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Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Physical Activity & Sport Promotion in Schools Effective School-Based Interventions: What Works? Stuart.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Physical Activity & Sport Promotion in Schools Effective School-Based Interventions: What Works? Stuart."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Physical Activity & Sport Promotion in Schools Effective School-Based Interventions: What Works? Stuart J. Fairclough, PhD Professor of Physical Activity Education Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, UK Denizli, Turkey, December 2012

2 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Why schools as environments for physical activity promotion? Captive audience – school is mandatory Infra-structure – teachers, facilities, curriculum Time – h/wk for 40+wks/yr Links to home, community, business [gyms etc] Most MVPA accrued at school (Fairclough et al., 2008; Ed 3-13, 36: )

3 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences School-related physical activity during the day (Trost et al., 2002, MSSE. 32,

4 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences But, all schools and their students are different…confounding variables Age Gender Maturation Motivation Ethnicity Culture Religion Socio-economic status Stage of schooling School type Curriculum structures Geographic location Physical environment School policies and ethos Climate and weather Class sizes Can effective intervention approaches work in all cases?

5 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Schools as micro-environments for applying the socio-ecological model Schools National curricula, standards, government policy Relationships with community groups, sports clubs, commercial organisations School departments, classes, streaming Friends, peers, teachers, parents Individual children and adolescents

6 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences School-based PA interventions...what works? It depends on the outcomes... Context-specific PA - usually successful Whole day PA - equivocal (possibility of compensation) Non-school PA - seldom successful PA-related outcomes (e.g., fitness, motor skills, BMI, etc) - equivocal Some examples...

7 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Active school travel (Cooper et al., 2012, MSSE, 44, ) Primary school children Secondary school children

8 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Travelling Green Project (McKee et al., 2007, J Epid Comm Health, 1: ) Classes of 9-10 y olds from 2 schools in Scotland; Intervention: 10 week active travel cross- curricular project comprising interactive resources: – Curriculum materials – Child and family materials Generic and school-specific components (e.g., maps, road crossing points, etc)

9 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Change in school travel mode (McKee et al., 2007, J Epid Comm Health, 1: ) Mean distance walked increased by 389% Mean distance travelled by car decreased by 58%

10 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Active school travel Active travel is simple, free and sustainable Active travel can potentially occur 10 times each week Limited number of active travel interventions of sufficient quality Relatively small effects reported

11 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences PA promotion through physical education (PE) Major goal of PE is to produce physically educated young people who have knowledge, skills, attitudes to engage in PA beyond the curriculum and throughout life – PA during class time – Influence PA out of school

12 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Aim to increase MVPA without compromising motivation and learning y old girls gymnastics lessons Control vs. intervention classes Intervention: MVPA included as lesson objective; modified teaching styles, organisation of pupils & equipment HR monitoring, systematic observation and questionnaire Simple teaching intervention to increase PE class time MVPA (Fairclough & Stratton, 2005, Health Ed Res, 20: )

13 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Increased PE MVPA without compromised motivation ** p < ** (Fairclough & Stratton, 2005, Health Ed Res, 20: )

14 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences KISS Clustered RCT (Kriemler et al., 2010, BMJ, 340 :c785) 1 year PE intervention in 16 classes within 15 elementary schools Multicomponent approach: daily PE, daily PA breaks, PA homework Intervention children accumulated significantly more MVPA in school and over whole day than Control group But out of school MVPA was similar Improvements in fitness, body composition, CVD risk Compulsory and structured PA approach No follow-up after intervention ended

15 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Integrated curriculum approaches to PA promotion Emphasis on behaviour change through improved knowledge, understanding, behavioural skills Cross-curricular approaches allow reinforcement throughout the curriculum Lesson content commonly based around physical activity, sedentary time, plus other behaviours like healthy eating Tasks provide opportunities for content to be applied in other social contexts (e.g., home)

16 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Low cost integrated curriculum approach: The CHANGE! Intervention ( Mackintosh et al., 2011, Boddy et al., 2012 BMC Pub Health; Fairclough et al., in rev PLoS ONE) Aim: Promote healthy weight through… – 1.Increased physical activity – 2. Reductions in sedentary behaviours – 3. Healthy eating Intervention – CHANGE! curriculum: 306 page teacher & pupil resource – Twilight teacher training – 5 month programme, with 10 weeks follow-up Key results: Increased VPA, decreased waist circumference, increased breakfast consumption

17 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Integrated curricular & extra-curricular intervention: Great Fun 2 Run (Gorely et al., 2009, 2011, IJBNPA) Aim: to increase physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among 7-11 year olds Parental and family involvement Highlight events and media campaign 10 month duration, 20 months follow-up period

18 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Major findings (Gorely et al., 2009, 2011, IJBNPA) Post-intervention… – MVPA increased by ~ 9min/day – Rate of increase in % body fat, BMI, and waist circumference slowed significantly in older children – No change in fruit and vegetable intake At 20 months follow up – Significant increases in % body fat, BMI, and waist circumference with increasing age Post-intervention effects were not sustained

19 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Non-curricular PA promotion Rationale: Content can complement formal curriculum No mandatory curriculum guidelines to follow so more flexibility Access to facilities and children

20 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Play/breaktime (recess) Mandatory part of the school day Outdoors Potentially 600 playtimes per year [based on 3 x day, 5 days/wk] Largely unstructured physical activity encompassing various modes and intensities

21 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Liverpool Sporting Playgrounds Project (Ridgers & Stratton, 2005, Ped Exerc Sci, 17: )

22 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Sustained increases in MVPA in the painted Zoneparc playgrounds (Ridgers et al., 2007, Prev. Med, 44: )

23 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Meta-analysis of effects of after-school programmes (Beets et al., 2009, Am J Prev Med, 36: ) Positive effects

24 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences

25 PA during different types of after-school clubs using active video games (Fairclough et al., 2012, unpublished report) Children most active doing multi-skills… Least active/fit y old children participating in twice weekly after-school clubs & least active playing Wii Sports

26 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences

27 Methodological limitations of youth PA interventions (van Sluijs et al., 2007, BMJ, 335, 703) Short duration of follow-up Lack of adjustment for potential confounders Lack of adjustment for clustering when randomisation at group level occurred Lack of precision of PA outcome measure [over-reliance on self-report]

28 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences So, what does work? Back to the future…? Child & Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health: CATCH Why was it successful? Size: 96 elementary schools (5000+ children) in 4 states Duration: 3 years, with extensive follow-up Socio-ecological approaches (individual, social, organisational, community, policy) (Luepker et al., 1996, JAMA, 275, ; McKenzie et al., 1996, Prev. Med., 25, )

29 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Intervention focused on changes to: PE curriculum, training, & support [individual, policy, organisational] –At least 90 minutes of PE spread across a minimum of three sessions per week Food services [policy, organisational] Family involvement [social] Health education curriculum [individual, policy, organisational] After-school community involvement [community, social, policy, organisational]

30 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Significant improvements in… –MVPA during PE classes –Out of school vigorous PA –Dietary behaviour Changes sustained after intervention had ended

31 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences 5 year maintenance effects: CATCH-ON Study (McKenzie et al., 2003, Health Ed Behav, 30: ) 5 year follow-up of CATCH in 88 schools PE MVPA maintained in Intervention schools Delayed adoption of CATCH resources plus training in Control schools But no evidence of maintenance in out of school PA…

32 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Based on the evidence, what works? (Kriemler et al., 2011, BJSM, 45, ) Multi-component interventions (e.g., educational, curricular, environmental) more effective than single component interventions and can broaden the reach of the population (socio-ecological model) Family involvement (pre-adolescents?) – mediators of non- school PA and positive PA attitudes Context-specific interventions...but long-term effects questionable BUT…Lack of effect on out of school PA Should intervention efforts be directed elsewhere? –Discretionary time [after-school, weekends], targeted to least active?

33 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Thanks for

34 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences 4 month pilot, 12 month intervention 3 treatment arms (plus control schools): – High intensity PA (HIPA) – Fundamental movement skills (FMS) – PA signposting scheme (PASS) 8 schools in total (2 per treatment) Assessment of CV health, PA, fitness, FMS, body composition, self-perceptions at baseline, 6 months & post-intervention Summary report available:

35 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences A-CLASS FMS results (Foweather et al., 2008, Percep Mot Skills, 106, )

36 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Naylor et al., 2006

37 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Active school model: Action Schools!: BC (Naylor et al., 2008, BJSM, 42: ) Participatory model Customised 11 month programme based on schools perceived needs Targeted zones: environment, PE, family/community, classroom, school spirit, extra-curricular School action teams with AS!: BC support team Prescriptive components: 15 min classroom PA/day & 2x40 min PE classes/week Aim: children get 150 minutes school-based PA/week 3 conditions: Usual practice, Liaison, Champion 4-8 week follow-up

38 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences Action Schools! BC...effective? (Naylor et al., 2008, BJSM, 42: ) Modest increases in whole-day pedometer counts in Intervention boys but not girls – Suggests limited non-school effects or compensation – Reflects known gender differences in PA related to discretionary time? Significant increase in PA delivery time 75% compliance High teacher satisfaction School-based intervention models should seek to maintain current PA to prevent/slow age-related decline?


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