework Base Class

50 CSE300 Agent-1.50 Aglet API Four Basic Elements Aglet Proxy Context Identifier Aglet Mobile Agent that Moves Across the Network Responds to Messages Runs on its Own Thread of Execution P Proxy Shield that Protects the Aglet From Direct Access to its Methods Can Have Remote Access to the Aglet (Hides Aglets Real Location)

51 CSE300 Agent-1.51 Aglet API: Elements C Context Basically the Same As a Place Houses the Engines Engines House the Aglets Addressed in the Same Manner As a Place I Identifier Element of the Aglet Each Aglet Has Its Own Unique Identifier Required Entity Used for Recognition and Locating Traveling Agents

52 CSE300 Agent-1.52 Relationship between Aglet and Proxy Interaction Clients ProxyAglet Proxy Represents the Aglet Proxy Represents the Aglet Shields Public Methods for Potential Misuse Shields Public Methods for Potential Misuse Can Hide the Actual Location of Aglet Can Hide the Actual Location of Aglet Proxy and Aglet on Different Computing Nodes Proxy and Aglet on Different Computing Nodes

53 CSE300 Agent-1.53 Relationship between Host, Server Process(Engine), and Contexts Context Host Server Process (Engine) Network

54 CSE300 Agent-1.54 Aglet: Operations Six Basic Operations Creation Cloning Dispatching Retraction Activation and Deactivation Disposal Creation Initializes a New Aglet Assigns Aglet an Identifier

55 CSE300 Agent-1.55 Basic Operations C Cloning Produce an Identical Copy of an Aglet (itself) Differences Between Clone and Original Aglet Identifier Place of Execution D Dispatching Aglet is Transported (Pushed) From One Context to Another Retraction Concept that Returns an Aglet Back to its Original Context Original Context Pulls Back the Aglet From the Current Context

56 CSE300 Agent-1.56 Basic Operations Deactivation and Activation Deactivation Must Occur Before Activation Deactivation Halts the Execution of an Aglet Activation Starts Execution of an Aglet Activation Must Occur to Restore the Aglet D Disposal Stops Execution of an Aglet Removes an Aglet From its Current Context Classification of Six Basic Aglet Operations Classified as the Life Cycle of an Aglet Observation of Six Basic Aglet Operations Context Functions Just Like a Place

57 CSE300 Agent-1.57 Agent Life-Cycle Model Aglet Class File Disk Storage Create Deactivate Activate Dispose Clone Context AContext B Retract Dispatch

58 CSE300 Agent-1.58 Aglet Methods Aglet Programming Model Similar to the Java Event Model Event Based Listeners Used to Perform Event Actions Three Event Model Listeners Clone Listener Mobility Listener Persistence Listener Actions Actions Listen for the Event They are Named After Listeners Can Be Customized to Perform Specific Actions When the Listener Event Occurs

59 CSE300 Agent-1.59 Relationship between Aglet and its Listeners Aglet Clone Events Mobility Events Persistence Events CloneListener MobilityListener PersistenceListener

60 CSE300 Agent-1.60 Event Model Listeners Clone Listener Listens for Cloning Events Actions Can Be Customized to Occur Before, During, or After the Cloning Mobility Listener Listens for Mobility Events Actions Can Be Customized to Occur When an Aglet is About to Be Dispatched, Retracted, or Arrives in a New Context Persistence Listener Listens for Persistence Events Actions Can Be Customized to Occur When an Aglet is About to Be Deactivated or Has Been Activated

61 CSE300 Agent-1.61 Aglet API: Classes and Interfaces Aglet API Simple and Flexible Represents Lightweight Pragmatic Approach to Mobile Agents Java Classes Aglet Message Futurereply Agletid Agletproxy Java Interfaces Agletproxy Agletcontext

62 CSE300 Agent-1.62 Aglet API: Classes Aglet Class Contains All Methods Needed to Perform the Basic Aglet Operations Basis for Building All Aglets Contains All the Elements of the Aglet Aglet Creation Create a Customized Aglet import com.ibm.aglet.*; public class MyFirstAglet extends Aglet{ //Put aglets methods here }

63 CSE300 Agent-1.63 Aglet and Message Class T Aglet Class Example: The Dispatch Method Dispatches an Aglet to a Remote Context The Method Call Contains the URL of the Remote Context dispatch(new URL(atp://remote.host.com/context)); Message Class Communication of Aglets is Performed by Exchanging Message Objects Agletproxy Class is Responsible for Actually Sending and Receiving the Messages Message Creation Field Type Set When Message Created Second Field of Message Constructor is Optional

64 CSE300 Agent-1.64 Message Class Code Code Message myName = new Message(my name, Lois); or Message yourName = new Message(Steve); T Message Class Example: The handleMessage Method Returns True if Message is Handled public boolean handleMessage(Message msg){ if(msg.sameKind(hello)){ doHello(); //respond to hello message return true; //yes I handled message } else return false; //not handled message }

65 CSE300 Agent-1.65 AgletProxy and Future Reply Class Message Objects are Sent Using the Agletproxy Class Methods Object sendMessage(Message msg) FutureReply sendFutureMessage(Message msg) void sendOnewayMessage(Message msg) Code Example proxy.sendMessage(myName); String name = (String)proxy.sendMessage(yourName); FutureReply Class Evaluates Wether a Reply will Be Given to a Message An Aglet Can Perform Another Task While Waiting for the Reply

66 CSE300 Agent-1.66 Future Reply Class Future Reply Objects are Retrieved Using the Agletproxy Class Method Future Reply Objects are Retrieved Using the Agletproxy Class Method sendFutureMessage(msg) Code Example Sender of Message Can Perform Another Task ( doPeriodicWork() ) While Waiting for Reply FutureReply future = proxy.sendFutureMessage(msg); while (!future.isAvailable()){ doPeriodicWork(); } Object reply = future.getReply();

67 CSE300 Agent-1.67 AgletID Class Represents the Identifier of the Aglet The Identifier is Unique to Each Aglet The Identifier Object Hides the Implementation Specific Representation of the Aglet Identity Code Example Code Example Identifier can be Retrieved from the Aglet and its Proxy AgletID aid = proxy.getAgletID(); Query the Context to Retrieve Aglet with Identity aid (must have the Identifier aid and Context) proxy = context.getAgletProxy(aid);

68 CSE300 Agent-1.68 Aglet API: Interfaces Agletproxy Interface The Handle of the Aglet Provides the Method of Communication Between Aglets Aglet Handle Design Benefits Used by Another Aglet that is Attempting to Communicate With that Aglet Provides the Aglet With Protection From Non- authorized Access Can Provide a Remote Location for the Aglet

69 CSE300 Agent-1.69 AgletProxy and AgletContext Retrieval and Setting Methods of Proxies Retrieval and Setting Methods of Proxies Aglet Can Get its Own Proxy Aglet.getProxy(); Retrieve an Enumeration of Proxies AgletContext.getAgletProxies(); Get an Aglet Proxy for a Given Identifier text.getAgletProxy(); Place AgletProxy Object into Context Property AgletContext.setProperty(); Aglet Context Execution Environment for Aglets Provides Actual Entity of the Place Houses the Aglet Aglet is Created, Sleeps, & Dies in the Context

70 CSE300 Agent-1.70AgletContext Agletcontext Interface An Aglet Will Live in the Context Get Information About Environment Send Messages to Environment Maintaining and Managing Running Aglets in an Environment Where Host System is Secure Against Malicious Aglets Agletcontext Interface Methods Aglet Class can Gain Access to Current Context Context = Getagletcontext(); Aglet can Create New Aglets (Must Have Access to Context) Context.Createaglet(…);

71 CSE300 Agent-1.71AgletContext Retract (Pull) Remotely Located Aglets Into Current Context Context.Retractaglet(remotecontexturl, Agletid); Retrieve a List of Proxies of its Fellow Aglets in the Same Context Proxies = Context.Getagletproxies(); There are Numerous Methods for the Interfaces Listed Above is an Ala Carte Example of What the API Can Perform

72 CSE300 Agent-1.72AgletContext Aglet Example: Remote File Update Premise: Large Multiple Remote Files that Must be Updated by Word Replacement One Solution: Move Files to Central Server, Perform Update, and Move Files Back Another Solution: An Aglet that Updates Files by Replacing All Occurrences of One Specified Word in the Files With Another Specified Word Distributes the Load of Updates to Multiple Servers Were Moving Code Rather Than Files

73 CSE300 Agent-1.73 Multiple Aglets Updating Files in Parallel Aglet Host (Updating) Host FFFFFF

74 CSE300 Agent-1.74 Update File Aglet Import com.ibm.aglet.*; import com.ibm.aglet.event.*; import java.net.*; import java.io.*; public class UpdateFile extends Aglet{ URL destination = null; File dir = null; String from = null; String to = null; public void onCreation(Object args){ destination = (URL)((Object[])args)[0]; dir = (File)((Object[])args)[1]; from = (String)((Object[])args)[2]; to = (String)((Object[])args)[3]; addMobilityListener(){ new MobilityAdapter(){

75 CSE300 Agent-1.75 Update File Aglet Public void onArrival(MobilityEvent e){ replace(args.file,args.from,args.to); dispose(); } } try{ dispatch(args.destination); }catch (Exception e){ System.out.println(Failed to dispatch.); } void replace(File, file, String, from, Sting to){ //Open file and replace from with to }

76 CSE300 Agent-1.76 Distributed Computing Role of Agents in Distributed Computing Role of Agents in Distributed Computing Range From Smart Matter to Electronic P Possible Areas in Distributed Computing Where Agents Would Be Useful Advertising Air-Traffic Control Business Process Re-engineering Command and Control Data Mining Digital Libraries Electronic Commerce Entertainment Filtering

77 CSE300 Agent-1.77 Role of Agents: Areas of Interest Education Information Retrieval/Management News Retrieval Network Management Personal Digital Assistants (PDAS) Secure Brokering Smart Matter Smart Databases Scheduling/Diary Management Workflow Management Numerous Other Areas that are Being Researched and Developed

78 CSE300 Agent-1.78 Role of Agents: Abilities Why Agents? Abilities are Productive for Increasing the Quality of Distributed Computing Agent Abilities Collect Data From Numerous Places Searching and Filtering Information Monitoring Target Information Dissemination Agent-to-Agent Negotiation Perform Parallel Computations Barter Enhance Telecommunication Network Services Controller for Smart Matter Enhance Entertainment

79 CSE300 Agent-1.79 Data Collection, Search, and Monitor Collect Data From Numerous Places An Agent on a Network Could Retrieve Data From Numerous Computer Stations One Application that May Be Useful Would Be a Software Registration Agent Searching and Filtering Information Discards Useless Information Saves an Immense Amount of Time Monitoring Monitor Certain Information Specified by User Retrieve Information Specified by User Requests

80 CSE300 Agent-1.80 Real Time, Communication, Computation, and Bartering Target Information Dissemination Real Time Information Being Retrieved News, Stock Quotes, Advertisements, and Software Updates for Venders Information Specified by User Negotiate Between One Another (Agent-to-agent) Agents Communicate With Other Agents P Perform Parallel Computations Agents Communicate With One Another Agents Share Information B Barter Agents Assume the Place of the User Agent Negotiates the Deal

81 CSE300 Agent-1.81 Telecommunications, Controller, and Entertainment Enhance Telecommunication Network Services Store Information of Services Provide User With Authorized Services Controller for Smart Matter Monitor Equipment Inform User of State of Equipment Enhance Entertainment Agent-to-Agent Communication Between Players User Programmed Strategic Agent The Information Above is Not Conclusive of All the Different Abilities of Mobile Agents (Endless) The Information Above is Not Conclusive of All the Different Abilities of Mobile Agents (Endless)

82 CSE300 Agent-1.82 Future Evolution of Intelligent Agent Entities Software Registration Agent Software Registration Agent Search and Filter Engines Search and Filter Engines Monitor/Supply Info. on Real Time Basis Monitor/Supply Info. on Real Time Basis Real Time Advertisement Real Time Advertisement User Filter for Unwanted Information User Filter for Unwanted Information Real Time Work Environment Update Real Time Work Environment Update Pleasure/business Travel Agent Pleasure/business Travel Agent Parallel Processing Parallel Processing Network Service Administrator Network Service Administrator Monitor Physical Aspects of Embedded Systems Monitor Physical Aspects of Embedded Systems Computer Gaming Pawn Computer Gaming Pawn

83 CSE300 Agent-1.83 Possibilities of Intelligent Agent Entities List of Future Evolution of Intelligent Agent Entities Inconclusive List of Future Evolution of Intelligent Agent Entities Inconclusive With the Advancement of Technology and a Need for a Faster Result, the Possibilities of Implementations of Mobile Agents are Vast Software Registration Agent Retrieve Registration Numbers for Certain Software Applications Data Would Be Used to Determine If a Computer System Had Unique Software Applications

84 CSE300 Agent-1.84 Search, Filter, and Monitor Search and Filter Engines Search and Filter Engines Applications: A User Could Filter Mail Based on a Certain Keyword and Not Receive Junk Mail Provide a More Extensive Search for a User Use Numerous Resources Return Specific Items for the User Search or Filter While the User is Performing Another Activity

85 CSE300 Agent-1.85 Real Time Possibilities Monitor and Supply Information on Real Time Basis Monitor and Supply Information on Real Time Basis Provide News on a Real Time Basis Monitor News Based on Certain Information Retrieve the News that the User Requests Used for Stocks, Shopping (Checking If an Item Goes on Sale), and Even Weather The Amount of Possibilities is Endless Real Time Advertisement Real Time Advertisement Advertisers Find a Way to Capitalize on Every New Software Invention Available Companies May Send Advertisements Along With the Information Being Received Like News

86 CSE300 Agent-1.86 Real Time Possibilities User Filter for Unwanted Information User Filter for Unwanted Information User May Want to Filter Out Certain Information Being Received Agent Application Required to Filter Out Unwanted Advertisements Real Time Work Environment Update Real Time Work Environment Update Schedule a Meeting Each of the Employees Agents Would Work Together to Schedule the Meeting for all Employees Update Team Members on New Developments of a Project Each Agent Would Update the Other Agents and Then Return the Information to the Worker

87 CSE300 Agent-1.87 Work and Travel Pleasure/Business Travel Agent Pleasure/Business Travel Agent Users Own Personal Shopper, Broker, or Travel Agent Electronic Commerce Shop/Haggle for a User on Any Type of Goods Search Criteria Given by a User Where to Go on Vacation and What Price for Airline Tickets What Stocks to Buy or Sell User Tells Agent to Make a Deal or Not Once Agent Retrieves All the Information. Agent Could then Finalize the Deal for the User Vacation Reservations are made, or Merchandise is Purchased

88 CSE300 Agent-1.88 Network Services and Monitoring Network Service Administrator Network Service Administrator Agent Responsible for the User Configuration Agents Supplies the Host With User Privileges to Services Could Be Used for Cable Systems or Network Providers Monitor of Physical Aspects of Embedded Systems Monitor of Physical Aspects of Embedded Systems Monitor Temperature, Speed, or Other Physical Characteristics Inform User of a Malfunction Assume the Position of Smart Matter Provide a More Efficient Way to Monitor Physical Aspects of Embedded Systems

89 CSE300 Agent-1.89 Computer Gaming Computer Gaming Pawn Computer Gaming Pawn Perform All the Battling for the User User Could Program the Agent to Function Accordingly Strategic Moves Numerous Network Game Possibilities Gambling, Role Playing, and Strategy Games Agent-to-Agent Communication Used to Provide Enhance Online Gaming Possibilities

90 CSE300 Agent-1.90 Conclusion and Future Conclusion Conclusion Agent Concepts Barely Five Years Agents Seem to be the Up and Coming Technology of the Future The Possibilities and Capabilities of Agents are Endless The Mobile Agent Alone Has Not Been Covered in Research Extensively Aglets Have a Chance of Being the Building Blocks of Front Running Technology As Long As Java Proves to Be a Secure Language Standardization Issues Must be Addressed for Different Agent Systems to Interact!

91 CSE300 Agent-1.91 Conclusion and Future Future Uses Future Uses Everyday People are Finding New Uses for Agents Provide Users With Assistance Provide Users With More Free Time Agents Most Likely, Will Become an Everyday Occurrence in Applications Assist Users and Do Work on Their Behalf are Agents the Future of Todays and Tomorrows Applications? are Agents the Future of Todays and Tomorrows Applications?

92 CSE300 Agent-1.92 Future Research Another Facet of Agents is the Intelligent Agent Another Facet of Agents is the Intelligent Agent Mobile Agents are Used for Intelligent Agents Researchers are Trying to Implement an Agent With Artificial Intelligence Current Developing Applications Current Developing Applications IBM is Developing a Memory Agent Application Used to Detect Breast Cancer IBM Claims the Agent Learns Based on Previous Input Uses a Learning Algorithm to Predict the Numbers for Detection

93 CSE300 Agent-1.93 IBM Research Products Other IBM Products Using the Memory Agent Memoryagent Knowledge Capture Learns What People Know Builds a Knowledge Base Incrementally Operates While People Do Their Normal Jobs Memoryagent Virtual Consultation Allows People to Consult the Knowledge of Others Eliminates Need for Speaking to Them in Person

94 CSE300 Agent-1.94References [1]: Danny B. Lange and Mitsuru Oshima, Programming and Deploying Java Mobile Agents with Aglets, Addison Wesley Longman, Reading MA, [2]: [3]: [4]: [5]: [6]: [7]: [8]: [9]:


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